Kingdom of Tondo

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Tondo
ᜊᜌᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ
Bayan ng Tondo[1]
ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ
Kaharian ng Tondo[2]
(popularly mislabeled)
Barangay state (15th century)[1]
Personal union with Namayan through its leaders (1175–1571)[3]
before 900 CE[5][Notes 1]–1589[4]
The district of Tondo, highlighted in sepia on a Detail of the 1819 Map "Plano de la ciudad de Manila, capital de las Yslas Filipinas", prepared by Francisco Xavier de Herrera lo Grabó for the Manila Land Survey Year of 1819. The consensus among contemporary historiographers is that the location of the district during the Spanish colonial period approximates the location of the archaic polity of Tondo.[1][6]
Capital Tondo (Now a modern district of Manila)[7]
Languages Old Tagalog,[8] Kapampangan,[3] Bikol[citation needed]
(local languages)

Old Malay,[5] Middle Chinese
(trade languages)
Religion
Government "Bayan" led by a paramount leader called a Lakan, consisting of several Barangay social groups led by a Datu[1][6] and initially misidentified as a Monarchy by foreigners[14][15][6][16]
Lakan
 •  c. 900 Jayadewa (first according to LCI)
 •  c. 1500s Rajah Salalila
 •  1558–1571 Lakandula
 •  1575–1589 Magat Salamat
Historical era Early Philippine history
 •  First historical mention, in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; trade relations with the Medang Kingdom implied[7] before 900 CE[5][Notes 1]
 •  Earliest proposed legendary founding date of neighboring polity of Maynila; defeat of Rajah Avirjirkaya by Rajah Ahmad[Notes 2] c. 1258
 •  Alternate proposed legendary founding date of neighboring polity of Maynila[Notes 3] c. 1365
 •  Establishment of regular trade relations with the Ming dynasty[17] 1373
 •  Battle of Manila (1500) (legendary); alternatively also the latest proposed founding date of neighboring polity of Maynila, Muslim influence introduced via intermarriage of ruling family with the Sultanate of Brunei[6] c. 1500
 •  Last resistance against the Spanish[18] 1571
 •  Dissolution upon integration into the Spanish East Indies 1589[4]
Currency Piloncitos, Gold rings, and Barter[19]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Barangay state
Prehistory of the Philippines
Kingdom of Maynila
New Spain
Spanish East Indies
Today part of  Philippines
Warning: Value specified for "continent" does not comply

In early Philippine history, the Tagalog Bayan ("country" or "polity")[1][16][20][21] of Tondo (Filipino: Bayan ng Tondo [tonˈdo];[6] Baybayin: ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ, ᜊᜌᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ; Kapampangan: Balen ning Tondo, Kayarian ning Tondo; Bikol: Banwáan ini Tundo, Kahadean ini Tundo; Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū; Sanskrit: तोन्दुन् (Tondu); Malay: Negara Tundun) was a major trade hub located on the northern part of the Pasig River delta,[22][11][23] on Luzon island.[24](p71)[23] It is referred to in academic circles as the "Tondo polity" or "Tondo settlement".[25][11][1][6]

Travelers from from monarchical cultures[25] who had contacts with Tondo (including the Chinese, Portuguese, and the Spanish)[26] often initially mislabeled[25][26][6][1] it as the "Kingdom of Tondo". Early Augustinian chronicler Pedro de San Buenaventura explained this error as early as 1613 in his Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala,[21] but the label was nevertheless later adapted by the popular literature of the Spanish colonial era because of the influence of the Hispanic linguistic tradition.[14]

Tondo is of particular interest to Filipino historians and historiographers because it is one of the oldest historically documented settlements in the Philippines.[25][26] Scholars generally agree that it was mentioned in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the Philippines oldest extant locally produced written document, dating back to 900 CE.[5][1][25][26]

Geographically, it was completely surrounded by bodies of water: mainly the Pasig River to the South and the shore of Manila Bay to the West, but also by several of the delta's rivulets: the Canal de la Reina to the Southeast, the Estero de Sunog Apog to the Northeast, and the Estero de Vitas on its Eastern and Northernmost boundaries.[27]

Politically, Tondo was made up of several social groupings called Barangay,[6][11][25] which were led by Datus,[1][6][25] who in turn recognized the leadership of the most senior among them as a sort of "Paramount datu" called a Lakan.[1][6][11] According to the earliest Tagalog dictionaries, large coastal polities with this kind of leadership structure were called "Bayan".[21][1][6] In the middle to late 16th century, its Lakan was held in high regard within the alliance group which was formed by the various Manila Bay area polities, which included Tondo, Maynila, and various polities in Bulacan and Pampanga.[6][25]

Culturally, the Tagalog people of Tondo had a rich Austronesian (specifically Malayo-Polynesian) culture, with its own expressions of language and writing, religion, art, and music dating back to the earliest peoples of the archipelago.[28][10] This culture was later influenced by its trading relations with the rest of Maritime Southeast Asia.[10] Particularly significant were its relations with Ming dynasty,[29] Malaysia, Brunei, and the Majapahit empire, which served as the main conduit for significant Indian cultural influence,[10][11][30] despite the Philippine archipelago's geographical location outside the Indian cultural zone.[10][11]

Together with Maynila, the polity (bayan) on the southern part of the Pasig River delta, it established a shared monopoly on the trade of Chinese goods throughout the rest of the Philippine archipelago, making it an established force in trade throughout Southeast Asia and East Asia.[31]

Tondo's regional prominence further culminated during the period of its associated trade and alliance with Brunei's Sultan Bolkiah.[citation needed] And by around 1500, the kingdom reached its peak as a thalassocratic force in the northern part of the archipelago.[citation needed]

Following contact with the Spanish Empire beginning in 1570 and the defeat of local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1571, Tondo was ruled from Manila (a Spanish fort built on the remains of Maynila). Tondo's absorption into the Spanish Empire effectively ended its status as an independent political entity; it now exists as a district of the modern City of Manila.

Contents

Sources and Historiography

Pre-hispanic History of the Philippines
Boxer codex.jpg
Barangay government
Ten datus of Borneo
States in Luzon
Caboloan (Pangasinan)
Ma-i
Kingdom of Maynila
Namayan
Kingdom of Tondo
States in the Visayas
Kedatuan of Madja-as
Kedatuan of Dapitan
Rajahnate of Cebu
States in Mindanao
Rajahnate of Butuan
Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Maguindanao
Sultanate of Lanao
Key figures
Sulaiman II · Lakan Dula · Sulaiman III · Katuna
Tarik Sulayman · Tupas · Kabungsuwan · Kudarat
Humabon · Lapu-Lapu · Alimuddin I · Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram
History of the Philippines
Portal: Philippines
The actual image of Laguna Copperplate Inscription (c. 900) found in Lumban River in Laguna. One of the most important primary documentary sources in Philippine history. It is the Philippines' oldest extant locally-created written document.

Only a few comprehensive reviews of source materials for the study of Philippine prehistory and early history have been done, with William Henry Scott's 1968 review being one of the earliest systematic critiques.[16] Scott's review has become a seminal academic work on the study of early Philippine history, having been reviewed early on by a panel of that era's most eminent historians and folklorists incuding Teodoro Agoncillo, Horacio de la Costa, Marcelino Foronda, Mercedes Grau Santamaria, Nicholas Zafra and Gregorio Zaide.[32] Scott's 1968 review was acknowledged by Laura Lee Junker when she conducted her own comprehensive 1998 review of primary sources regarding archaic Philippine polities,[16] and by F. Landa Jocano in his Anthropological analysis of Philippine Prehistory.[11]

Scott lists the sources for the study of Philippine prehistory as: archeology, linguistics and paleogeography, foreign written documents, and quasi-historical genealogical documents. In a later work,[6] he conducts a detailed critique of early written documents and surviving oral or folk traditions connected with the Philippines early historic or protohistoric era.[11]

Sources Scott,[26][6] Jocano,[11] and Junker[16] consider particularly relevant to the study of the Tondo and Maynila settlements include:

Primary sources for the history of Rajah Kalamayin's Namayan, further upriver, include artifacts dug up from archaeological digs (the earliest of which was Robert Fox's[33] work for the National Museum in 1977) and Spanish colonial records (most notably those compiled by the 19th century Franciscan Historian Fray Felix Huerta).[34]

A more detailed discussion of notable archeological, documentary, and genealogical sources can be found towards the end of this article.

Critical historiography

Junker notes that most of the primary written sources for early Philippine history have inherent biases, which creates a need to counter-check their narratives with one another, and with empirical archeological evidence.[16] She cites the works of F. Landa Jocano, Felix M. Keesing, and William Henry Scott as notable exceptions.[16]

F. Landa Jocano warns that in the case of early Philippine history, it's essential that "even archeological findings" be carefully interpreted by experts, because these can be misinterpreted if not analyzed in proper context.[16]

Names and Etymology

Plate depicting the "tundok" plant (Aegiceras corniculatum), from Fray Francisco Manuel Blanco's "Flora de Filipinas"
Detail of an illustration from Jean Mallat's 1846 book "The Philippines: history, geography, customs, agriculture, industry, and commerce of the Spanish colonies in Oceania", showing "a Tagalog couple pounding rice." The mortar depicted is known as a "lusong", a large, cylindrical, deep-mouthed wooden mortal used to de-husk rice.[35](p44) Linguist Jean Paul Potet explains that the Old Tagalog name of the Pasig River delta,[36] in which Tondo was located, was derived from this mortar.

Alternative names and orthographies

As a result of Tondo's history as a center of commerce, it has been referred to by many names by in various texts and languages. It is variously also referred to as Tundo, Tundun, Tundok, Tung-lio, Tundaan, Tunduh, Tunda, Tong-Lao,[37] or Lusung.[38][not in citation given][39][not in citation given]

Origins of the name "Tondo"

Numerous theories on the origin of the name "Tondo" have been put forward. Filipino National Artist Nick Joaquin suggested that it might be a reference to high ground ("tundok").[40] French linguist Jean-Paul Potet, however, has suggested that the River Mangrove, Aegiceras corniculatum, which at the time was called "tundok" ("tinduk-tindukan" today), is the most likely origin of the name.[36]

Tondo as a "Bayan"

According to the earliest Tagalog dictionaries,[1][6] large coastal settlements like Tondo and Maynila, which were ultimately led by a Lakan or Rajah, were called "Bayan" in the Tagalog language.[1][6][25] This term (which is translated today as "country") was common among the various languages of the Philippine archipelago,[3] and eventually came to refer to the entire Philippines, alongside the word Bansa (or Bangsa, meaning "nation").

