Kiwi (people)

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A Kiwi holding a kiwi

Kiwi is the nickname used internationally for people from New Zealand,[1][2] as well as being a relatively common self-reference.[3] The name derives from the kiwi, a native flightless bird, which is the national symbol of New Zealand. Until the First World War, the kiwi represented the country and not the people. But by 1917 the people were also being called "Kiwis", supplanting other nicknames. Unlike many demographic labels, its usage is not considered offensive; it is generally viewed as a symbol of pride and endearment for the people of New Zealand.[4]

History

Representing the nation

The kiwi has long had a special significance for the indigenous Māori people, who used its skin to make feather cloaks (kahu kiwi) for chiefs.[5] The bird first came to European attention in 1811 when a skin ended up in the hands of a British Museum zoologist, George Shaw, who classified it as a type of penguin and portrayed it as standing upright.[6][7] After early sightings by Europeans the kiwi was regarded as a curiosity; in 1835 the missionary William Yate described it as "the most remarkable and curious bird in New Zealand".[8]

In the early 1900s cartoonists began to use the kiwi as a representation of New Zealand. For example, in a 1904 New Zealand Free Lance cartoon a plucky kiwi is shown growing to a moa after a rugby victory of 9–3 over a British team.[9] The next year, The Westminster Gazette printed a cartoon of a kiwi and a kangaroo (an Australian symbol) going off to a colonial conference.[9] Trevor Lloyd, who worked for The New Zealand Herald, also used a kiwi to represent the All Blacks rugby team, but he more often drew a moa.[5] Other symbols for New Zealand at this time included the silver fern, a small boy and a young lion cub.[9] But until the First World War the kiwi was used as a symbol of the nation rather than the people of New Zealand.[5]

Representing the people

RNZAF roundel, featuring an outline of a kiwi

In the early 1900s New Zealanders—including soldiers and All Blacks players—were referred to internationally as "En Zed(der)s",[5] or "Maorilanders" (referring to the Māori people and their historical contribution to the country).[10] These terms were still being used near the end of the First World War. However, although New Zealand soldiers were often described as "Diggers" or "Pig Islanders", by 1917 they were also being called "Kiwis".[5][11]

The image of the kiwi had appeared on military badges since the South Canterbury Battalion used it in 1886,[12] and it was taken up by several regiments in the First World War. "Kiwi" came to mean first the men of New Zealand regiments.[5] The nickname is not thought to have originated as a reference to the physical attributes of the New Zealand servicemen (i.e. implying they were short and stocky like the bird). It was simply that the kiwi was distinct and unique to the country.[5] Its prominent use on the New Zealand regiments' insignia also made for easy association.[4][13] The nickname eventually became common usage in all war theatres.[5]

Chalk kiwi above the town of Bulford, c. 1918

After the end of the First World War, many New Zealand troops stayed in Europe for months or years until transport home could be arranged—for instance, at Sling Camp, near Bulford on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, New Zealand soldiers carved a chalk kiwi into the nearby hill in 1918.[14] Their presence popularised the nickname within Europe.[5]

A can of Kiwi shoe polish

An Australian boot polish called Kiwi was widely used in the imperial forces. Its founder, William Ramsay, named the polish in honour of his wife's birthplace, New Zealand.[5] The Australian National Dictionary[15] also gives the first use of the term "Kiwi Kids" and "Kiwis" in 1917, to mean Australian army recruits who had kiwied up; in other words, they had highly polished boots.[16]

Following the Second World War the term was gradually attributed to all New Zealanders, and today throughout the world they are referred to as Kiwis, as well as often referring to themselves that way.[2][3]

Current usage

Spelling of the word Kiwi, when used to describe the people, is often capitalised, and takes the plural form Kiwis. The bird's name is spelled with a lower-case k and, being a word of Māori origin, normally stays as kiwi when pluralised.[17] Thus, "two Kiwis" refers to two people, whereas "two kiwi" refers to two birds. This linguistic nicety is well exemplified by the BNZ Save the Kiwi Conservation Trust, which uses the slogan "Kiwis for kiwi".[18] The term is not usually considered to be pejorative.[4]

See also

  • Kiwiana, items or icons particular to New Zealand
  • Kiwifruit, fruit associated with New Zealand, but not native to it, which is also known as the "Chinese Gooseberry"
  • Māori, the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand
  • Pākehā, non-Māori (especially European) New Zealanders
  • .kiwi, an internet domain name

References

  1. ^ "the definition of kiwis". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
  2. ^ a b "Kiwi". www.doc.govt.nz. New Zealand Department of Conservation. Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "Kiwis/Kiwi - New Zealand Immigration Service (Summary of Terms)". Glossary.immigration.govt.nz. Retrieved 2012-09-13. 
  4. ^ a b c Norah, Laurence. "Kiwis, Poms and other naming mysteries". Finding the Universe. Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Phillips, Jock (July 2012). "Kiwi - Kiwi and people: early history". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
  6. ^ "Early impacts". The Kiwi Trust. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  7. ^ Phillips, Jock. "Early European engraving". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  8. ^ Yate, William (1835). An account of New Zealand and of the formation and progress of the Church Missionary Society’s mission in the northern island. London: Seeley and Burnside. p. 5. 
  9. ^ a b c "First use of kiwi as unofficial national symbol?". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  10. ^ Phillips, Jock (March 2009). "The New Zealanders - Maorilanders". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  11. ^ "Kiwi - A kiwi country: 1930s–2000s". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 2011-05-24. Retrieved 2012-09-13. 
  12. ^ Phillips, Jock (24 September 2007). "South Canterbury Battalion badge". www.teara.govt.nz. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
  13. ^ Jock, Phillips (24 September 2007). "RNZAF Harvard". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
  14. ^ "The White Horses". Wiltshire-web.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-13. 
  15. ^ ed. Bill Ramson (2008). "Australian National Dictionary". Oxford University Press Australia & New Zealand. 
  16. ^ Ramson, Bill (1993). Of Pavlova, Poetry, and Paradigms. Victoria University Press. 
  17. ^ "Plurals in te reo Māori". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  18. ^ "Kiwis for kiwi". www.doc.govt.nz. New Zealand Department of Conservation. Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
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