Koreans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Koreans
한국인 (韓國人)
Total population
c. 83 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
 South Korea      50,423,955 (2014 estimate)[2]
 North Korea      25,300,000 (2014 estimate)[3]
Diaspora as of 2017
c. 7–7.43 million[4]
 China 2,548,030[4]
 United States 2,492,252[4]
 Japan 818,626[4]
 Canada 240,942[4]
 Uzbekistan 181,077[4]
 Australia 180,004[4]
 Russia 169,638[4]
 Vietnam 124,458[4]
 Kazakhstan 109,133[4]
 Philippines 93,093[4]
 Brazil 51,531[4]
 Germany 40,170[4]
 United Kingdom 39,934[4]
 New Zealand 33,403[4]
 Indonesia 31,091[4]
 Argentina 23,194[4]
 Thailand 20,500[4]
 Singapore 20,346[4]
 Kyrgyzstan 19,035[4]
 France 16,251[4]
 Malaysia 13,122[4]
 Ukraine 13,070[4]
 Mexico 11,673[4]
 United Arab Emirates 10,852[4]
 Cambodia 10,089[4]
 India 10,390[4]
 Taiwan 6,293[4]
 Guatemala 5,312[4]
 Paraguay 5,090[4]
 Spain 4,520[4]
Languages
Korean[5]
Religion
Mostly irreligious.
Minorities: Christianity (predominantly Protestantism), Korean Buddhism, Korean shamanism, and Cheondoism.[6][7]
Part of a series on
Korean people
Culture
Music
Language
Cuisine
Dance
Religion
People
Diaspora

Koreans (Hangul한민족; Hanja韓民族; RRHanminjok in South Korean; alternatively Chosŏn'gŭl조선민족, 조선사람, 조선인; Hancha朝鮮民族, 朝鮮사람, 朝鮮人; RRJoseonminjok, Joseonsaram, Joseonin in North Korean, lit. "Korean race"; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern Manchuria.[8][9][10][11][12]

Koreans mainly live in the two Korean nation states, South Korea and North Korea (collectively referred to simply as Korea), but are also an officially recognized ethnic minority in China, Vietnam, Japan and Philippines, plus a number of former Soviet states, such as Russia and Uzbekistan. Over the course of the 20th century, significant Korean communities have emerged in Australia, Canada, United States and, to a lesser extent, other nations with a primarily immigrant background.

As of 2017, there were an estimated 7.4 million ethnic Koreans residing outside the Korean Peninsula.[4]

Etymology

South Koreans refer to themselves as Hanguk-in (Hangul한국인; Hanja韓國人), or Hanguk-saram (Hangul한국 사람), both of which mean "Korean nation people." When referring to members of the Korean diaspora, Koreans often use the term Han-in (Hangul한인; Hanja韓人; literally "Korean people").

North Koreans refer to themselves as Joseon-in (Hangul조선인; Hanja朝鮮人) or Joseon-saram (Hangul조선 사람), both of which literally mean "Joseon people". The term is derived from the Joseon dynasty, a Korean kingdom founded by Yi Seonggye that lasted for approximately five centuries from 1392 to 1897. Using similar words, Koreans in China refer to themselves as Chaoxianzu (Chinese: 朝鲜族) in Chinese or Joseonjok, Joseonsaram (Hangul조선족, 조선사람) in Korean, which are cognates that literally mean "Joseon ethnic group".[13][14] Zainichi Koreans refer to themselves as Zainichi Chousenjin, Chousenjin (Japanese: 在日朝鮮人, 朝鮮人) in Japanese or Jaeil Joseonin, Joseonsaram, Joseonin (Hangul재일조선인, 조선사람, 조선인) in Korean

In the chorus of Aegukga, the national anthem of South Korea, the Koreans are referred to as Daehan-saram (Hangul대한사람).

Ethnic Koreans living in Russia and Central Asia refer to themselves as Koryo-saram (Hangul고려 사람; Cyrillic script: Корё сарам), alluding to Goryeo, a Korean dynasty spanning from 918 to 1392.

Origins

Linguistic and archaeological studies

Koreans are the descendants or an admixture of the ancient people who settled in the Korean Peninsula, historically said to be Siberian[15][16] or paleo-Asian.[17] Archaeological evidence suggests that proto-Koreans were migrants from Manchuria during the Bronze Age.[18] It is noteworthy to mention that there were already people[19] living on the Korean peninsula from the Paleolithic age and Neolithic age, and thus it is logical to assume that there was intermingling between these populations.