Etymology of the "Luzon" Region

The name Luzon, which Potet explains was the name given to the Pasig River delta area,[36] is thought to derive from the Tagalog word lusong, which is a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice.[38][39] A 2008 PIDS research paper by Eulito Bautista and Evelyn Javier provides an image of a Lusong, and explains that,

"Traditional milling was accomplished in the 1900s by pounding the palay with a wooden pestle in a stone or wooden mortar called lusong. The first pounding takes off the hull and further pounding removes the bran but also breaks most grains. Further winnowing with a bamboo tray (bilao) separates the hull from the rice grains. This traditional hand-pounding chore, although very laborious and resulted in a lot of broken rice, required two to three skilled men and women to work harmoniously and was actually a form of socializing among young folks in the villages."[35]

Geographical location, territory, and political influence

Detail of the Duque de Almadovar's 1787 "Plan de Manila su Bahia y Puerto de Cavite" with the islands of Binondo, Tondo, and Isla de Balut highlighted in Sepia.
The world in 900 AD shows the Lusung and its neighbors.

Scholars generally agree[16][1] that Tondo was located north of the Pasig river,[3] on the northern part of Lusong or Lusung, which is an Old Tagalog name for the Pasig river delta.[6](p190–191) This name is thought to have been derived from the Tagalog word for a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice.[41][39] This name eventually came to be used as the name for the entire island of modern Luzon.[42]

Territorial boundaries

Except in the case of fortified polities such as Maynila and Cainta, the first-hand descriptions of territorial boundaries of Tagalog polities tend to discourage scholars from providing exact delineations, because the descriptions depict the boundaries of even compact polities like Tondo as slowly diminishing concentrations of households, dissipating into agricultural land (parang) and eventually wild vegetation (sukal).[3]

However, Tondo's territorial boundaries are generally accepted as defined by several bodies of water which gave Tondo an island shape:[40][27]

Notably, the area of modern Tondo now known as "Gagalangin" is not believed to have been part of Tondo's original "territory", since it was a place grown wild with plants in olden days.[27]

It should be noted that the shoreline of the modern district of Tondo has been significantly altered by reclamation activities. Pre-reclamation maps of Tondo show a relatively straight shoreline from the beachfront of Intramuros to the mouth of Estero de Vitas.[43]

Tondo's territorial boundaries also excluded[6](p191)[34] territory occupied by Maynila[6][44] and Namayan.[33][34]

Notable areas inside Tondo's territory

Reclamation by Chinese refugees in Baybay

One notable area controlled by Tondo under the reign of Bunao Lakandula in the 1500s[6] was called "Baybay", now known as the district of San Nicolas, Manila.[45][27] William Henry Scott, citing Augustinian missionary records,[46] notes that Bunao Lakandula had allowed a group of Chinese refugees, fleeing persecution from Japan, to settle there. These refugees, which included two Christians, then "diked, drained, and reclaimed land along the waterfront", extending the shore of Tondo further out to Manila Bay.[6]

Lime production in Sunog-Apog

Another notable area controlled by Tondo was on the banks of Estero de Vitas, called "Sunog Apog", which eventually lent its name to the nearby Estero de Sunog Apog in Gagalangin. This area was noted for the production of lime (apog) through the burning (pag-sunog) of oyster (talaba) shells, and a lime kiln was still present in the area by 1929.[47][27]

Polities influenced through the Lakan's "alliance network"

Although popular portrayals and early nationalist historical texts sometimes depict Philippine paramount rulers, such as those in the Maynila and Tondo polities, as having broad sovereign powers and holding vast territories, critical historiographers such as Jocano,[11](pp160-161) Scott,[6] and Junker[25] explain that historical sources clearly show that paramount leaders, such as the Lakans of Tondo and the Rajahs of Maynila, exercised only a limited degree of influence, which did not include claims over the barangays[Notes 4] and territories of less-senior datus.

Junker describes this structure as an "alliance group", which she describes as having "a relatively decentralized and highly segmentary strucure"[25](p172) similar to other polities in Maritime Southeast Asia:[25](p172)

"In the Philippines, the primary unit of collective political action appears to have been an organizationally more fluid “alliance group,” [...] made up of perpetually shifting leader-focused factions, represented the extension of [...] power over individuals and groups through various alliance-building strategies, but not over geographically distinct districts or territories."[25](p172)

The Malacañang Presidential Museum, on the other hand, described this political setup in their 2015 Araw ng Maynila briefers as an "alliance network."[1]

This explains the confusion experienced by Martin de Goiti during the first Spanish forays into Bulacan and Pampanga in late 1571.[48] Until that point, Spanish chroniclers continued to use the terms "king" and "kingdom" to describe the polities of Tondo and Maynila, but Goiti was surprised when Lakandula explained there was "no single king over these lands",[48][6] and that the leadership of Tondo and Maynila over the Kapampangan polities did not include either territorial claim or absolute command.[6] San Buenaventura (1613, as cited by Junker, 1990 and Scott, 1994) later noted that Tagalogs only applied the term Hari (King) to foreign monarchs, rather than their own leaders.[6]

Polities in Bulacan and Pampanga

The influence of Tondo and Maynila over the datus of various polities in pre-colonial Bulacan and Pampanga are acknowledged by historical records, and are supported by oral literature and traditions. This influence was assumed by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, leading him to implore Bunao, the Lakan of Tondo, to join Martin de Goiti on his journey to Bulacan and Pampanga in late 1571. However, since the Lakandula did not have territorial sovereignty over these territories,[48][6] the effort met with limited success.[6]

Patanne, as well as Abinales and Amoroso, interpret Postma's translation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription as meaning that this influence-via-alliance-network defined Tondo's relationship with the territories of Binwangan, Pailah, and Puliran, which Postma believed to be in Bulacan/Pampanga.

Polities in Bulacan and Pampanga which were supposedly under the influence of Tondo and Maynila's alliance network include, but are not limited to:

Laguna Lake region polities

Scholars, particularly Junker (1990) and Scott (1994) also acknowledge that Tondo and Maynila had a close relationship with "Puliran", the endonymously identified region covering the South-Eastern shore of Laguna Lake. However, neither Junker nor Scott, or even other scholars such as Jocano, Odal-Devora, or Dery, do not explicitly characterize this relationship as Puliran being a part of Tondo and Maynila's alliance network.

The interpretation of Puliran as part of Tondo and Maynila's alliance network is instead implied by the challenge posed by the Pila Historical Society Foundation and local historian Jaime F. Tiongson to Postma's assertions regarding the exact locations of places mentioned in the Laguna copperplate.[51][52]

According to Tiongson's interpretation: Pailah refers to Pila; Puliran refers to Puliran, the old name of the territory that occupied the southeastern part of Laguna de Bay at the time; and Binwangan refers to modern day Barangay, Binawangan in Capalonga, Camarines Norte.[51][52]

Polities in the Puliran region which were supposedly under the influence of Tondo and Maynila's alliance network include, but are not limited to:

Other settlements/polities

Inside modern NCR

Outside modern NCR

Austronesian origins of Tondo

A map showing the extent of the Austronesian expansion

As with virtually all the lowland peoples of Maritime Southeast Asia, the Tagalog people who established the settlement of Tondo were Austronesians.[6](p12)[56][10]

These Austronesians had a rich, complex culture, with its own expressions of language and writing, religion, art, and music.[28][10] This Austronesian culture was already in place before the cultural influences of China, the Indonesian thassalocracies of Srivijaya and Majapahit, and Brunei, and eventually, the western colonial powers.[10][28] The core elements of this Austronesian culture also persisted despite the introduction of Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam and, later, Christianity.[10][9] Elements of these belief systems were syncretistically adapted by the Tagalogs to enrich their already-existing worldviews,[10] elements of which still persist today in the syncretistic forms known as Folk Catholicism and Folk Islam.[9][57][28]

The cultural heritage uncovered by this recent scholarship explains why Filipino cultures, as pointed out by writers such as Nick Joaquin (in his 1988 book, "Culture and History"),[58] seem even more similar to Micronesian and Polynesian cultures than they are to continental Asian and Maritime Southeast Asian cultures.[58]

These Austronesian cultures are defined by their languages, and by a number of key technologies including the cultural prominence of boats, the construction of thatched houses on piles, the cultivation of tubers and rice, and a characteristic social organization typically led by a "big man" or "man of power".[10][28]

Culture and Society

A portrayal of the Ginu class. From the Boxer Codex, c. 1595

It is believed[according to whom?] that the people of Tondo were related to Malay of Malay peninsula and Sumatra.[24](p71) Since at least the 3rd century,[attribution needed] the people of Tondo had developed a culture which is predominantly Hindu and Buddhist society.[attribution needed] They are ruled by a Lakan, which belongs to a caste[contentious label] of Maharlika, were the feudal warrior class in ancient Tagalog society in Luzon, translated in Spanish as Hidalgos, and meaning freeman, libres or freedman.[22] They belonged to the lower nobility class similar to the Timawa of the Visayans. In modern Filipino, however, the term itself has erroneously come to mean "royal nobility", which was actually restricted to the hereditary Maginoo class.[59]

Kingdom of Tondo
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 東都
Japanese name
Kyūjitai 呂宋.

Social structure

The pre-colonial Tagalog barangays of Manila, Pampanga and Laguna had a more complex social structure than the cultures of the Visayas, enjoying a more extensive commerce through their Bornean political contacts, and engaging in farming wet rice for a living. The Tagalogs were thus described by the Spanish Augustinian friar Martin de Rada as more traders than warriors.[60](pp"124–125")

In his seminal 1994 work "Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society" (further simplified in the briefer by the Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office in 2015), historian William Henry Scott delineates the three classes of Tagalog society during the 1500s:[1]

  • the Maginoo[1] (ruling class), which included the Lakan/Rajah and the Datus under him;
  • A class described as "Freemen"[1] consisting of Timawa and Maharlika; and
  • Alipin (slaves),[1] which could further be subcategorized as Aliping Namamahay or Aliping Sa Gigilid.

