Kuvi language

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Kuvi
Kuwi, Kuvinga, Kond, Khondi, Jatapu
Native to India
Region Orissa, Andhra Pradesh
Ethnicity Khonds
Native speakers
118,597 (2001 census)[1]
Dravidian
  • South-Central
    • Gondi–Kui
      • Kuvi–Kui
        • Kuvi
Language codes
ISO 639-3 kxv
Glottolog kuvi1243[2]

Kuvi is an endangered South-Central Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Odisha. The language is one of two spoken by the Khonds, with the other being the closely related and more dominant Kui language. According to the 2001 Indian census, there are around 120,000 speakers. The orthography is Oriya script. The grammatical structure of this language is comparable to other similar languages such as Kui which all fall under the classification of a Dravidian language.

Background Information

According to a study regarding population structure of tribal populations in central India, information was collected from the Koraput district of Odisha about the Kuvi Khonds. There were 325,144 people in the district according to the 1971 census. The Kuvi Khond are agriculturalists, and their physical appearance is similar to other Khond groups.[3]

Language

Within a study done by A.G. Fitzgerald and F. V. P. Schulze, they spent some time interrogating Kuvi speakers in Araku in Andhra Pradesh. Their information came from a village called Sunkarametta. They also went to Gudari to study the Kuttiya dialect of Kui, and found a Kuvi speaker. It was found that the speakers location influenced their speech. The Kuvi speaker described himself as a Parja Kandh, so some of his dialect is abbreviated by P, while the dialect studied at Araku was indicated by Su. The following vowels and consonants are necessary for the language.

Vowels: a â i î u û e ê o ô

Consonants: k g n c j t d n ț ḑ ņ p b m y r ŗ l v s h[4]

All Central Dravidian languages are unified in gender and number distinctions. There is the distinction of masculine vs non-masculine (or feminine and non human) both in singular and plural. There is a simplex negative tense consisting of verb base + negative suffix + personal ending present in all Dravidian languages.[5]

Kuvi English
va:ha having come
hi:ha having given
to:sea having shown

Kuvi language also contains a past negative tense with the structure- verb base + negative suffix + past suffix + personal ending.

Kuvi English
hi: -?a-t-e? I did not give.

Grammar

Past tense [6]

Past Tense Examples
English Kuvi
I was nānu mazzee
You were nīnu mazzi
He was evasi mazzesi
She was ēdi mazze
We were mambu mazzomi
You were mīmbu mazzeri
They were evari mazzeri

Present tense [6]

Past Tense Examples
English Kuvi
I am nānu mai
You are nīnu manzi
He is evasi mannesi
We are mambu mannomi
You are mimbu manzeri
They are evari manneri


See also

References

  1. ^ "Census of India: Distribution of the 100 Non-Scheduled Languages ? India, States & Union Territories ? 2001 Census". www.censusindia.gov.in. ORGI. Retrieved 2018-03-12. 
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kuvi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ DAS, K., MALHOTRA, K., MUKHERJEE, B., WALTER, H., MAJUMDER, P., & PAPIHA, S. (1996). Population Structure and Genetic Differentiation among 16 Tribal Populations of Central India. Human Biology, 68(5), 679-705.
  4. ^ BURROW, T., & BHATTACHARYA, S. (1963). NOTES ON KUVI WITH A SHORT VOCABULARY. Indo-Iranian Journal, 6(3/4), 231-289.
  5. ^ Krishnamurti, B. (2005). M. B. Emeneau, 1904-2005. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 125(4), 481-497.
  6. ^ a b Schulze, F. V. P. (1911). A grammar of the Kuvi language: with copious examples. University of California Libraries. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-333-47162-0 – via Archive.org. 

Further reading

  • Burrow, T. (1943). Dravidian Studies III. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 11(1), 122-139. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/609208
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