Linguistic evidence indicates speakers of proto-Korean languages were established in southeastern Manchuria and northern Korean peninsula by the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, and migrated from there to southern Korea during this period.[20]

The largest concentration of dolmens in the world is found on the Korean Peninsula. In fact, with an estimated 35,000-100,000 dolmen,[21] Korea accounts for nearly 70% of the world's total. Similar dolmens can be found in Manchuria, the Shandong Peninsula and the Kyushu island, yet it is unclear why this culture only flourished so extensively on the Korean Peninsula and its surroundings compared to the bigger remainder of Northeastern Asia.

Anthropometry

Stephen Pheasant (1986), who taught anatomy, biomechanics and ergonomics at the Royal Free Hospital and the University College, London, said that Far Eastern people have proportionately shorter lower limbs than Europeans and Black Africans. Pheasant said that the proportionately short lower limbs of Far Eastern people is a difference that is most characterized in Japanese people, less characterized in Korean and Chinese people, and the least characterized in Vietnamese and Thai people.[22][23]

Craniometry

In a craniometric study, Pietrusewsky (1994) found that the Japanese series, which was a series that spanned from the Yayoi period to modern times, formed a single branch with Korea.[24] Later, Pietrusewsky (1999) found, however, that Korean and Yayoi people were very highly separated in the East Asian cluster, indicating that the connection that Japanese have with Korea would not have derived from Yayoi people.[24]

Park Dae-kyoon et al. (2001) said that distance analysis based on thirty-nine non-metric cranial traits showed that Koreans are closer craniometrically to Kazakhs and Mongols than Koreans are close craniometrically to the populations in China and Japan.[25]

Genetics

Studies of polymorphisms in the human Y-chromosome have so far produced evidence to suggest that the Korean people have a long history as a distinct, mostly endogamous ethnic group, with successive waves of people moving to the peninsula and three major Y-chromosome haplogroups.[26] The reference population for Koreans used in Geno 2.0 Next Generation is 94% Eastern Asia and 5% Southeast Asia & Oceania.[27]

Genealogy

Korea Foundation Associate Professor of History, Eugene Y. Park said that many Koreans seem to have a genealogical memory blackout before the twentieth century.[28][29] Park said that the vast majority Koreans do not know their actual genealogical history. Park said that, through "inventing tradition" in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, families devised a kind of master narrative story that purports to explain a surname-ancestral seat combination's history to the extent where it is next to impossible to look beyond these master narrative stories.[30] Park gave an example of what "inventing tradition" was like from his own family's genealogy where a document from 1873 recorded three children in a particular family and a later 1920 document recorded an extra son in that same family.[31] Park said that these master narratives connect the same surname and ancestral seat to a single, common ancestor. Park said that this trend became universal in the nineteenth century, but genealogies which were published in the seventeenth century actually admit that they did not know how the different lines of the same surname or ancestral seat are related at all.[32] Park said that only a small percentage of Koreans had surnames and ancestral seats to begin with, and Park said that the rest of the Korean population had adopted these surname and ancestral seat identities within the last two to three hundred years.[33]

Culture

Children's Day in Cheong Wa Dae. South Korean President Park Geun-hye (center) hugs a boy at a meeting with children invited to Cheong Wa Dae to mark Children's Day on May 5

North Korea and South Korea share a common heritage, but the political division since 1945 has resulted in some divergence of their modern cultures.

Language

The language of the Korean people is the Korean language, which uses Hangul as its main writing system with some Hanja. There are more than 78 million speakers of the Korean language worldwide.[34]

North Korean data

North Korean soldiers in the Joint Security Area

Estimating the size, growth rate, sex ratio, and age structure of North Korea's population has been extremely difficult. Until release of official data in 1989, the 1963 edition of the North Korea Central Yearbook was the last official publication to disclose population figures. After 1963 demographers used varying methods to estimate the population. They either totalled the number of delegates elected to the Supreme People's Assembly (each delegate representing 50,000 people before 1962 and 30,000 people afterwards) or relied on official statements that a certain number of persons, or percentage of the population, was engaged in a particular activity. Thus, on the basis of remarks made by President Kim Il-sung in 1977 concerning school attendance, the population that year was calculated at 17.2 million persons. During the 1980s, health statistics, including life expectancy and causes of mortality, were gradually made available to the outside world.[35]