The term datu or lakan, or apo refers to the chief, but the noble class to which the datu belonged to was known as the maginoo class. Any male member of the maginoo class can become a datu by personal achievement.[60](p"125")

The term timawa referring to freemen came into use in the social structure of the Tagalogs within just twenty years after the coming of the Spaniards. The term, however, was being incorrectly applied to former alipin (commoner and slave class) who have escaped bondage by payment, favor, or flight. Moreover, the Tagalog timawa did not have the military prominence of the Visayan timawa. The equivalent warrior class in the Tagalog society was present only in Laguna, and they were known as the maharlika class.

At the bottom of the social hierarchy are the members of the alipin class. There are two main subclasses of the alipin class. The aliping namamahay who owned their own houses and served their masters by paying tribute or working on their fields were the commoners and serfs, while the aliping sa gigilid who lived in their masters' houses were the servants and slaves.

The more complex social structure of the Tagalogs was less stable during the arrival of the Spaniards because it was still in a process of differentiating.[60]{{rp|pages="124-125"[vague]

Political leadership structure

Tondo was a large coastal settlement led by several leaders, called Datu, who had their own followings, called either "Dulohan" or "Barangay."[6][1] These Datus with their respective Barangays in turn acknowledged the leadership of a datu with the most senior rank - a "paramount ruler"[16] or "paramount datu"[11] who was called a "Lakan".[6][1] According to San Buenaventura, a large coastal settlement with this kind of leadership structure was called a "Bayan".[61][6][1]

The equivalent Paramount Datus who led the southern polity of Maynila were referred to using the term "Rajah," and in Mindanao, a similar title in more Islamized polities was that of "Sultan."[11]

The term for the "Barangay" social groupings[25] refers to the large ships called "Balangay"[6] which were common on such coastal polities, and is used by present-day scholars to describe the leadership structure of settlements in early Philippine history.[6] This leads to some confusion for modern readers, because the term "barangay" was also later adapted (through the 1991 Local Government Code) as a replacement for the Spanish term barrio to describe the smallest administrative division in the modern Republic of the Philippines[11] - a government structure very different from the original meaning of the word.[6]

In addition, Jocano[11] warns that there were significant differences between "smaller" barangays, which were only 30 to 100 households in size, and considerably larger barangays, which according to Buenaventura[61] were called "Bayan." Jocano asserted that the social and governance structures of these larger Barangays, with high levels of economic specialization and a clear system of social stratification, should be the primary model for the analysis of social structures in Early Philippine history, rather than the "smaller" barangays.[11]

Popular literature has described these political entities as either chiefdoms[1] or kingdoms.[40] Although modern scholars such as Renfew[20] and Junker[16] note that these are not appropriate technical descriptions.[16][20][1]

Contemporary historiographers specializing in early Philippine history prefer to use the generic term "polity" in international journals,[16][20][1] avoiding the terms "chiefdom" and "kingdom" altogether.

Scholars such as William Henry Scott and F. Landa Jocano have continued to use the term "barangay", especially in longer-form texts such as books[6] and anthologies,[62] because these longer forms allow space for explanations of the differences between the modern and archaic uses of the word "barangay".

Indian cultural influences

Map depicting the Greater Indian cultural sphere, showing the Philippines as among the countries, highlighted in yellow, which are outside the Indian cultural zone but have considerable current or historical Indian cultural influence.

The scope, sequence, and mechanism of Indian cultural influences in early Philippine polities are the subject of much debate among scholars of Philippine and Southeast Asian history and historiography.[10][11][6] This is an active area of research as little is known about the scale and depth of Indian cultural influences on Philippine history from the 1st millennium and before.[63]

The archipelagoes of Southeast Asia were under the influence of Hindu Tamil, Gujarati and Indonesian traders through the ports of Malay-Indonesian islands.[citation needed] Indian religions, possibly an amalgamated version of Hindu-Buddhist arrived in Philippines archipelago in the 1st millennium, through the Indonesian kingdom of Srivijaya followed by Majapahit.[citation needed]

Archeological evidence suggesting exchange of ancient spiritual ideas from India to the Philippines includes the 1.79 kilogram, 21 carat gold Hindu goddess Agusan (sometimes referred to as Golden Tara), found in Mindanao in 1917 after a storm and flood exposed its location.[64] The statue now sits in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, and is dated from the period 13th to early 14th centuries.

The earliest written record of the Tagalog is a 9th-century document known as the Laguna Copperplate Inscription which is about a remission of debt on behalf of the ruler of Tondo.[65] Inscribed on it is year 822 of the Saka Era, the month of Waisaka, and the fourth day of the waning moon, which corresponds to Monday, April 21, 900 CE in the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.[66] The writing system used is the Old Kawi, while the language is a variety of Old Malay, and contains numerous loanwords from Sanskrit and a few non-Malay vocabulary elements whose origin may be Old Javanese. Some contend it is between Old Tagalog and Old Javanese.[67] The document states that it releases its bearers, the children of Namwaran, from a debt in gold amounting to 1 kati and 8 suwarnas (865 grams).[68][66] During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah in 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei decided to break Tondo's monopoly in the China trade by attacking Tondo and establishing the state of Selurung as a Bruneian satellite-state.[69][70]

Religion

Historical accounts,[12][6] supported by archeological and linguistic evidence[12][3][6] and by corroborated by anthropological studies,[12][6] show that the Tagalog people, including those in Tondo and Maynila, practiced a set of Austronesian beliefs and practices which date back to the arrival of Austronesian peoples,[71][72][6] although various elements were later syncretistically adapted from Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism, and Islam.[10][6]

The Tagalogs did not have a specific name for this set of religious beliefs and practices, although later scholars and popular writers refer to it as Anitism,[71] or, less accurately, using the general term "animism."[12]

Coexistence with and syncretistic adaptation from other beliefs

One specific exception to the predominance of "Anitism" in early Tondo and Maynila was that the apex-level leaders of these polities identified themselves as Muslims,[6] as did the migrant sailor Luzones who were encountered by early 15th century chroniclers in Portuguese Malacca.[10] However, the various ethnographic reports of the period indicate that this seemed to only be a nominal identification ("Muslim by name") because there was only a surface level acknowledgement of Muslim norms (avoidance of pork, non-consumption of blood, etc) without an "understanding of Mohammedan teachings."[48] Scholars generally believe that this nominal practice of Islam actually represented the early stages of Islamization, which would have seen a much more extensive practice of Muslim beliefs[6] had the Spanish not arrived and introduced their brand of Iberian Catholicism.[9][6]

Osborne (2004) describes a similar process of "adaptation" happening in connection with Hindu and Buddhist influences in the various cultures of Maritime Southeast Asia,[10] and emphasizes that this "indianization" of Southeast Asia did not per-se overwrite existing indigenous patterns, cultures, and beliefs:

"Because Indian culture “came” to Southeast Asia, one must not think that Southeast Asians lacked a culture of their own. Indeed, the generally accepted view is that Indian culture made such an impact on Southeast Asia because it fitted easily with the existing cultural patterns and religious beliefs of populations that had already moved a considerable distance along the path of civilization.[…] Southeast Asians, to summarize the point, borrowed but they also adapted. In some very important cases, they did not need to borrow at all.[10](p24)"

Tagalog religious cosmology

The Tagalog belief system was more or less anchored on the idea that the world is inhabited by spirits and supernatural entities, both good and bad, and that respect must be accorded to them through worship.[73]

According to the early Spanish missionary-ethnographers, the Tagalog people believed in a creator-god named "Bathala",[12] whom they referred to both as maylicha (creator; lit. "actor of creation") and maycapal (lord, or almighty; lit. "actor of power").[6] Loarca and Chirino also report that in some places, they were called "Molayri" (Molaiari) or "Diwata" (Dioata)." However, these early missionary-ethnographers also noted that the Tagalogs did not include Bathala in their daily acts of worship (pag-a-anito). Buenaventura was informed that this was because the Tagalogs believed Bathala was too mighty and distant to be bothered with the concerns of mortal man, and so the Tagalogs focused their acts of appeasement to "lesser" deities and powers,[12] immediate spirits which they believed had control over their day to day life.[9]

Because the Tagalogs did not have a collective word to describe all these spirits together, Spanish missionaries eventually decided to call them "anito," since they were the subject of the Tagalog's act of pag-aanito (worship).[6] According to Scott, accounts and early dictionaries describe them as intermediaries ("Bathala's agents"), and the dictionaries "used the word abogado (advocate) when defining their realms." These sources also show, however, that in practice, they were addressed directly: "in actual prayers, they were petitioned directly, not as intermediaries." Modern day writers divide these spirits are broadly into the categories of "Ancestor spirits, nature spirits, and guardian spirits," although they also note that the dividing line between these categories is often blurred.[12]

Demetrio, Cordero-Fernando, and Nakpil Zialcita[12] observe that the Luzon Tagalogs and Kapampangans' use of the word "Anito", instead of the word "Diwata" which was more predominant in the Visayan regions, indicated that these peoples of Luzon were less influenced by the Hindu and Buddhist beliefs of the Madjapahit empire than the Visayans were.[12] They also observed that the words were used alternately amongst the peoples in the southernmost portions of Luzon - the Bicol Region, Marinduque, Mindoro, etc. They suggested that this have represented transitional area, the front lines of an increased "Indianized" Madjapahit influence which was making its way north[12] the same way Islam was making its way north from Mindanao.[6]

Hindu and Buddhist religious influences

Map depicting the expansion of Hinduism in the Philippines, showing an indirect Indian religious influence filtered through the cultures of the Malaysian and Indonesian archipelagos.[11]

The main religion[improper synthesis?] was widely Hinduism, followed by Buddhism[74] in popularity along with Folk religion, initially the kingdom revered Buddhist-Hindu influence as the predominant[improper synthesis?] religion.[75][76][77]

Buddhism,[78][79][80] is widely practice throughout Tondo,[citation needed][improper synthesis?] the Vajrayana,[81][unreliable source?] Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism,[82][83] made inroads into Philippines[improper synthesis?] when the Srivijaya empire in present-day Indonesia and Malaysia gained prominence. This was the period between 7th century to 13th century. Later, on the arrival of the Chinese and Indian merchants between the 10th century brought in the Buddhist knowledge as well as Buddhist iconography. Buddhist statues and artefacts from this era is a proof to the influence that Buddhism had amongst the people in the Philippines.[81][unreliable source?]

