Konstantios Doukas

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Konstantios Doukas
Romanus IV histamenon with co-rulers.jpg
Gold histamenon of Romanos IV: Michael VII flanked by his brothers Andronikos and Konstantios on the obverse, Romanos IV and Eudokia Makrembolitissa crowned by Christ on the reverse
Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Reign 1060–1078 (Junior Emperor)
Predecessor Michael VII
Successor Nikephoros III Botaneiates
Reign 1078 (Senior Emperor)
Predecessor Michael VII
Successor Nikephoros III Botaneiates
Born 1060
Died 1082
Dyrrhachium
Dynasty Doukid dynasty
Father Constantine X
Mother Eudokia Makrembolitissa

Konstantios Doukas (Greek: Κωνστάντιος Δούκας, 1060–1082), Latinized as Constantius Ducas, was a junior Byzantine Emperor from 1060–1078, and a senior Byzantine Emperor for a short time in 1078. Konstantios was the son of Emperor Constantine X Doukas and Empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa. Upon his birth, he was elevated to junior emperor, along with his brother Michael VII. He remained as junior emperor during the reigns of Constantine, Romanos IV Diogenes, and Michael VII, before he became senior emperor on 31 March 1078, due to the abdication of Michael VII. He was soon handed over to Nikephoros III, a usurper, due to his inability to rule. He was sent to live in a monastery, where he stayed until recalled by Alexios I Komnenos, who made him a general. He died in 1082, while campaigning against the Normans, near Dyrrhachium.

Life

Konstantios Doukas was born in 1060, the son of Emperor Constantine X and Empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa. He was born during Constantine's reign, he was a porphyrogennetos.[1] Constantine became emperor on November 24, 1059, after Isaac I Komnenos selected him as his heir, shortly before Isaac abdicated.[2]

In 1060, Constantine elevated both Michael VII and Konstantios to junior emperors under him, but did not elevate his middle son Andronikos Doukas to junior emperor, for unknown reasons.[1][3] Konstantios retained his title of junior emperor during the reigns of Constantine (1060–1067), Romanos IV Diogenes (1068–1071), and Michael VII (1071–1078).[3]

Michael VII abdicated on 31 March 1078, due to severe unpopularity and the two active revolts against him by Nikephoros III and Nikephoros Bryennios, retiring to the Monastery of Stoudios.[4] Michael VII chose Konstantios to succeed him, as Andronikos had died a few years before this.[3]

Konstantios only had to contend with Nikephoros III, as Nikephoros Bryennios had been defeated by Nikephoros III at the Battle of Kalavrye, and subsequently blinded by him.[5] Konstantios rapidly lost support, as it became clear he had no skill as a ruler.[3] In the same year, his own supporters handed him over to Nikephoros III, who sent him to live in a monastery on one of the Princes Islands in the Propontis.[6] This also discontinued his engagement to Anna Vsevolodovna of Kiev.

He was recalled by Alexios I Komnenos, who succeeded Nikephoros, and who was related to Konstantios by way of his marriage to Irene Doukaina, in 1081. He was made a general, and sent to campaign against the Normans. He was killed while fighting against the Normans in 1082, near Dyrrhachium.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b Kaldellis 2017, p. 232.
  2. ^ Finlay 1844, p. 15.
  3. ^ a b c d e Canduci 2010, p. 274.
  4. ^ Norwich 1993, pp. 360–361.
  5. ^ Norwich 1993, p. 361.
  6. ^ Finlay 1844, p. 58.

Bibliography

  • Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8 
  • Finlay, George (1844), History of the Byzantine and Greek Empires from 1057–1453, 2, William Blackwood & Sons, OCLC 25020128 
  • Kaldellis, Anthony (2017). Streams of Gold, Rivers of Blood: The Rise and Fall of Byzantium, 955 A.D. to the First Crusade. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190253233. 
  • Norwich, John Julius (1993), Byzantium: The Apogee, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-011448-3 
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