In 1989 the Central Bureau of Statistics released demographic data to the United Nations Population Fund in order to secure the UNFPA's assistance in holding North Korea's first nationwide census since the establishment of the state in 1948. Although the figures given to the United Nations might have been distorted, it appears that in line with other attempts to open itself to the outside world, the North Korean regime has also opened somewhat in the demographic realm. Although the country lacks trained demographers, accurate data on household registration, migration, and births and deaths are available to North Korean authorities. According to the United States scholar Nicholas Eberstadt and demographer Brian Ko, vital statistics and personal information on residents are kept by agencies on the ri ("village", the local administrative unit) level in rural areas and the dong ("district" or "block") level in urban areas.[35]

Korean populations

Traditional Korean royal wedding ceremony

Large-scale emigration from Korea began as early as the mid-1860s, mainly into the Russian Far East and Northeast China or what was historically known as Manchuria; these populations would later grow to more than two million Koreans in China and several hundred thousand Koryo-saram (ethnic Koreans in Central Asia and the former USSR).[36][37] During the Korea under Japanese rule of 1910–1945, Koreans were often recruited and or forced into labour service to work in mainland Japan, Karafuto Prefecture, and Manchukuo; the ones who chose to remain in Japan at the end of the war became known as Zainichi Koreans, while the roughly 40 thousand who were trapped in Karafuto after the Soviet invasion are typically referred to as Sakhalin Koreans.[38][39]

Korean emigration to America was known to have begun as early as 1903, but the Korean American community did not grow to a significant size until after the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965; as of 2017, excluding the undocumented and uncounted, roughly 1.85 million Koreans emigrants and people of Korean descent live in the United States according to the official figure by the US Census.[40]

The Greater Los Angeles Area and New York metropolitan area in the United States contain the largest populations of ethnic Koreans outside of Korea or China. Significant Korean populations are present in China, Japan, and Canada as well. There are also Korean communities in Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. During the 1990s and 2000s, the number of Koreans in the Philippines and Koreans in Vietnam have also grown significantly.[41][42] Koreans in the United Kingdom now form Western Europe's largest Korean community, albeit still relatively small; Koreans in Germany used to outnumber those in the UK until the late 1990s. In Australia, Korean Australians comprise a modest minority. Koreans have migrated significantly since the 1960s. Now they form an integral part in society especially in Business, Education and Cultural areas.

The Korean population in the United States represents a small share of the US economy, but has a disproportionately positive impact. Korean Americans have a savings rate double that of the average American and also graduate from college at a rate double that of the average American, providing a highly skilled and educated addition to the U.S. workforce. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's Census 2000 data, mean household earnings for Koreans in the U.S. were $59,981, approximately 5.1% higher than the U.S. average of $56,604.[43]

Part-Korean populations

Pak Noja said that there were 5747 Japanese-Korean mixed couples in Korea at the end of 1941.[44] Pak Cheil estimated there to be 70,000 to 80,000 "semi-Koreans" in Japan in the years immediately after the war.[45]