Supporting artifacts

The Batangueños were influenced by India as shown in the origin of most languages from Sanskrit and certain ancient potteries. A Buddhist image was reproduced in mould on a clay medallion in bas-relief from the municipality of Calatagan. According to experts, the image in the pot strongly resembles the iconographic portrayal of Buddha in Siam, India, and Nepal. The pot shows Buddha Amithaba in the tribhanga[84] pose inside an oval nimbus. Scholars also noted that there is a strong Mahayanic orientation in the image, since the Boddhisattva Avalokitesvara was also depicted.[85]

An artifact found in 1989, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription by scholars. It is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines, dated to be from the 10th century, and was deciphered in 1992 by Dutch anthropologist Antoon Postma. The inscription suggests economic and cultural links between the Tagalog people of Philippines with the Javanese Medang Kingdom, the Srivijaya empire, and the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms of India. Hinduism in the country declined when Islam was introduced by traders from Arabia which was then followed by Christianity from Spain.[dubious ][improper synthesis?] The document states that it releases its bearers, the children of Namwaran, from a debt in gold amounting to 1 kati and 8 suwarnas (865 grams).[49][66]

Islamization

Islamization was a slow process characterised by with the steady conversion of the citizenry of Tondo and Manila which created Muslim domains. The Bruneians installed the Muslim rajahs, Rajah Salalila and Rajah Matanda in the south (now the Intramuros district) and the Buddhist-Hindu settlement was ruled under Lakan Dula in northern Tundun (now Tondo).[86] Islamization of Luzon began in the 16th century when traders from Brunei settled in the Manila area and married locals while maintaining kinship and trade links with Brunei and thus other Muslim centres in Southeast Asia. The Muslims were called "Moros" by the Spanish who assumed they occupied the whole coast. There is no evidence that Islam had become a major political or religious force in the region, with Father Diego de Herrera recording that the Moros lived only in some villages and were Muslim in name only.[87]

Economic activities

Historians widely agree that the larger coastal polities which flourished throughout the Philippine archipelago in the period immediately prior to the arrival of the Spanish colonizers (including Tondo and Maynila) were "organizationally complex", demonstrating both economic specialization and a level of social stratification which would have led to a local demand for "prestige goods".[11]

Specialized industries in the Tagalog and Kapampangan regions, including Tondo and Maynila, included agriculture, textile weaving, basketry, metallurgy, hunting, among others.[6] The social stratification which gave birth to the Maginoo class created a demand for prestige products including ceramics, textiles, and precious stones.[25] This demand, in turn, served as the impetus for both internal and external trade.

Junker notes that significant work still needs to be done in analyzing the internal/local supply and demand dynamics in pre-Spanish era polities, because much of the prior research has tended to focus on their external trading activities.[25] Scott notes that early Spanish lexicons are particularly useful for this analysis, because these early dictionaries captured many words which demonstrate the varied nuances of these local economic activities.[6]

Trade

Junker describes coastal polities of Tondo and Maynila's size as "administrative and commercial centers functioning as important nodes in networks of external and internal trade."[25] While the basic model for the movement of trade goods in early Philippine history saw coastal settlements at the mouth of large rivers (in this case, the Pasig river delta) controlling the flow of goods to and from settlements further upriver (in this case, the upland polities on the Laguna Lake coast),[25] Tondo and Maynila had trade arrangements which allowed them to control trade throughout the rest of the archipelago.[6] Scott observes that while the port of Tondo had the monopoly on arriving Chinese merchant ships, it was Manila's fleet of trading vessels which in turn retailed them to settlements throughout the rest of the archipelago, so much so that Manyila's ships came to be known as "Chinese" (sinina).[6]

Redistribution of Chinese goods

Tondo and Maynila's shared trade relations with China make the Manila bay area one of the northernmost points on the route of the Silk Road.

The most lucrative of Tondo's economic activities involved the redistribution of Chinese goods, which would arrive in Manila bay through Tondo's port and be distributed throughout the rest of the archipelago, mostly through Maynila's extensive shipping activities.[88]

The Chinese migrations to Malaya and the Philippines shore began in the 7th century and reached their peak after 1644 owing to the Manchu conquest of China. These Chinese immigrants settled in Manila, Pasig included, and in the other ports, which were annually visited by their trade junks, they have cargoes of silk, tea, ceramics, and their precious jade stones.[89]

According to William Henry Scott (1982), when ships from China came to Manila bay, Lakandula would remove the sails and rudders of their ships until they paid him duties and anchorage fees, and then he would then buy up all their goods himself, paying half its value immediately and then paying the other half upon their return the following year. In the interim, these goods would be traded throughout the rest of the archipelago. The end result was that other locals were not able to buy anything from the Chinese directly, but from Tondo[90] and Maynila,[88] who made a tidy profit as a result.

Augustinian Fray Martin de Rada Legaspi says that the Tagalogs were "more traders than warriors",[90] and Scott notes in a later book (1994)[88] that Maynila's ships got their goods from Tondo and then dominated trade through the rest of the archipelago. People in other parts of the archipelago often referred to Maynila's boats as "Chinese" (Sina or Sinina) because they came bearing Chinese goods.

Trade with other Asian civilizations

Many of the barangay municipalities were, to a varying extent, under the de jure jurisprudence of one of several neighboring empires, among them the Malay Srivijaya, Javanese Majapahit, Po-ni, Malacca, Indian Chola, Champa, Burma and Khmer empires.[91][not in citation given]

Tondo also developed trading links with Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Indochina, China, Japan, India and Arabia.[citation needed] A thalassocracy had emerged based on international trade.[91][vague]

Agriculture

Bangkang Pinawa,[relevant? ] ancient Philippine mortar and pestle.

The people of Tondo engaged in agriculture,[6] making a living through farming, rice planting and aquaculture (especially in lowland areas).[according to whom?] A report[citation needed] during the time of Miguel López de Legazpi noted of the great abundance of rice, fowls, wine as well as great numbers of carabaos, deer, wild boar and goat husbandry in Luzon. In addition, there were also great quantities of cotton and colored clothes, wax, wine, honey and date palms produced by the native peoples, rice, cotton, swine, fowls, wax and honey abound.

Crop production

Rice was the staple food of the Tagalog and Kapampangan polities, and its ready availability in Luzon despite variations in annual rainfall was one of the reasons Legaspi wanted to locate his colonial headquarters on Manila bay.[6] Scott's study of early Tagalog lexicons revealed that the Tagalogs had words for at least 22 different varieties of rice.[6]

In most other places in the archipelago, rootcrops served as an alternate staple in seasons when rice was not readily available.[6] These were also available in Luzon, but they were desired more as vegetables, rather than as a staple.[6] Ubi, Tugi, Gabi and a local root crop which the Spanish called Kamoti (apparently not the same as the sweet potato, sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas) were farmed in swiddens, while "Laksa" and "Nami" grew wild.[6] Sweet potatoes (now called Camote) were later introduced by the Spanish.[6]

Millet was common enough that the Tagalogs had a word which meant "milletlike": "dawa-dawa".

Animal husbandry

Duck culture was also practiced by the Tagalogs, particularly those around Pateros and where Taguig City stands today.[relevant? ] This resembled the Chinese methods of artificial incubation of eggs and the knowledge of every phase of a duck's life. This tradition is carried on until modern times of making balut.[92]

Gold as a currency

The Piloncitos, a type of Gold nuggets with Baybayin Ma characters. Used as one of the early currency along with Gold rings.

Trade among the early Filipinos and with traders from the neighboring islands was conducted through Barter. The inconvenience of barter later led to the use of some objects as medium of exchange. Gold, which was plentiful in many parts of the islands, invariably found its way into these objects that included the Piloncitos, small bead-like gold nuggets/bits considered by the local numismatists as the earliest coin of ancient Filipinos, and gold barter rings.[93]

The Piloncitos a type of gold ingots are small, some are of the size of a corn kernel—and weigh from 0.09 to 2.65 grams of fine gold. Large Piloncitos weighing 2.65 grams approximate the weight of one mass. Piloncitos have been excavated from Mandaluyong, Bataan, the banks of the Pasig River, and Batangas.[19] That gold was mined and worked here is evidenced by many Spanish accounts, like one in 1586 that said:

“The people of this island (Luzon) are very skillful in their handling of gold. They weigh it with the greatest skill and delicacy that have ever been seen. The first thing they teach their children is the knowledge of gold and the weights with which they weigh it, for there is no other money among them.”[19]

Other than Piloncitos, the people of Tundun also used the Barter rings, which is gold ring-like ingots. These barter rings are bigger than doughnuts in size and are made of nearly pure gold.[94] Also, they are very similar to the first coins invented in the Kingdom of Lydia in present-day Turkey. Barter rings were circulated in the Philippines up to 16th century.[95]

Relations with contemporaneous polities

Relations with polities within the Philippine archipelago

Relations with the Maynila polity

By virtue of proximity, Tondo had a close and complex relationship with its neighbor-settlement, Maynila.[6] Tondo and Maynila shared a monopoly over the flow of Chinese tradeware throughout the rest of the archipelago,[6] with Tondo's port controlling the arrival of Chinese goods and Maynila retailing those goods to settlements throughout the rest of the archipelago.[6] Historical accounts specifically say that Maynila was also known as the "Kingdom of Luzon", but some scholars such as Potet[36] and Alfonso[96] suggest that this exonym may have referred to the larger area of Manila Bay, from Bataan and Pampanga to Cavite, which includes Tondo. Whatever the case, the two polities' shared alliance network[25] saw both the Rajahs of Mayila and the Lakans of Tondo exercising political influence (although not territorial control)[48][6] over the various settlements in what are now Bulacan and Pampanga.[48][6]

Notably, the 1521 account of "Prince" Ache,[97][6] who would later become Rajah Matanda,[31] cites a bitter territorial dispute between Maynila, then ruled by Ache's mother,[97][31] and Tondo, then ruled separately by Ache's cousin.[97][31] This conflict was enough to cause Ache to run away to his uncle, the Sultan of Brunei, in a bid to martial some military support as leverage against the Kingdom of Tondo.[97][98][6]

It's not clear what role Tondo played in the founding of Maynila.[26][6] The earliest date proposed for such a founding is the year 1258, as proposed by Mariano A. Henson in 1955[99] (later brought up by Majul in 1973),[100] and claims that a Majapahit settlement ruled by "Rajah Avirjirkaya" already existed in the Maynila area by then. According to Henson, this settlement was attacked by a Bruneian commander named Rajah Ahmad, who defeated Avirjirkaya and established Maynila as a "Muslim principality".[99] Similar stories, with different names and dates, suggest the same thing happening in 1369[101] and around the year 1500.[6] These dates all pre-date the references to the Luzones by the chroniclers of Portuguese Malacca,[26] but are later than the mention of Tondo in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription.[5]

Relations with Butas, Tambobong and Macabebe

Tondo's relations with its neighboring settlements to the north are less clear, but the anonymous 1571 account translated by Blair and Robertson notes that the "neighboring villiage" of "Butas" (now called Navotas) acted independently of Tondo in 1571,[48][6] and allied itself with the leader of Macabebe during the Battle of Bangkusay.[48][6][96] Other sources mention another independent villiage, Tambobong was furhter north of Navotas. This is generally believed to be the origin of the present day city of Malabon.

