Kremlin (fortification)

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The Moscow Kremlin, which is the best-known one.

A kremlin (Russian: кремль, tr. kreml’; IPA: [ˈkrʲemlʲ], "castle") is a major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities. This word is often used to refer to the most famous, the Moscow Kremlin, or metonymically to the government that is based there.

The word perhaps shares a same root as kremen (кремен [krʲɪˈmʲenʲ], "flint").[citation needed]

Short list of Russian cities with kremlins

World Heritage Sites

Intact

The bishop's residence in Rostov, sometimes called a kremlin

In ruins

Existing and unwalled

Traces remain

Modern imitations

[further explanation needed]

Kremlins outside borders of modern Russia

After the disintegrations of the Kievan Rus, the Russian Empire and the USSR, some fortresses considered Kremlin-type, remained beyond the borders of modern Russia. Some are listed below:

The same structure in Ukraine is called dytynets (Ukrainian: дитинець, from dytyna – child). The term has been in use since the 11th century. The term kremlin first appeared in 14th century in Russian territories, where it replaced dytynets.

Many Russian monasteries have been built in a fortress-like style similar to that of a kremlin. For a partial list, see Monasteries in Russia.

See also

References

Further reading

  • Воронин Н. Н. Владимир, Боголюбово, Суздаль, Юрьев-Польской. М.: Искусство, 1967.
  • Кирьянов И. А. Старинные крепости Нижегородского Поволжья. Горький: Горьк. книжн. изд., 1961.
  • Косточкин В. В. Русское оборонное зодчество конца XIII — начала XVI веков. М.: Издательство Академии наук, 1962.
  • Крадин Н. П. Русское деревянное оборонное зодчество". М.: Искусство, 1988.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Древние русские крепости. М.: Наука, 1965.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Зодчество Древней Руси. Л.: Наука, 1986.
  • Раппопорт П. А. Строительное производство Древней Руси (X—XIII вв.). СПб: Наука, СПб, 1994.
  • Сурмина И. О. Самые знаменитые крепости России. М.: Вече, 2002.
  • Тихомиров М. Н. Древнерусские города. М.: Гос. изд. полит. лит-ры, 1956.
  • Яковлев В. В. Эволюция долговременной фортификации. М.: Воениздат, 1931.

External links

  • Media related to Fortresses in Russia at Wikimedia Commons
  • Russian Fortification Architecture
  • Man sues Russian Government to own Moscow Kremlin (RT article)
  • Twelve Russian Kremlins
  • Cynthia Marsh. "Kremlin". Words of the World. Brady Haran (University of Nottingham). 
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