Gallery

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Korean Peninsula (50.42 million + 25.3 million) + Korean diaspora (7–7.42 million)
  2. ^ "Population of Republic of Korea". Statistics Korea. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  3. ^ "2013 World Population Data Sheet Interactive World Map". www.prb.org. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af 재외동포현황(2017)/Total number of overseas Koreans (2017). South Korea: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2017. Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  5. ^ Koreans at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  6. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report: Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) 2015" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 23 December 2016. In a 2002 report ... the government reported there were 12,000 Protestants, 10,000 Buddhists, and 800 Roman Catholics. The report noted that Cheondoism, a modern religious movement based on 19th century Korean neo-Confucian movement, had approximately 15,000 practitioners. Consulting shamans and engaging in shamanistic rituals is reportedly widespread but difficult to quantify.
  7. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report: Republic of Korea 2015" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 23 December 2016. According to a 2010 survey, approximately 24 percent of the population is Buddhist; 24 percent Protestant; 8 percent Roman Catholic; and 43 percent professes no religious belief. Followers of all other religious groups ... together constitute less than 1 percent of the population.
  8. ^ Wang, Yuchen; Lu Dongsheng; Chung Yeun-Jun; Xu Shuhua (2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations" (PDF). Hereditas. 155: 19. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMC 5889524. PMID 29636655.
  9. ^ Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua (2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations". Hereditas (published April 6, 2018). 155: 19. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMC 5889524. PMID 29636655.
  10. ^ Kim, Jinwung (22 March 2018). "A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict". Indiana University Press – via Google Books.
  11. ^ Lee, Seokwoo (2016). The Making of International Law in Korea: From Colony to Asian Power. p. 321. ISBN 978-9004315785.
  12. ^ Kim, Hyunjin (21 May 2009). Ethnicity and Foreigners in Ancient Greece and China. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 140.
  13. ^ Lee,, Seokwoo (2016). The Making of International Law in Korea: From Colony to Asian Power. p. 321. ISBN 978-9004315785.
  14. ^ Kim, Hyunjin (21 May 2009). Ethnicity and Foreigners in Ancient Greece and China. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 140.
  15. ^ Nelson, Sarah M. The Archaeology of Korea.
  16. ^ 한민족 [Korean people]. Doosan Encyclopædia (in Korean). Retrieved 9 March 2007 – via NAVER Corp.
  17. ^ 한민족 [Korean people]. Encyclopædia Britannica Korea (in Korean). Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2007.
  18. ^ Ahn, Sung-Mo (June 2010). "The emergence of rice agriculture in Korea: archaeobotanical perspectives". Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 2 (2): 89–98. doi:10.1007/s12520-010-0029-9. ISSN 1866-9557.
  19. ^ Vovin, Alexander. 2008. "高句麗에서 耽羅까지ᅳ韓国祖語를 말한 騎馬人들과 함께 南쪽을 향하여 천천히 내려오면서ᅳ" ("From Koguryo to Tamna: Slowly Riding South with the Speakers of Proto-Korean"). Lecture at the Seoul National University on May 15, 2008. Travel fully funded by the Seoul National University.
  20. ^ "Vovin, Alexander (2008). From Koguryo to Tamna: Slowly Riding to the South with Speakers of Proto-Korean". Korean Linguistics. 15.
  21. ^ Nelson 1993, p. 147.
  22. ^ Pheasant, Stephen. (2003). Bodyspace: Anthropometry, ergonomics and the design of work (2nd. ed.). Taylor & Francis. Page 159. Retrieved March 14, 2018, from Google Books.
  23. ^ Buckle, Peter (1996). "Obituary". Work & Stress. 10 (3): 282. doi:10.1080/02678379608256807.
  24. ^ a b Kumar, Ann. (2009). Globalizing the Prehistory of Japan: Language, Genes and Civilisation. London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. Page 79 & 88. Retrieved January 23, 2018, from link.
  25. ^ Park, Dae-kyoon; et al. (2001). "Non-metric Traits of Korean Skulls". Korean Journal of Physical Anthropology. 14 (2): 117. doi:10.11637/kjpa.2001.14.2.117.
  26. ^ Hee Kim, Soon (2010). "Y chromosome homogeneity in the Korean population". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 124 (6): 653–657. doi:10.1007/s00414-010-0501-1. PMID 20714743. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  27. ^ Reference Populations - Geno 2.0 Next Generation . (2017). The Genographic Project. Retrieved 15 May 2017, from link.
  28. ^ Eugene Y. Park. (n.d.). Penn Arts & Sciences East Asian Languages and Civilizations. Retrieved January 24, 2018, from link. Archived 11 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ Eugene Y. Park, from the 7:06 mark of the YouTube video to the 7:38 mark of the YouTube video, said, "Secondly, on the one hand, so many Koreans seem to talk, to be able to tell, one, something about his or her Gyeongju Kim ancestors, of a Silla kingdom two-thousand years ago. And yet, such a person is unlikely to be able to tell you something about his or her great-great-grandparents, what they were doing hundred years ago, what their occupations were, where they were living, where their family graves are. In other words, a memory blackout, before the twentieth century."