Relations with the Visayans

Tondo and Maynila are often portrayed as having adversarial relations with the polities of the Visayas, because of the disparaging comments of Rajah Sulayman towards the Visayan "pintados" during the earliest negotiations with Martin de Goiti in 1570.[48][6] Sulayman had boasted that the people of Maynila were "not like the Painted Visayans" and would not give up their freedoms as easily as the Visayans did.[48][6] Scott notes that at the very least, this meant that Sulayman had kept up-to-date with events happening in the Visayas,[22] probably arising from the trade relationships Tondo and Maynila had developed with polities throughout the archipelago.

Relations with polities outside the Philippine archipelago

Relations with the Medang Kingdom (c. 900)

The Dutch anthropologist and Hanunó'o script expert Antoon Postma has concluded that the Laguna Copperplate Inscription also mentions the places of Tondo (Tundun); Paila (Pailah), now an enclave of Barangay San Lorenzo, Norzagaray; Binuangan (Binwangan), now part of Obando; and Pulilan (Puliran); and Mdaŋ (the Javanese Kingdom of Medang), in present-day Indonesia.[50] Apparently, the Philippine Kingdom of Tondo and the Medang Kingdom of Indonesia were known allies and trading partners.

Relations with Siamese kingdoms (Thailand)

The Lucoes and Siam began its relation way-back in the 13th century in the context of Southeast Asian maritime trade. Archaeological records point not only to commercial and cultural ties but also a recognition of their political stature. Siam with its kingdoms and the Philippines with its rajahs. There were also ceramic wares from Sukhothai and Sawankhalok found in Luzon and Visayas region as evidence of early relations. Southeast Asian wares found in the Philippines from the 13th century to 16th century period were mostly from Siam.[102][103]

Relations with the Ming dynasty (c. 1373)

The next historical reference to Tondo can be found in the Chinese Ming Shilu Annals,[15] which record the arrival of an envoy from Luzon to the Ming Dynasty in 1373.[15] Her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo (Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū) were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings ().[2] This reference places Tondo into the larger context of Chinese trade with the aboriginals of the Philippine archipelago.

Theories such as Wilhelm Solheim's Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN) suggest that cultural links between what are now China and the nations of Southeast Asia, including what is now the Philippines, date back to the peopling of these lands.[104] But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippine aborigines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song dynasties.[105]

The rise of the Ming dynasty saw the arrival of the first Chinese settlers in the archipelago. They were well received and lived together in harmony with the existing local population — eventually intermarrying with them so that today, numerous Filipinos have Chinese blood in their veins.[105]

This connection was important enough that when the Ming Dynasty emperors enforced the Hai jin laws which closed China to maritime trade from 1371 to about 1567, trade with the Kingdom of Tondo was officially allowed to continue, masqueraded as a tribute system, through the seaport at Fuzhou.[106] Aside from this, a more extensive clandestine trade from Guangzhou and Quanzhou also brought in Chinese goods to Luzon.[107]

Luzon and Tondo thus became a center from which Chinese goods were traded all across Southeast Asia. Chinese trade was so strict that Luzon traders carrying these goods were considered "Chinese" by the people they encountered.[107]

This powerful presence in the trade of Chinese goods in 16th-century East Asia was also felt strongly by Japan. The Ming Empire treated Luzon traders more favorably than Japan by allowing them to trade with China once every two years.

Relations with Japan

A Japanese Red seal ship. Tokyo Naval Science Museum.
Statue of Luzon Sukezaemon at Sakai Citizens' Hall.

Japan was only allowed to trade once every 10 years. Japanese merchants often used piracy in order to obtain much sought after Chinese products such as silk and porcelain. Famous 16th-century Japanese merchants and tea connoisseurs like Shimai Soushitsu (島井宗室) and Kamiya Soutan (神屋宗湛) established branch offices on the island of Luzon. One famous Japanese merchant, Luzon Sukezaemon (呂宋助左衛門), went as far as to change his surname from Naya (納屋) to Luzon (呂宋).[108]

Relations between Japan and the kingdoms in the Philippines, date back to at least the Muromachi period of Japanese history, as Japanese merchants and traders had settled in Luzon at this time. Especially in the area of Dilao, a suburb of Manila, was a Nihonmachi of 3,000 Japanese around the year 1600. The term probably originated from the Tagalog term dilaw,[citation needed] meaning "yellow", which describes a colour. The Japanese had established quite early an enclave at Dilao where they numbered between 300 and 400 in 1593. In 1603, during the Sangley rebellion, they numbered 1,500, and 3,000 in 1606. In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of Japanese people traders also migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population.[109] pp. 52–3

Timeline of historical events

Earliest Austronesian migrations (c. 3,500 years ago)

There is some debate[56] about whether the Austronesians first came to the island of Luzon from continental Asia as proposed by Peter Bellwood and Robert Blust,[56] or from Maritime Southeast Asia as proposed by Wilhelm Solheim and William Meacham.[56] But whichever route these Austronesians first used to get to the Philippine archipelago, the general consensus among scholars[56] is that they settled on what is now the island of Luzon during the earliest stages of their migratory dispersal no later than about 3,500 years ago,[56] and later waves of migration spread from the Philippine archipelago to reach as far east as Easter Island,[110][111] and as far west as Madagascar.[112][113]

Theories and legends regarding the establishment of Manila (c. mid-13th centuryc. early 16th century)

Establishment through defeat of Rajah Avirjirkaya by Rajah Ahmad of Brunei (c. 1258)

According to Mariano A. Henson's genealogical research[99] (later brought up by Majul in 1973,[100] and by Santiago in 1990)[114] a settlement in the Maynila area already existed by the year 1258. This settlement was ruled by "Rajah Avirjirkaya" whom Henson described as a "Majapahit Suzerain".

According to Henson, this settlement was attacked by a Bruneian commander named Rajah Ahmad, who defeated Avirjirkaya and established Maynila as a "Muslim principality".[99]

The Bruneian Empire and the establishment of Selurong by Sultan Bolkiah (c. 1500)

By the end of 15th century, the Bruneian Empire controlled the western shores of the Philippines.

According to other Bruneian oral traditions,[6] a city with the Malay name of Selurong,[115] which would later become the city of Maynila)[115] was formed around the year 1500.[6]

Scott (1994) acknowledges those traditions, noting that "according to Bruneian folk history",[6](p191) [ ] "Manila was probably founded as a Bornean trading colony about 1500, with a royal prince marrying into the local ruling family."[6](p191) French linguist Jean-Paul Potet[36](p122) notes, however, that "According to some, Luzon and/Manila would have been called Seludong or Selurong by the Malays of Brunei before the Spanish conquest (Cebu 1565, Manila 1571)."[36](p122) However, Potet also points out that "there is no text to support this claim. Conversely, Borneo has a mountain site called Seludong."[36](p122)

According to yet other Bruneian oral traditions, the Sultanate of Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah attacked the kingdom of Tondo, and established Selurong[116] on the opposite bank of Pasig River. The traditional Rajahs of Tondo, like Lakandula, retained their titles and property but the real political power came to reside in the House of Soliman, the Rajahs of Maynila.[117]

Incorporation into the Bruneian Empire (1500)

Tondo became so prosperous that around the year 1500, the Bruneian Empire, under Sultan Bolkiah, merged it by a royal marriage of Gat Lontok, who later became Rajah of Namayan, and Dayang Kalangitan[citation needed] to establish a city with the Malay name of Selurong (later to become the city of Manila)[6][118] on the opposite bank of Pasig River.

The traditional rulers of Tondo, like Lakandula, retained their titles and property upon embracing Islam but the real political power transferred to the master trader House of Sulayman, the Rajahs of Maynila.[114]

Probable presence in Portuguese Malacca as the Luções of Luçon (1511 – 1540s)

The Portuguese first established a presence in Maritime Southeast Asia with their capture of Malacca in 1511,[119] and their contacts with the seafarers they described as Luções (lit. people from "lusong", the area now known as Manila Bay)[6] became the first European accounts of the Tagalog people,[120] as Anthony Reid recounts:

The first European reports on the Tagalogs classify them as “Luzons”, a nominally Muslim commercial people trading out of Manila, and “almost one people” with the Malays of Brunei.[120]

Portuguese and Spanish accounts from the early[97][121] to mid[6] 1500s state that the Maynila polity was the same as the "kingdom"[Notes 5] that had been referred to as the "Kingdom of Luzon" (Portuguese: Luçon, locally called "Lusong"), and whose residents had been called "Luções".[97][121][6][31][96]

However, Kapampangan scholars such as Ian Christopher Alfonso[96] add that it's also possible that while the Portuguese and Spanish chroniclers specifically equated “Luçon” with Rajah Matanda's Maynila polity, the description may have been expansive enough to describe other polities in the Manila bay area, including the Kapampangans of Hagonoy and Macabebe.[96]

Descriptions of culture, social organization and trade activities

Pires noted that they (The Luções or people from Luzon) were "mostly heathen" and were not much esteemed in Malacca at the time he was there, although he also noted that they were strong, industrious, given to useful pursuits. Pires' exploration led him to discover that in their own country, the Luções had "foodstuffs, wax, honey, inferior grade gold", had no king, and were governed instead by a group of elders. They traded with tribes from Borneo and Indonesia and Filipino historians note that the language of the Luções was one of the 80 different languages spoken in Malacca.[122] When Magellan's ship arrived in the Philippines and East Timor, Pigafetta noted that there were Luções there collecting sandalwood.[91]

Naval and military engagements

When the Portuguese arrived in Southeast Asia in the early 1500s, they witnessed the Lucoes or the Lusung's active involvement in the political and economic affairs of those who sought to take control of the economically strategic highway of the Strait of Malacca. For instance, the former sultan of Malacca decided to retake his city from the Portuguese with a fleet of ships from Lusung in 1525.[123]

Pinto noted that there were a number of them in the Islamic fleets that went to battle with the Portuguese in the Philippines during the 16th century. The Sultan of Aceh gave one of them (Sapetu Diraja) the task of holding Aru (northeast Sumatra) in 1540. Pinto also says one was named leader of the Malays remaining in the Moluccas Islands after the Portuguese conquest in 1511.[124] Pigafetta notes that one of them was in command of the Brunei fleet in 1521.[91]

However, the Luções did not only fight on the side of the Muslims. Pinto says they were also apparently among the natives of the Philippines who fought the Muslims in 1538.[124]

Scholars have thus suggested that they could be mercenaries valued by all sides.[120]

Luções as sailors

The Luções were also pioneer seafarers and it is recorded that the Portuguese were not only witnesses but also direct beneficiaries of Luçon's involvement. Many Luções, as the Portuguese called the people of Luçon, chose Malacca as their base of operations because of its strategic importance. When the Portuguese finally took Malacca in 1512, the resident Luções held important government posts in the former sultanate. They were also large-scale exporters and ship owners that regularly sent junks to China, Brunei, Sumatra, Siam and Sunda. One Luçon official by the name of Surya Diraja annually sent 175 tons of pepper to China and had to pay the Portuguese 9000 cruzados in gold to retain his plantation. His ships became part of the first Portuguese fleet that paid an official visit to the Chinese empire in 1517.[125]

The Portuguese were soon relying on the Luçon bureaucrats for the administration of Malacca and on Luçon ships and pilots for their military and commercial ventures in East Asia.

It was through the Luções who regularly sent ships to China that the Portuguese discovered the ports of Canton in 1514. And it was on Luçon ships that the Portuguese were able to send their first diplomatic mission to China 1517. The Portuguese had the Luções to thank for when they finally established their base at Macao in the mid-1500s.[126]

The Luções were also instrumental in guiding Portuguese ships to discover Japan. The Western world first heard of Japan through the Portuguese. But it was through the Luções that the Portuguese had their first encounter with the Japanese. The Portuguese king commissioned his subjects to get good pilots that could guide them beyond the seas of China and Malacca. In 1540, the Portuguese king's factor in Brunei, Brás Baião, recommended to his king the employment of Lusung pilots because of their reputation as "discoverers."[127] Thus it was through Lusung navigators that Portuguese ships found their way to Japan in 1543. In 1547, Jesuit missionary and Catholic saint Francis Xavier encountered his first Japanese convert from Satsuma disembarking from a Lusung ship in Malacca.

Territorial conflicts with Maynila (before 1521)

According to the account of Rajah Matanda as recalled by Magellan expedition members Gines de Mafra, Rodrigo de Aganduru Moriz, and expedition scribe Antonio Pigafetta,[6] Maynila had a territorial conflict Tondo in the years before 1521.

At the time, Rajah Matanda's mother (whose name was not mentioned in the accounts) served as the paramount ruler of the Maynila polity, taking over from Rajah Matanda's father (also unnamed in the accounts),[6] who had died when Rajah Matanda was still very young.[97] Rajah Matanda, then simply known as the "Young Prince" Ache,[31] was raised alongside his cousin,[31] who was ruler of Tondo[97] - presumed by some[31] to be a young Bunao Lakandula, although not specifically named in the accounts.[6]

During this time, Ache realized that his cousin, who was ruler of the Tondo polity, was "slyly"[97] taking advantage of Ache's mother by taking over territory belonging to Maynila.[97] When Ache asked his mother for permission to address the matter, his mother refused, encouraging the young prince to keep his peace instead.[97] Prince Ache could not accept this and thus left Maynila with some of his father's trusted men, to go to his "grandfather", the Sultan of Brunei, to ask for assistance. The Sultan responded by giving Ache a position as commander of his naval force.[97]

In 1521, Prince Ache was coming fresh from a military victory at the helm of the Bruneian navy and was supposedly on his way back to Maynila with the intent of confronting his cousin when he came upon and attacked the remnants of the Magellan expedition, then under the command of Sebastian Elcano. Some historians[31][98][6] suggest that Ache's decision to attack must have been influenced by a desire to expand his fleet even further as he made his way back to Lusong and Maynila,[31] where he could use the size of his fleet as leverage against his cousin, the ruler of Tondo.[31]

Spanish contact and decline (1570 – after 1571)

Spanish colonizers from Mexico first came to the Manila Bay area and its settlements in June 1570, while Miguel López de Legazpi was searching for a suitable place to establish a capital for the new territory. Having heard from the natives of a prosperous Moro settlement on the island of Luzon, López de Legazpi had sent Martín de Goiti to investigate. When Maynila's ruler, Rajah Matanda, refused to submit to Spanish sovereignty, de Goiti attacked. He eventually defeated Rajah Matanda, claimed Maynila in the name of the King of Spain, then returned to report his success to López de Legazpi, who was then based on the island of Panay.

López de Legazpi himself returned to take the settlement on 19 June 1571. When the Spanish forces approached, the natives burned Maynila down and fled to Tondo and other neighboring towns.

López de Legazpi began constructing a fort on the ashes of Maynila and made overtures of friendship to Lakandula of Tondo, who accepted. The defeated Matanda refused to submit to the Spaniards, but failed to get the support of Lakandula or of the Kapampangan and Pangasinan settlements to the north. When Rajah Sulayman and a force of Muslim warriors attacked the Spaniards in the Battle of Bankusay Channel, he was finally defeated and killed.

This defeat marked the end of rebellion against the Spanish among the Pasig river settlements, and Lakandula's Tondo surrendered its sovereignty, submitting to the authority of the new Spanish capital, Manila.[128]

Battle of Bankusay Channel (1571)

June 3, 1571 marked the last resistance by locals to the occupation and colonization by the Spanish Empire of Manila in the Battle of Bankusay Channel. Tarik Sulayman, the chief of Macabebes, refused to ally with the Spanish and decided to mount an attack at the Bankusay Channel on Spanish forces, led by Miguel López de Legazpi. Sulayman's forces were defeated, and he was killed. The Spanish victory in Bankusay and Legaspi's alliance with Lakandula of the Kingdom of Tondo, enabled the Spaniards to establish themselves throughout the city and its neighboring towns.[129]

Tondo Conspiracy (1587–1588)

The Conspiracy of the Maharlikas, also referred to as the Revolt of the Lakans from 1587–1588 was a plot against Spanish colonial rule by the Tagalog and Kapampangan noblemen, or Datus, of Manila and some towns of Bulacan and Pampanga, in the Philippines. They were the indigenous rulers of their area or an area yet upon submission to the might of the Spanish was relegated as mere collector of tributes or at best Encomenderos that need to report to a Spanish Governor. It was led by Agustín de Legazpi, the son of a Maginoo of Tondo (one of the chieftains of Tondo), born of a Spanish mother given a Hispanized name to appease the colonizers, grandson of conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, nephew of Lakan Dula, and his first cousin, Martin Pangan. The datus swore to rise up in arms. The uprising failed when they were betrayed to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes.[4] The mastermind of the plot was Don Agustín de Legazpi; the mestizo grandson of conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, nephew of Lakan Dula, a relative of Rajah Matanda. Being a Moro, he was the son-in-law of Sultan Bolkieh of Brunei, whose first cousin was Martín Panga, the gobernadorcillo of Tondo.

Besides the two, the other leaders were Magat Salamat, son of Lakan Dula and the crown prince of Tondo; Juan Banal, another prince of Tondo and Salamat’s brother-in-law; Geronimo Basi and Gabriel Tuambacar, brothers of Agustín de Legazpi; Pedro Balingit, the Lord of Pandakan; Felipe Salonga, the Lord of Polo; Dionisio Capolo (Kapulong), the Lord of Kandaba and brother of Felipe Salonga; Juan Basi, the Lord of Tagig; Esteban Taes (also Tasi), the Lord of Bulakan; Felipe Salalila, the Lord of Misil; Agustín Manuguit, son of Felipe Salalila; Luis Amanicaloa, another prince of Tondo; Felipe Amarlangagui, the commander-and-chief of Katanghalan; Omaghicon, the Minister of Nabotas, and Pitongatan (Pitong Gatang), another prince of Tondo and two governors from Malolos and Guiguinto.[4]

Notable rulers and nobles of Tondo

Historical rulers of Tondo

A number of rulers of Tondo are specifically identified in historical documents, which include:

  • the epistolary firsthand accounts of the members of the Magellan and Legaspi expeditions, referred to in Spanish as "relaciones";[6]
  • various notarized genealogical records kept by the early Spanish colonial government,[6] mostly in the form of last wills and testaments of descendants of said rulers;[31] and,
  • in the case of Jayadewa, specific mention in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription.[5]
Title Name Specifics Dates Primary source(s) Academic reception of primary source(s)
Hwan Nayaka Tuan[130] Hwan Nāyaka Jayadeva
Jayadewa
Senapati[49] (Admiral), known only in the LCI as the king who gave the pardon to Lord Namwaran and his wife Dayang Angkatan and their daughter named Buka for their excessive debts in c. 900 CE. c. 900 CE[5] Identified in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription as the ruler of Tondo in c. 900 CE Idenification as ruler of Tondo in c. 900 CE proposed by Antoon Postma[5] and generally accepted by Philippine historiographers[16]
Sultan Bolkiah[131][6] Sultan Bolkiah, according to Brunei folk history, is the "Nakhoda Ragam" or the "Singing Captain", the reputed conqueror of the Philippines.[6] The tradition even names the cannon with which he was said to have taken Manila - "Si Gantar Alam", translated as the "Earth-shaking Thunderer".[6] He established an outpost in the center of the area of Manila after the rulers of Tondo lost in the Battle of Manila (1500). Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei is the grandfather of Ache, the old rajah, also known as Ladyang Matanda or Rajah Matanda.[6] c. 1500–1515?[verification needed] - -
Rajah Salalila[citation needed] Rajah Salalila (sometimes referred to as Rajah Sulayman I[citation needed]), the Rajah of Maynila and Pampanga[citation needed]
(A puppet[dubious ] Rajah installed by Sultan Bolkiah[citation needed])
1515[not in citation given]–1558[not in citation given] Identified as "Salalila"[31] in Spanish genealogical documents Veracity of genealogical documents subject to scholarly peer review.[31][16]

Key scholarly works referencing Salalila include Henson (1955),[99] Majul (1973),[100] Luciano PR Santiago (1990),[114] W.H. Scott (1994),[6] and Dery (2001).[31]

Rajah Ache (Rajah Matanda) Rajah Matanda or Rajah Sulayman II or Rajah Ache 1558[not in citation given]– (d.) August 1572[6] Multiple firsthand accounts from the Magellan (1521) and Legaspi Expeditions (late 1560s to early 1570s);[6] Spanish genealogical documents[31] Firsthand accounts generally accepted by Philippine historiographers, with corrections for hispanocentric bias subject to scholarly peer review;[6][16] veracity of genealogical documents subject to scholarly peer review.[16]
Lakan or Lakandula Bunao (Lakan Dula) Bunao Lakandula, Lakan of Tondo and Sabag, he is the last ruler which possess the title of "Lakan". 1558[not in citation given]–1571[not in citation given] Multiple firsthand accounts from the Legaspi Expedition (early 1570s); Spanish genealogical documents[31] Firsthand accounts generally accepted by Philippine historiographers, with corrections for hispanocentric bias subject to scholarly peer review;[6][16] veracity of genealogical documents subject to scholarly peer review.[31][16]
Rajah Sulayman Rajah Sulayman, Rajah of Tondo and Maynila 1571[not in citation given]–1575 Multiple accounts from the Legaspi Expedition (early 1570s); Spanish genealogical documents[31] Firsthand accounts generally accepted by Philippine historiographers, with corrections for hispanocentric bias subject to scholarly peer review;[6][16] veracity of genealogical documents subject to scholarly peer review.[31][16]
Magat Magat Salamat The last ruler of Tondo dynasty after the monarchy was dissolved by the Spanish authorities due to the fact that he led the Tondo conspiracy. 1575–1589 Firsthand accounts of the Legaspi Expedition (mid-1570s); Spanish genealogical documents[31] Firsthand accounts generally accepted by Philippine historiographers, with corrections for hispanocentric bias subject to scholarly peer review;[6][16] veracity of genealogical documents subject to scholarly peer review.[31][16]

Legendary rulers

A number of rulers of Tondo are known only through oral histories, which in turn have been recorded by various documentary sources, ranging from historical documents describing oral histories, to contemporary descriptions of modern (post-colonial/national-era) oral accounts. These include:

  • orally transmitted genealogical traditions, such as the Batu Tarsila, which have since been recorded and cited by scholarly accounts;
  • legends and folk traditions documented by anthropologists, local government units, the National Historical Institute of the Philippines, and other official sources; and
  • recently published genealogical accounts based on contemporary research.

Scholarly acceptance of the details recounted in these accounts vary from case to case, and are subject to scholarly peer review.

Title Name Specifics From Primary sources Academic notes on primary sources
Ama-ron
or Amaron
Amaron is like most of the male Filipino mythological heroes, he is described as an attractive well-built man who exemplifies great strength. Ama-ron is unique among other Filipino legends[citation needed] due to the lack of having a story on how he was born which was common with Filipino epic heroes. Uncertain, possibly during Iron Age.[132][verification needed] [citation needed] [citation needed]
Gat Pangil
[relevant? ]
Gat Pangil was a chieftain in the area now known as Laguna province, He is mentioned in the origin legends of Bay, Laguna, Pangil, Laguna, Pakil, Laguna and Mauban, Quezon, all of which are thought to have once been under his domain.[55] Uncertain, possibly during Iron Age.[not in citation given] Oral histories of Laguna, specifically the towns of Bay, Pakil, and Pangil.[133] Oral history mentioning Pangil is extensively referenced by local government sources and by popular accounts such as those of Feleo and Sheniak (2001).[133] However, these references specifically mention only the localities in the Laguna Lake Region,[6][133] and have no references to Manila.[6][133]

The independence of Bay and of the Laguna Lake Region from any other kingdoms, polities, or chiefdoms is widely asserted by scholars including Odal-Devora,[3] Scott,[6] L.PR Santiago,[114] Dery,[31] and Jocano.[11]

Rajah Avirjirkaya According to Henson (1955),[99] he was a "Majapahit Suzerain" who ruled Maynila[99] before he was defeated in 1258[99] by a Bruneian naval commander named Rajah Ahmad,[99] who then established Manila as a Muslim principality.[99] before 1258[100] Genealogy proposed by Mariano A. Henson in 1955[99] Cited in César Adib Majul's 1973 book "Muslims in the Philippines",[100] published by the UP Asian Center and in turn referenced widely in semitechnical and popular texts.
The veracity of "quasi-historical" (meaning not physically original)[26] genealogical documents remains subject to scholarly peer review.[31][16]
Rajah Alon Rajah Alon was a king of Tondo in what is now Manila. The son of Lakan Timamanukum, he expanded his dominion southwards by conquering neighbouring territories such as Kumintang (present-day Batangas) and the Bicolandia. He was succeeded by his grandson, Rajah Gambang.[134] c. 1200s

Present day oral histories documented in a disputed internet source[better source needed]

"Princess" or "Lady"
(term used in oral tradition, as documented by Odal-Devora)[3]
Sasaban In oral tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, a "lady of Namayan" who went to the Madjapahit court to marry Emperor Soledan, eventually giving birth to Balagtas, who then returned to Namayan/Pasig in 1300.[3](p51) prior to 1300[3] Oral Tradition cited by Leonardo Vivicencio and Nick Joaquin[3] Cited in non-academic work by Nick Joaquin, then later mentioned in Odal-Devora, 2000.[3]
"Princess" or "Lady"
(term used in oral tradition, as documented by Odal-Devora)[3]
Panginoan In Batangueño Folk Tradition as cited by Odal-Devora,[3] the daughter of Kalangitan and Lontok who were rulers of Pasig, who eventually maried Balagtas, King of Balayan and Taal.(p51)

In Kapampangan[3] Folk Tradition as cited by Odal-Devora,[3] who eventually married Bagtas, the "grandson of Kalangitan."(pp47,51)

In oral tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, "Princess Panginoan of Pasig" who was married by Balagtas, the son of Emperor Soledan of Madjapahit in 1300 in an effort consolidate rule of Namayan.[3](pp47,51)
c. 1300[3] Batangueño folk tradition, Kapampangan folk tradition, Oral tradition cited by Vivencio and Joaquin[3] Mentioned in Odal-Devora, 2000;[3] also mentioned in non-academic work by Nick Joaquin[3]
Rajah Gambang[135][verification needed] Rajah Gambang, another ruler who used the title Senapati[citation needed] or Admiral. 1390?–1417?[verification needed] [citation needed] [citation needed]
Suko[136][verification needed] Lakan Suko (or also known as Sukwu (朔霧) means "northern mist", according to the Dongxi Yanggao (東西洋考) Abdicated.)[citation needed] 1417?–1430?[verification needed] [citation needed] [citation needed]
Rajah Lontok Rajah Lontok was the husband and co-regent of Dayang Kalangitan. During his reign, Tondo had many achievements and became more powerful; his reign also saw the enlargement of the state's territory.[3] 1430–1450?[not in citation given] Kapampangan folk tradition[3] Kapampangan folk tradition[3]
Dayang or Sultana Kalangitan[3] Legendary "Lady of the Pasig"[3] who ruled Namayan and later became the grandmother of the Kapampangan ruler known as "Prinsipe Balagtas"[3] Legendary antiquity / c. 1450–1515[not in citation given] Kapampangan folk tradition[3] Kapampangan folk tradition[3]

Historically Notable nobles associated with Tondo

Title Name Specifics Dates Primary sources Academic notes on primary sources
Hwan (possibly "Honourable" or "Lord")[5] Namwaran Probable[5] person-name mentioned in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, as the ancestor of Namwaran and Bukah and original debtor of the transaction in question.[5] The title "Hwan" is translated "Honourable" or "Lord" in different lines of the LCI, depending on context. c. 900 AD Translation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription by Antoon Postma
Dayang[5] Angkatan Probable[5] person-name mentioned in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, as the descendant (daughter) of Namwaran. Related through Namwaran to Bukah.[5] c. 900 AD Translation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription by Antoon Postma
Bukah Probable[5] person-name mentioned in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, as the descendant of Namwaran related to the Lady (Dayang) Angkatan[5] c. 900 AD Translation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription by Antoon Postma
Kasumuran[5]
(uncertain)
Possible[5] person-name mentioned in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. The word may either be a reference to a Lord Minister or a reference to an ancient name of the Southeast coast region of Laguna Lake c. 900 AD Translation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription by Antoon Postma Identified by Postma as possibly being either a place-name or a person-name.[5] Possible reference the Southeast coast region of Laguna Lake proposed by Tiongson[51][52]
Gat[5] Bishruta[5] Probable[5] person-name mentioned in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, as the representative of the Lord Minister of "Binwagan"[5] c. 900 AD Translation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription by Antoon Postma Postma's conclusions about the Bulacan location of Binwagan have been questioned by local Laguna historian Tiongson (2006)[51][52]
Ganashakti[5] Probable[5] person-name mentioned in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, as the representative of Jayadewa, Lord Minister of "Pailah"[5] c. 900 AD Translation of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription by Antoon Postma Postma's conclusions about the Bulacan location of Pailah have been questioned by local Laguna historian Tiongson (2006)[51][52]
Luis Amanicaloa[4] Participant in the 1588 "Conspiracy of the Maharlikas." Member of the Maginoo class from Tondo. c. 1588
Felipe Amarlangagui[4] Participant in the 1588 "Conspiracy of the Maharlikas." Member of the Maginoo class from Katanghalan. c. 1588
Lord Balingit[4] Participant in the 1588 "Conspiracy of the Maharlikas." The Datu of Pandakan c. 1588
Pitongatan (Pitong-gatang) [4] Participant in the 1588 "Conspiracy of the Maharlikas." Member of the Maginoo class from Tondo. c. 1588
Kapulong[4] Participant in the 1588 "Conspiracy of the Maharlikas." Member of the Maginoo class from Candaba, Pampanga. c. 1588
Juan Basi[4] Participant in the 1588 "Conspiracy of the Maharlikas." The Datu of Tagig (Taguig) c. 1588
Esteban Taes (also known as Ginoong Tasi)[4] Participant in the 1588 "Conspiracy of the Maharlikas." A Datu from Bulacan. c. 1588

Notable sources

Notable primary sources

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (c. 900 CE)

The first reference to Tondo occurs in the Philippines' oldest historical record — the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI). This legal document was written in Kawi, and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).

The first part of the document says that:

On this occasion, Lady Angkatan, and her brother whose name is Bukah, the children of the Honourable Namwaran, were awarded a document of complete pardon from the King of Tundun, represented by the Lord Minister of Pailah, Jayadewa.

The document was a sort of receipt that acknowledged that the man named Namwaran had been cleared of his debt to the King of Tundun, which in today's measure would be about 926.4 grams of gold.[5][49]

The article mentioned that other places in the Philippines and their Rulers: Pailah (Lord Minister Jayadewa), Puliran Kasumuran (Lord Minister), Binwangan (unnamed). It has been suggested that Pailah, Puliran Kasumuran, and Binwangan are the towns of Paila, Pulilan, and Binwangan in Bulacan, but it has also been suggested that Pailah refers to the town of Pila, Laguna. More recent linguistic research of the Old Malay grammar of the document suggests the term Puliran Kasumuran refers to the large lake now known as Laguna de Ba'y (Puliran),[citation needed] citing the root of Kasumuran, *sumur as Old Malay for well, spring or freshwater source. Hence ka-sumur-an defines a water-source (in this case the freshwater lake of Puliran itself).[citation needed] While the document does not describe the exact relationship of the King of Tundun with these other rulers, it at least suggests that he was of higher rank.[137][better source needed]

Ming Dynasty court records (c. 1300s)

The next historical reference to Ancient Tondo can be found in the Ming Shilu Annals (明实录]),[15] which record the arrival of an envoy from Luzon to the Ming Dynasty (大明朝) in 1373.[15] Her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo (Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū) were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings ().[2] This reference places Tondo into the larger context of Chinese trade with the aboriginals[contentious label] of the Philippine archipelago.

Theories such as Wilhelm Solheim's Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN) suggest that cultural links between what are now China and the nations of Southeast Asia, including what is now the Philippines, date back to the peopling of these lands.[104] But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippine aborigines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song dynasties.[105][138]

Firsthand Spanish accounts (relaciones) (1521 – late 1500s)

Events that took place in the Pasig river delta in the 1500s are documented in some of the firsthand epistolary accounts ("relaciones") written by the Spanish.[31][6]

Most of these describe events that took place after 1571–72, when forces under the command of Martín de Goiti, and later Miguel de Legazpi himself, arrived in Manila Bay. These are described in the numerous accounts of the Legazpi expedition, including those by the expedition's designated notary Hernando de Riquel, by Legazpi's successor Guido de Lavezaris, and by Legazpi himself.[6]

However, there are also some references to Maynila, Luzon, and Tondo[6] in the accounts of the Magellan expedition in 1521, which, under the command of Sebastian Elcano, had captured a commander of naval forces for the Sultan of Brunei, whom scholars[6][31] now identify as Prince Ache, who would later become Rajah Matanda.[6][31] These events, and the details Ache's interrogation,[6] were recorded in accounts of Magellan and Elcano's men, including expedition members Rodrigo de Aganduru Moriz,[97] Gines de Mafra, and the expedition's scribe Antonio Pigafetta.[121]

Many of these relaciones were later published in compilations in Spain,[6] and some were eventually translated and compiled into the multi-volume collection "The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898" by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson.[6]

Early Tagalog lexicons (late 1500s – early 1600s)

In addition to the extensive descriptions contained in the firsthand accounts of the Spanish expeditions, much[6] of what is now known about precolonial Tagalog culture, religion, and language are derived from early Tagalog dictionaries and grammar books, such as Fray San Buenaventura's 1613 "Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala"[61] and Fray Francisco Blancas de San José's 1610 "Arte de la lengua tagala." Scott notes that while the relaciones spoke much about the Tagalogs' religion because it was the concern of the Spanish missionaries, and of their political and martial organization because it was the concern of the Spanish bureaucrats,[6] these dictionaries and grammar books are rich sources of information regarding the Tagalogs' material and ephemeral culture.[6]

Notable Genealogical sources

Historical documents containing genealogical information regarding the rulers of Tondo during and immediately after the arrival of the Spanish fleet in the early 1570s mostly consist of notarized Spanish documents[31] executed by the direct descendants of rulers such as (Bunao) Lakan Dula of Tondo; Rajah Matanda (Ache) and Rajah Sulayman of Maynila; and Rajah Calamayin of Namayan.[31] In addition to firsthand accounts of the executors' immediate descendants and relatives, some (although not all) of these genealogical documents include information from family oral traditions, connecting the document's subjects to local legendary figures.[31] Several of these notarized Spanish documents are kept by the National Archives and are labeled the "Lakandula documents."[31]

Scott, in his seminal 1984 work "Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History", identifies a number of "quasi-historical" genealogical sources, which are not physically historical, but which contain genealogical information which claims to date back to early historic times.[26] These include the Sulu and Maguindanao Tarsilas, and the Batu Tarsila of Brunei.[26]

Historical theories associated with Ancient Tondo

Lakandula as a title

While most historians think of Lakan Dula as a specific person, with Lakan meaning Lord, King or Paramount Ruler and Dula being a proper name, one theory suggests that Lakandula is a hereditary title for the Monarchs of the Kingdom of Tondo.[139]

The heirs of Lakan Banao Dula

In 1587, Magat Salamat, one of the children of Lakan Dula, and with his Spanish name Augustin de Legazpi, Lakan Dula's nephew, and the lords of the neighboring areas of Tondo, Pandakan, Marikina, Kandaba, Nabotas and Bulakan were martryed for secretly conspiring to overthrow the Spanish colonizers. Stories were told that Magat Salamat's descendants settled in Hagonoy, Bulacan and many of his descendants spread from this area.[140]

David Dula y Goiti, a grandson of Lakan Dula with a Spanish mother escaped the persecution of the descendants of Lakan Dula by settling in Isla de Batag, Northern Samar and settled in the place now called Candawid (Kan David). Due to hatred for the Spaniards, he dropped the Goiti in his surname and adopted a new name David Dulay. He was eventually caught by the Guardia Civil based in Palapag and was executed together with seven followers. They were charged with planning to attack the Spanish detachment.[140]

Heirs

According to historians from National Archives of the Philippines, the main line of heirs of the Tondo monarchs are the direct family lines of Salonga and Magsaysay. Among these are international singer and theatre actress Lea Salonga and columnist Ramon Magsaysay III.

See also

Additional reading

Bolkiah Era

  • "National Day of Brunei Darussalam (Editorial)", Manila Bulletin, February 23, 2006, archived from the original on February 17, 2009 
  • Laput, Ernesto. "The first invader was a neighbor: Ang Unang Conquistador". Pinas: Munting Kasaysayan ng Pira-pirasong Bayan. elaput.com. Retrieved February 5, 2008. 

Spanish Era

  • Alabastro, Tony (April 29, 2002). "Soul of the Walled City (Brief History of Intramuros)". Archived from the original on September 6, 2006. Retrieved 5 February 2008. 
  • Flores, Wilson Lee (February 22, 2005), "Proud to be a Tondo Boy", The Philippine Star 
  • Joaquin, Nick (1983). The Aquinos of Tarlac: An Essay on History as Three Generations. Manila, Philippines: Solar Publishing Corporation. 

Notes

  1. ^ Earliest historical reference.
  2. ^ Participation as "Tondo" not explicitly mentioned in oral history
  3. ^ Participation as "Tondo" not explicitly mentioned in oral history; actual location of battle is disputed
  4. ^ Specifically meaning their "following", or group of loyal supporters
  5. ^ Scott (1994) notes that Spanish chroniclers continued to use the terms "king" and "kingdom" to describe the polities of Tondo and Maynila until late 1571, when Martin de Goiti's first forays into Bulacan and Pampanga clarified to the Spanish that the alliances of the Tondo and Maynila polities with the Kapampangan polities did not include territorial claim or absolute command. San Buenaventura (1613, as cited by Junker, 1990 and Scott, 1994) later noted that Tagalogs only applied the term Hari (King) to foreign monarchs, rather than their own leaders.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Pre-colonial Manila". Malacañang Presidential Museum and Library. Malacañang Presidential Museum and Library Araw ng Maynila Briefers. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. 23 June 2015. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Volume 5 of 東西洋考 (A study of the Eastern and Western Oceans) mentions that Luzon first sent tribute to Yongle Emperor in 1406.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Odal-Devora, Grace (2000). The River Dwellers, in Book Pasig : The River of Life (Edited by Reynaldo Gamboa Alejandro and Alfred A. Yuson). Unilever Philippines. pp. 43–66. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tomas L., Magat Salamat, Archived from the original on October 27, 2009, retrieved 2008-07-14 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Postma, Antoon (June 27, 2008). "The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary". Philippine Studies. Ateneo de Manila University. 40 (2): 182–203. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 971-550-135-4. 
  7. ^ a b (2010-05-07). "Laguna Copperplate Inscription". All Philippines. Retrieved on 2011-11-17.
  8. ^ "The Indian in the Filipino - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos". Globalnation.inquirer.net. Archived from the original on 2015-06-21. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Maggay, Melba Padilla (1999). Filipino Religious Consciousness. Quezon City: Institute for Studies in Asian Church and Culture. ISBN 971-8743-07-3.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Maggay1999" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Osborne, Milton (2004). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (Ninth Edition ed.). Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-448-5.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Osborne2004" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Osborne2004" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Jocano, F. Landa (2001). Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage. Quezon City: Punlad Research House, Inc. ISBN 971-622-006-5. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Demetrio, Francisco R.; Cordero-Fernando, Gilda; Nakpil-Zialcita, Roberto B.; Feleo, Fernando (1991). The Soul Book: Introduction to Philippine Pagan Religion. GCF Books, Quezon City. ASIN B007FR4S8G. 
  13. ^ "Buddhism in Philippines, Guide to Philippines Buddhism, Introduction to Philippines Buddhism, Philippines Buddhism Travel". 
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Coordinates: 14°37′38″N 120°58′17″E / 14.62722°N 120.97139°E / 14.62722; 120.97139

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