  30. ^ Eugene Y. Park, from the 16:54 mark of the YouTube video to the 18:54 mark of the YouTube video, said, "So, from this point on, then, I would like to survey, how the Koreans descended. Koreans, depending on their ancestors' status category, have dealt with genealogy and ancestry consciousness, in the last, differently, in the last two centuries. And, of course, most Koreans are not descendants of aristocrats, but, the, but what happened in the last hundred fifty, hundred to hundred fifty years, is that those Koreans, the vast majority of Koreans have lost memory of their actual history, in the sense where now, any outside observer who might ask a Korean person about ancestry, would be left with the impression that every Korean is now of aristocratic descent. So let me begin with the aristocracy. In the early modern era, the kind of a master narrative, stories that purport to explain a particular surname-ancestral seat combination's history, crystallize, they became set in stone, through inventing tradition. In the seventeenth and eighteenth century, many, all families devise such a stories, to the extent where, now today in Korea, anybody who is interested in tracing his or her ancestry, has to deal with such master narratives, but at the same time it is next to impossible to look beyond master narratives. In other words, in Korea, today, there's little sense of doing the kind of doing the genealogical research that you and I would do in the United States, by looking at Census documents, and other types of documentation, that have been passed down through generations, or, have been maintained by the government."
  31. ^ Eugene Y. Park, from the 28:32 mark of the YouTube video to the 29:21 mark of the YouTube video, said, "This is an example. Here we see records that gives us a better sense of what inventing tradition was like. Here, a page from an eighteen seventy-three Miryang Pak family genealogy. Here's a man, indicated inside the circle named, Ju (). He had three sons: Eun-gyeong, Hyeon-gyeong, Won-gyeong (, , ). But the edition that was published a bit later in the nineteen twenty, so we see the same man, Ju, and, under him, we see sons: Eun-gyeong, Hyeon-gyeong, Won-gyeong and, the extra, the fourth son, out of nowhere, Tōkhwa (). Actually, this is my family. So, this was commonly done in the modern era, the children, son out of nowhere or claims that we were left out centuries ago, and please include us."
  32. ^ Eugene Y. Park, from the 18:55 mark of the YouTube video to the 19:30 mark of the YouTube video, said, "And, these master narratives, genealogically connect all descent lines of a same surname and ancestral seat, to a single, common, ancestor. And, this was the pattern that was, that became universal by the nineteenth century. Whereas, genealogies published in the seventeenth century, actually, frankly admit that we do not know how these different lines of the same surname or ancestral seat are related or connected at all. So, all these changes took place only in the last two hundred years or so."
  33. ^ Eugene Y. Park, from the 46:17 mark of the YouTube video to the 47:02 mark of the YouTube video, said, "At any rate, so, once, so, based on one's surname Kim, let's say, and the ancestral seat, Kimhae, which is the most common ancestral seat among Kim surname Koreans, one can then look up, consult reference books, encyclopedias, go online to, find all these stories about different branches, famous individuals who are Kimhae Kim. But the problem is, of course, before the early modern era, only a small percentage of Koreans had surnames and the ancestral seat to begin with. In other words, the rest of the population had adopted these identities in the last two-three hundred years, so where does one go from there? And, this was definitely my challenge when I was a child."
  34. ^ "Korean". ethnologue. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  35. ^ a b  This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies document "North Korea: A Country Study" by Savada, Andreas Matles, ed. (1994). Retrieved on 27 July 2013. Fourth ed. Washington: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0794-1.
  36. ^ Lee Kwang-kyu (2000). Overseas Koreans. Seoul: Jimoondang. ISBN 978-89-88095-18-8.
  37. ^ Kim, Si-joong (2003). "The Economic Status and Role of Ethnic Koreans in China" (PDF). The Korean Diaspora in the World Economy. Institute for International Economics. pp. Ch. 6: 101–131.
  38. ^ Ban, Byung-yool (22 September 2004). "Koreans in Russia: Historical Perspective". Korea Times. Archived from the original on 18 March 2005. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
  39. ^ Nonzaki, Yoshiki; Inokuchi, Hiromitsu; Kim, Tae-Young (4 September 2006). "Legal Categories, Demographic Change and Japan's Korean Residents in the Long Twentieth Century". The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. 4 (9). Archived from the original on 25 January 2007.
  40. ^ "KoreanAmericanStory.org". KoreanAmericanStory.org.
  41. ^ Kelly, Tim (18 September 2006). "Ho Chi Minh Money Trail". Forbes. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
  42. ^ Meinardus, Ronaldo (15 December 2005). ""Korean Wave" in Philippines". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on 13 January 2006. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  43. ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  44. ^ Tikhonov, Vladimir. (2013). Korean-Japanese Marriages in 1920s-40s Korean Prose. University of Texas at Austin Center for East Asian Studies. Retrieved 31 May 2017, from link.
  45. ^ Lie, John. (2008). Zainichi (Koreans in Japan): Diasporic Nationalism and Postcolonial Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press. Page 89. Retrieved 31 May 2017, from link.

Sources

  • 서의식 and 강봉룡. 뿌리 깊은 한국사, 샘이 깊은 이야기: 고조선, 삼국, ISBN 89-8133-536-2
  • Barnes, Gina Lee (1993). The Rise of Civilization in East Asia: The Archaeology of China, Korea and Japan. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-27974-8.
  • Nelson, Sarah M. (1993). The Archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-40783-0.

Further reading

  • Breen, Michael (2004). The Koreans: Who They Are, What They Want, Where Their Future Lies. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1-4668-6449-8.

External links

  • Korean American Museum
  • Korean Residents Union in Japan (Mindan)
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Koreans&oldid=868760206"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koreans
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Koreans"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA