Kingdom of Sarawak

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kingdom of Sarawak
Independent Kingdom (until 1888)
Protectorate of the United Kingdom
1841–1941
1945–1946
Motto
Latin: Dum Spiro Spero[1][2]
(While I breathe, I hope)[2]
Anthem
Gone Forth Beyond the Sea
Kingdom of Sarawak in the 1920s.
Capital Kuching
Languages English, Iban, Melanau, Bidayuh, Sarawak Malay, Chinese etc.
Government Absolute monarchy,[3][4] Protectorate
White Rajahs
 •  1841–1868 James Brooke (first)
 •  1917–1946 Charles Vyner Brooke (last)
Historical era New Imperialism
 •  Established 24 September 1841
 •  Protectorate 14 June 1888
 •  Japanese invasion 16 December 1941
 •  Allied liberation 10 June 1945
 •  Ceded to the Crown colony 1 July 1946
Area
 •  1945 124,450 km2 (48,050 sq mi)
Population
 •  1841 est. 8,000 
 •  1848 est. 150,000 
 •  1893 est. 300,000 
 •  1933 est. 475,000 
 •  1945 est. 600,000 
     Density 5/km2 (12/sq mi)
Currency Sarawak dollar
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Bruneian Empire
Sultanate of Sarawak
Japanese occupation of British Borneo
British Military Administration (Borneo)
Crown Colony of Sarawak
Today part of  Malaysia

The Kingdom of Sarawak (also known as the State of Sarawak)[5] was a British protectorate located in the northwestern part of the island of Borneo. It was established as an independent kingdom from a series of land concessions acquired by an Englishman, James Brooke, from the Sultanate of Brunei. The kingdom received recognition as an independent state from the United States in 1850, and from the United Kingdom in 1864.

Following recognition, Brooke expanded the kingdom territory at the expense of Brunei by reducing the territory of the latter. Several major rebellions occurred against his rule, causing him to be plagued by debt incurred in countering the rebellions, and the sluggish economic situation at the time. His nephew, Charles Brooke, succeeded James and normalised the situation by improving the economy, reducing government debts and establishing public infrastructure. The kingdom was made a British protectorate in 1888.

To gear up economic growth, the second Rajah encouraged the migration of Chinese workers from China and Singapore to work in the agricultural fields. With proper economic planning and stablility, Sarawak prospered and emerged as one of the world's major producers of black pepper, in addition to oil and the introduction of rubber plantations. He was succeeded by his son Charles Vyner Brooke but World War II and the arrival of Japanese forces ultimately brought an end to the Raj and the Protectorate administration, with the territory placed under a military administration on the Japanese capitulation in 1945, and ceded to Britain as a Crown Colony in 1946.

History

Foundation and early years

James Brooke, the founder of the kingdom.

The kingdom was founded by James Brooke, an English adventurer who arrived to the banks of Sarawak River and decided to berth his schooner there in 1839.[6] After serving in the First Anglo-Burmese War where he was severely wounded in battle,[7][8] Brooke returned to England in 1825 to recover from his injury. Despite his attempts to return into service, he was unable to return to his station in India before his temporary leave from the service expired.[9] Overstaying his furlough resulting in his position in the military being forfeited, but he was awarded a pension by the government for his service.[9][10][11] He continued on from India and went to China to improve his health.[12]

On his way to China in 1830, he saw the islands of the Asiatic Archipelago, still unknown to Europeans generally.[12] He returned to England and made an abortive trading journey to China in the Findlay before his father died in 1835.[13][14] Inspired by the adventures stories on the success of the East India Company (EIC) where his father had been serving especially from the efforts of Stamford Raffles to expanding the company influence in the Asiatic Archipelago,[15][16][17] he purchased a schooner named Royalist using the £30,000 left to him by his father.[7][8] He recruited a crew for the schooner, training in the Mediterranean Sea in late 1836,[9] before beginning their sail to the Far East on 27 October 1838.[13] By July 1839, he reached Singapore and came across some British sailors who had been shipwrecked and helped by Pengiran Raja Muda Hashim, the uncle of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II of Brunei.[9][18]

Brooke originally planned to sail to Marudu Bay in northwestern Borneo but the British Governor-General in Singapore asking him to thank Raja Muda Hashim in southwestern Borneo.[9][19][20] The following month he sailed to the western coast of the island and on 14 August 1839, berthed his schooner on the banks of the Sarawak River and met Hashim to deliver the message.[19] The Raja told Brooke that his presence in the area was to control a rebellion against the Sultanate of Brunei caused by the oppressive policies of Pengiran Indera Mahkota, a kinsman of the Sultan.[18][21][22] Mahkota had earlier been dispatched by the Sultan to monopolise the antimony in the area; which as a result directly affecting the incomes of the local Malays there and growing frustration from the indigenous Land Dayak who had been forced to work in the mines for about 10 years.[23][24] It has also been alleged that the rebellion against Brunei was aided by the neighbouring Sultanate of Sambas and Dutch East Indies who wanted to establish economic rights over the antimony.[25] Despite Hashim's efforts to stop the rebellion, it came to no avail thus leading him to seek direct help from Brooke.[20]

Responding to the request, a force of local natives was raised and led by Brooke managed to temporarily stop the rebellion.[22] Brooke was granted a large quantity of antimony from the local mines and authority in the Sarawak River as a reward.[20] Since then, Brooke became embroiled in Hashim's campaign to restore order in the area.[26] Brooke returned to Singapore and spent another six months cruising along the coasts of the Celebes Islands before returning to Sarawak on 29 August 1840.[13][27]

Part of a series on the
History of Malaysia
The independence of Malaya and the merger proclamation of North Borneo and Sarawak to formed Malaysia.
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia portal

Establishment

The Dayaks, who subsequently became Brooke followers and most loyal to the kingdom along with the local Malays of Sarawak.[28][29]

Upon his returning to Sarawak, the rebellion against Brunei's rule was still in progress. He managed to completely suppress the rebellion and pardoned the rebels for joining his side, providing positions in some administrative authority while limiting their power.[30] Despite the initial refusal of Hashim to pardon them and wanting to execute all the rebels, Hashim was convinced by Brooke to forgive them as he had taken the major part in their suppression.[31] In exchange for Brooke's continuous support towards the Sultanate and rental payment of £500, he was awarded the Kuching area from the Sultanate of Brunei;[26][32] which later became Sarawak First Division.[33] Hashim, however, began to think twice about giving the territory to Brooke, a doubt fanned by Mahkota who had been deprived of his power in the area in favour of Brooke.[27] This led Hashim to constantly delay the recognition of concession and angered Brooke. On 24 September 1841, Brooke, with Royalist fully armed, went ashore to Hashim's audience chamber and called on him to negotiate. With little choice, and putting the blame mainly on Mahkota, Hashim proclaimed Brooke as the Rajah. Brooke issued new laws for the territory banning slavery, headhunting and piracy;[34] and by July 1842, his appointment was confirmed by Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II.[27]

The first flag of the kingdom from 1841 until 1848 with the St George's Cross.
Pirates attacking a boat owned by Brooke in 1843.

To prevent any further dispute with Brunei, Brooke hoped to reform the administration of the Sultanate and establish a pro-British government through Hashim and his brother Pengiran Badruddin. By October 1843, Brooke returned the two brothers to Brunei, bringing along Admiral Edward Belcher of the Royal Navy in HMS Samarang and the EIC Phlegethon.[35] The vessels anchored at the Sultan's audience chamber, requesting Pengiran Yusof's position as Bendahara to be replaced by Hashim and asking the Sultan to pledge to suppress piracy in his dominions, as well ceding the island of Labuan to the British (although the British government had not asked for this).[35] The status of Brooke as a Rajah and consul for the British at the time also remained controversial in the United Kingdom as he was not recognised by the British government to represent the British subjects.[36][37] Indirectly, Brooke had become involved in an internal dynastic dispute of Brunei.[38] From 1844, Brooke actively assisted the suppression of piracy on the coasts of western and northern Borneo together with Admiral Henry Keppel in HMS Dido along with Phlegethon;[39] where during the course of piracy suppression they encountered Mahkota, the former administrator of Kuching area who had formed an alliance with an Sea Dayak pirate chief on the Skrang River in Sarawak and captured him in the same year.[40][41]

Sketch of Pengiran Raja Muda Hashim who became the close friend of Brooke, c. 1846.

In August 1845, Admiral Thomas Cochrane arrived at Brunei with a squadron of from six to eight ships to release two Lascar seamen who are believed to be hidden there.[38][42] Badruddin accused Yusof of being involved in the slave trade due to his close relations with a notable pirate leader Sharif Usman in Marudu Bay and the Sultanate of Sulu.[38] Denying the allegation, Yusof refused to attend a meeting with Cochrane, and escaped after been threatened with force by Cochrane before regaining his own force in the Brunei capital. Cochrane then sailed away to Marudu Bay in pursuit of Usman, while Yusof was defeated by Badruddin.[38][42] Hashim managed to establish a rightful position in Brunei Town to become the next Sultan after successfully defeating the piratical forces led by Yusof who fled to Kimanis in northern Borneo where he was executed.[43][44] Yusof was the favourite noble to the Sultan and with Hashim's victory, this upset the chances of the son of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II to become the next leader.[44][45] Mahkota, who had returned to Brunei in 1845 after his capture in Sarawak in 1844 became the Sultan's adviser in the absence of Yusof who had been executed. He prevailed on the Sultan to order the execution of Hashim,[42] whose presence had become unwelcome to the royal family, especially due to his close ties with Brooke that were favourable to English policy.[46] Beside that, an adventurer named Haji Saman, who was connected to the late Yusof, played upon the Sultan's fear of Hashim taking over his throne.[47]

Steamer Phlegethon and the boats of Thomas Cochrane repelling an attack from the forts of Borneo Proper on 8 July 1846.

By the order of the Sultan, Hashim and his brother Badruddin together with their family were assassinated in 1846.[42][46][48] One of Badruddin's slaves, Japar survived the attack and intercepted HMS Hazard, which brought him to Sarawak to inform Brooke. Enranged by the news, Brooke organised an expedition to avenge Hashim's death with the aid of Cochrane from the Royal Navy with Phlegethon.[47] On 6 July 1846, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II complained through a letter about the discourtesy of HMS Hazard and invited Cochrane to ascend the capital with two boats. Phlegethon and other vessels then moved up to the river on 8 July where they were fired on from every position with slight damage.[47] Mahkota and the Sultan retreated upriver while most of the population fled upon their arrival at Brunei's capital, leaving the brother of the Sultan's son, Pengiran Muhammad, who was badly wounded and Pengiran Mumin, an opponent of the Sultan's son who despised the decision of his royal family to be involved in conflict with the British.[42][47] The British destroyed the town forts and invited the population to return with no harm to be done to them while the Sultan remained hiding in the jungle. Another expedition was sent to the interior but also failed to find the Sultan. Brooke remained in Brunei with Admiral Rodney Mundy and HMS Iris along with Phlegethon and HMS Hazard while the main expedition continued their mission to suppress piracy in northern Borneo.[47]

Upon finding that Haji Saman was living in Kimanis and that he was involved in the plotting that caused Hashim's death, Brooke departed there and destroyed his house although Saman still managed to escape.[47] Brooke returned again to Brunei and finally managed to induce the Sultan to return to the capital where the Sultan finally regretted the killings of Hashim, his brother and their family members by writing a letter of apology to Queen Victoria.[49] Through his confession, the Sultan recognised Brooke's authority over Sarawak and mining rights throughout the territory without requiring him to pay any tribute as well granting the island of Labuan to the British.[49] Brooke departed Brunei and left Mumin in charge together with Mundy to keep the Sultan in line until the British government made a final decision to acquire the island. Following the ratification agreement of the transfer of Labuan to the British, the Sultan also finally agreed to allow British forces to suppress all piracy along the coast of Borneo.[49]

Later years

The second flag of the kingdom from 1848 to 1870.
An English barque named Rajah of Sarawak, after James Brooke (drawn by Samuel Walters, c. 1850).

The following year, 1847, Brooke asked the Sultan of Brunei to sign another treaty to prevent the Sultanate from engaging in any concession treaty with other foreign powers especially after the visit of USS Constitution in 1845.[49] American policy at the time however made no intention to establish any solid presence in Asia and the Pacific.[50] By 1850, the United States recognised the status of Brooke's kingdom as an independent state.[51] Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II died in 1852 and he was succeeded by Mumin, which already proved a success in Brooke's efforts to establish a pro-British government in Brunei.[52] The new Sultan then ceded Saribas and Skrang districts, which later became the Second Division, to Brooke in 1853 due to conflict with pirates.[33][53]

Three major rebellions led by Rentap (1853),[54] Liu Shan Bang (1857)[55][56] and Syarif Masahor (1860)[57] shook the Rajah's administration which, together with the stagnant economic conditions at the time, caused Brooke to be plagued by debt.[58] He was driven into planning to cede his kingdom to the British to settle his debt; while the idea was supported by some of Britain's members of parliament (MPs) and businessmen, it was rejected by Prime Minister Lord Derby who feared that the introduction of a British taxation system would shock the population more than exercising their own system under the Rajahs.[59] Brooke then thought to sell his kingdom to Belgium, France, Russia or to Brunei again or also to other European powers rather than to the neighbouring Dutch who were ready to retake his kingdom.[59] Brooke's intention had already been disliked by neighbouring British Governors such as Labuan Governor Hennessy, who had expressed his feeling that although he keep a high respect towards the Rajah he considered the kingdom as only a vassal state of Brunei as its status for being independent from the British could be sold by Brooke or turn to be a protectorate of other European nations by the owner wish.[60]

Territorial gains from 1841 to 1905.

Prior to the ongoing piracy suppression, a major battle with the Illanuns of Moro pirates from the southern Philippines occurred in the mid November 1862.[61] In 1864, the United Kingdom appointed a Consul to Sarawak and recognised the kingdom,[51][62] while the Netherlands refused to recognise the state.[63] Following the recognition from Britain, Brooke expanded his kingdom at the expense of Brunei by reducing the territory of the latter.[64] In 1861, he acquired the vast Rajang River basin, which subsequently became the Third Division.[33][53] The expansion continued after his death in 1868; when he was succeeded by his nephew, Charles Brooke.[65][66]

Under Charles' administration, the kingdom's economy grew rapidly, especially later on with the discovery of oil, introduction of rubber, and the construction of public infrastructure as his main priorities to stabilise the economic situation and reduce government debts.[67][68][69] He encouraged the migration of Chinese to boost the economy, especially in agricultural sectors;[70][71] where most of them settled around Kuching (mainly Hokkien and Teochew), Sibu (mainly Fuzhou) and Sri Aman (mainly Teochew).[72][73] Charles was trusted and respected for his fairness and strict order, although he was not so popular among the local Malays as his uncle, while being a close friend to the Dayaks.[74] Sarawak prospered under his rule and the kingdom did not seek protectorate from any European powers although requests for protection from the British in 1869 and 1879 were rejected.[74] Charles continued to seek protectorate from the British for the greater security of protection on the west coast of Borneo, until the British finally decided to give a Protectorate status on 14 June 1888.[5][74] He ruled Sarawak until his death in 1917 and was succeeded by his son, Charles Vyner Brooke.[75]

World War II and decline

Lutong oil refinery and storage facilities been destroyed by the British before the arrival of the Japanese.

Following World War I, the Empire of Japan began to expand their range in Asia and the Pacific.[76] Vyner became aware of the growing threats and begun to institute reforms.[77] Under the protectorate treaty, Britain was responsible for Sarawak's defence.[78] However, as they did not have adequate resources to mount effective defence due to most of its forces being deployed to the war in Europe against Nazi Germany and the Kingdom of Italy; the defence of the kingdom depended on a single Indian infantry regiment, the 2/15 Punjab Regiment together with the local forces of Sarawak and Brunei.[78] As Sarawak had a significant number of oil refineries in Miri and Lutong, the British feared that these supplies would fall to the Japanese and thus instructed the infantry to carry out a scorched earth policy.[78][79]

The official surrender ceremony of the Japanese to the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on board HMAS Kapunda in Kuching on 11 September 1945.

On 16 December 1941, a strong force of Japanese navy detachment through a Japanese destroyer Sagiri arrived on Miri from Cam Ranh Bay of French Indochina.[79][80] The Japanese then launched an air attack on Kuching on 19 December, bombing parts of the town airfield while machine-gunning people in the town streets.[81] The attack created panic and drove residents to the rural areas.[82] A Dutch submarine HNLMS K XVI managed to bring down the Japanese from Miri but with the arrival of another Japanese destroyer Shirakumo together with other ships, they secured the town on 24 December.[83] From 7 January 1942, Japanese troops in Sarawak crossed the border of Dutch Borneo and proceeded to neighbouring North Borneo. The 2/15 Punjab Regiment were forced to withdraw to Dutch Borneo and later surrendered on 9 March after most of the Allies have surrendered in Java.[81] A steamship of the kingdom, SS Vyner Brooke was sunk during its duty of evacuating nurses and wounded servicemen after the fall of Singapore where most of its surviving crews were massacred in Bangka Island.[84]

The hoisting of the kingdom flag by the ex-internees of Allied prisoner of war (POW) compound in Kuching, 12 September 1945.

Without air protection, the kingdom together with rest of the island fell to the Japanese and Vyner took sanctuary in Australia.[85] Many of the British and Australian soldiers captured after the fall of Malaya and Singapore were brought to Borneo and held as prisoner of war (POW) in Batu Lintang camp of Sarawak and Sandakan camp in neighbouring North Borneo. The Japanese military authorities placed the southern part of Borneo under the navy, while its army were responsible for the management in the north.[86] As part of the Allied Campaign to retake their possessions in the East, Allied forces were then sent to Borneo in the Borneo Campaign to liberate the island. The Australian Imperial Force (AIF) played a significant role in the mission. The Allies Z Special Unit provided intelligence gatherings and other information from the Japanese that could facilitated the AIF landings. Most of the major towns of Sarawak were bombed during this period.[82] The war ended on 15 August 1945 following the Japanese surrender and the administration of Sarawak was undertaken by the British Military Administration (BMA) from September. Vyner returned to administer the territory but decided to cede the entire kingdom to the British government as a Crown Colony on 1 July 1946 due to the lack of resources to finance the reconstruction cost.[87][88][89]

Government

The Astana, the palace of the White Rajahs since Charles Brooke reign; c. 1896.
A Datu Banddar for more than 40 years as one of the Rajah's ministers and also a member of Supreme Council, c. 1930s.

The kingdom was governed by three generations of White Rajahs without any British government intervention as during the period of the first Rajah, it was already facing difficulties to gain Britain's financial support due to the lack of recognition as well constant challenges from the locals.[90] It was only under the second Rajah the government administration began to be reformed after the kingdom been recognised, when a civil service known as the Sarawak Administrative Service began to be established.[90] The civil service recruited Europeans, mainly British officers, to run district outstations where the residents became exposed to and trained in many British and European methods and culture, while retaining the customs of the indigenous people. After the acquisition of more territory, the kingdom was divided into five divisions, each headed by a Resident.[91] The Rajahs also encouraged the establishment of schools, healthcare services and transport.[92]

The government worked to restore peace where piracy and tribal feuds had grown rampant and its success depended ultimately on the co-operation of the native village headmen, while the Native Officers acted as a bridge.[93] The Sarawak Rangers was established in 1862 as a para-military force of the kingdom.[94] It was superseded by the Sarawak Constabulary in 1932 as a police force,[95] with 900 members mainly comprising Dayaks and Malays.[96]

The Kuching General Post Office building, built in 1931 with neoclassical architecture; pictured in 2015.

Under the protectorate governance, all powers are conducted under the purview of the British government although it is governed as an independent state by the Rajahs with British protection.[5] According to an agreement signed on 14 June 1888, the treaty stipulated:

Agreement between the British Government and the Rajah of Sarawak for the establishment of a British Protectorate. —Signed at London, 14 June 1888.[5]

I. The State of Sarawak shall continue to be governed and administered by the said Rajah and his successors as an independent State under the protection of Great Britain; but such protection shall confer no right on Her Majesty's Government to interfere with the internal administration of the State further than is herein provided.
II. In case any question should hereafter arise respecting the rights of succession to the present or any future Ruler of Sarawak, such question shall be referred to Her Majesty's Government for decision.
III. The relations between the State of Sarawak and all foreign States, including the States of Brunei and North Borneo, shall be conducted by Her Majesty's Government, or in accordance with its directions; and if any difference should arise between the Government of Sarawak and that of any other State, the Government of Sarawak agrees to abide by the decision of Her Majesty's Government, and to take all steps necessary to give effect thereto.
IV. Her Majesty's Government shall have the right to establish British Consular officers in any part of the State of Sarawak, who shall receive exequaturs in the name of the Government of Sarawak. They shall enjoy whatever privileges are usually granted to the Consular officers, and shall be entitled to hoist the British flag over their residences and public offices.
V. British subjects, commerce, and shipping shall enjoy the same right, privileges, and advantages as the subjects, commerce, and shipping of the most favoured nation, as well as any other rights, privileges, and advantages which may be enjoyed by the subjects, commerce and shipping of the State of Sarawak.
VI. No cession or other alienation of any part of the territory of the State of Sarawak shall be made by the Rajah or his successors to any foreign State, or the subjects or the citizens thereof, without the consent of Her Majesty's Government; but this restriction shall not apply to ordinary grants or leases of lands or houses to private individuals for purposes of residence, agriculture, commerce, or other business.

Economy

The Borneo Company Limited building in Kuching, c. 1896.

Since the acquisition of Sarawak first territory in the First Division, Brooke gained large quantity of antimony from mines around the area; although it was leased in 1846 as freedom of trade is guaranteed by a treaty of the territory with the local natives are freely to operate the mines.[97] By the time of his arrival, a land tenure system known as the Native Customary Rights (NCR) have been practised by the indigenous communities.[98][99][100] As Brooke's main priority is to abolishing headhunting among the indigenous communities in the interior, the kingdom authorities conduct persistent raids to Sea Dayak villages and forcing them to practice horticultural modes as a new method to sustain their lives.[101] This was done as most of the Sea Dayak at the time refused to abandon the culture and only agreed after been stopped through their major rebellion.[102] Other Dayaks like the Land Dayak were also previously involved in headhunting, but most of them are peaceful people who abide by the laws and only attacking if attacked by other tribes;[103] which subsequently became Brooke loyal followers as they agreed to leaving the former culture.[28][29] Most Malays coastal villages were also raided as part of the kingdom's policy to combating piracy and slavery.[101] These policy turned to be successful but the kingdom was plagued by high debt as a result from several major rebellions in response to the ongoing supression campaign especially with the stagnant economic situation at the time.[58]

The Main Bazaar in Chinatown, Kuching, c. 1900s.

A large number of Chinese began to settled in the kingdom during the reign of the first Rajah, which encouraged by Brooke to boost the kingdom economy and influencing the indigenous communities to abandoning their previous activities (like headhunting, piracy, slavery etc.) by participating in the modern economic activities.[104] Most of those who come from the first migration are miners and originated from Sambas in neighbouring Dutch Borneo where they later formed a Kongsi system in Bau.[105] The immigration were continued under the second Rajah, who encourage more Chinese to migrate and boosting the kingdom agricultural sectors;[70][71] although there were also conflict occurred between the Brooke's government and the Chinese in 1857 which are believed to be related with the Second Opium War,[106] or several other reasons.[107] Borneo Company Limited was formed in 1856. It was involved in a wide range of businesses in Sarawak such as trade, banking, agriculture, mineral exploration, and development.[108] The second Rajah working to stabilise the economy and reducing government debts, with the kingdom economy grew significantly under his reign; with total exports of $386,439 and imports of $414,756 in 1863.[74]

By 1869, the total trade value reached $3,262,500.[74] Along the same year, the second Rajah also invited Chinese pepper and gambier-growers from Singapore to cultivate black pepper and gambier in Sarawak.[109][110] By the early 20th century, Sarawak became one of the world major producer of pepper.[111] The kingdom was a relative latecomer to natural rubber boom as the second Rajah preferred to develop the cultivation of lands for the good of its inhabitants than offering the land to European companies.[112] During his reign, there were only five large rubber estates around Sarawak.[113] While oil began to be discovered in his final years.[114] From the 1930s, the kingdom became the centre of production for raw materials with Singapore as the main trade partner as most Chinese businesses in the kingdom relied the island as an outlet for their commodity.[96][115]

Currency

One Sarawak dollar, 1935.

A dollar was made from 1858 and remained at par with the Straits dollar. Different notes had been issued by Sarawak Government Treasury throughout the administration with the earliest notes are embedded with English, Jawi and Chinese characters. From 1880s, the notes background featuring the Rajahs portrait and their arms.[116]

Society

A $1 revenue stamp issued in 1918, featuring Charles Vyner Brooke.

Demography

In 1841, Sarawak has a number of indigenous people around 8,000.[64] The Dayaks are the largest indigenous group in the interior: comprising Iban, Bidayuh and other interior tribes like the Kayan, Kelabit, Kenyah, Lun Bawang and Penan, while coastal areas are dominated by the Sarawak local Malays, Melanau, Bruneian and Kedayan.[96] The government of Sarawak welcoming the migration of Chinese workers to boost the economic sectors.[70][71] Following various immigration schemes initiated by the Rajahs, the population increase to 150,000 in 1848,[117] 300,000 in 1893,[118] 475,000 in 1933,[96] and 600,000 in 1945.[64]

Public service infrastructure

It was during the reign of the Second Rajah where public infrastructure are given attention.[119] From the 1930s, telegraph line were available to connecting the kingdom with Singapore.[120] Wireless telegraph station are located throughout all major towns in Sarawak.[96] A railway system known as the Sarawak Government Railway was established in 1915 although it was ordered to closed by the third Rajah in the 1930s as it had made substantial losses.[121][122] Postal service were also available throughout the administration.[123]

The river systems in Sarawak are not inter-connected. Thererfore, coastal ships were used by the Brooke government to carry merchandise from one river system to another river system. The Brooke government also established a trade route from Kuching to Singapore by using his own ship The Royalist and another ship The Swift. Among the early cargoes were: antimony, gold, and jungle produce. The Borneo Company Limited bought another steamer named Sir James Brooke to carry antomony, coal, and sago. The ships became the only way that Sarawak people travel to Singapore. Charles Brooke also encouraged Sarawak Chamber of Commerce to set up its own shipping lane to Singapore and offer to sell The Royalist to the company. In 1875, "Singapore and Sarawak Steamship Company" was formed and soon after that, it bought The Royalist and the steamer The Rajah Brooke. However, there were complaints that the company provided irregular services to its customers. In 1908, the Brooke government transferred another two small steamships Adeh and Kaka to the company, expecting the company to provide regular services. In 1919, Chinese interests bought the company's shares, liquidated the company and formed a new company named "Sarawak Steamship Company". The company started to establish shipping lanes linking between Rajang, Limbang, and Baram river systems. Sibu-Singapore shipping lane was started by the company but was soon terminated because it was unprofitable. Following trade depression in 1920s, the company suffered heavy losses, and was acquired by Singapore-based "Straits Steamship Company". The company started to establish branches at Sibu and Bintulu and installed agents at other small river ports. The establishment of the shipping lanes by Sarawak Steamship Company allowed the indigenous people to participate in wider markets, thus narrowing the income gap between urban and rural areas in Sarawak.[124]

Media

The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (since 1820), the Sarawak Gazette (since 1870),[125] and the Sarawak Museum Journal (since 1911) hold a significant amount of information on Sarawak before and during the Rajahs administration.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Barley 2013, pp. 101.
  2. ^ a b Straumann 2014, pp. 63.
  3. ^ Storey 2012, pp. 7.
  4. ^ Great Britain. War Office 1942, pp. 123.
  5. ^ a b c d Great Britain. Foreign Office 1888, pp. 239.
  6. ^ Pybus 1996, pp. 9.
  7. ^ a b Foggo 1853, pp. 7.
  8. ^ a b Hazis 2012, pp. 66.
  9. ^ a b c d e Storey 2012, pp. 6.
  10. ^ Boyle 1868, pp. 204.
  11. ^ Fraser 2013, pp. 133.
  12. ^ a b anon 1846, pp. 357.
  13. ^ a b c Boyle 1868, pp. 205.
  14. ^ anon 1836, pp. 207.
  15. ^ Reece 2004, pp. 7.
  16. ^ Runciman 2010, pp. 45.
  17. ^ Knapman 2016, pp. 156.
  18. ^ a b Eliot, Bickersteth & Ballard 1996, pp. 555.
  19. ^ a b Hilton & Tate 1966, pp. 79.
  20. ^ a b c Ring, Watson & Schellinger 2012, pp. 160.
  21. ^ Miller 1970, pp. 48.
  22. ^ a b Leake 1989, pp. 27.
  23. ^ Chang 1995, pp. 15.
  24. ^ Walker 2002, pp. 26.
  25. ^ Walker 2002, pp. 29.
  26. ^ a b Webster 1998, pp. 130.
  27. ^ a b c Saunders 2013, pp. 74.
  28. ^ a b anon 1862, pp. 110.
  29. ^ a b Morrison 1993, pp. 11.
  30. ^ Andaya 2016, pp. 134.
  31. ^ anon 1879, pp. 633.
  32. ^ Wesseling 2015, pp. 208.
  33. ^ a b c Lea 2001, pp. 17.
  34. ^ Baynes 1902, pp. 307.
  35. ^ a b Saunders 2013, pp. 75.
  36. ^ Knapman 2016, pp. 197.
  37. ^ Irwin 1955, pp. 127.
  38. ^ a b c d Saunders 2013, pp. 76.
  39. ^ Belcher & Adams 1848, pp. 146.
  40. ^ Bickersteth & Hinton 1996, pp. 306.
  41. ^ Talib 1999, pp. 5.
  42. ^ a b c d e Gott 2011, pp. 374.
  43. ^ Miller 1970, pp. 95.
  44. ^ a b Royal Asiatic Society 1960, pp. 292.
  45. ^ Mills 1966, pp. 258.
  46. ^ a b Miller 1970, pp. 94.
  47. ^ a b c d e f Saunders 2013, pp. 77.
  48. ^ Sidhu 2016, pp. 154.
  49. ^ a b c d Saunders 2013, pp. 78.
  50. ^ Saunders 2013, pp. 79.
  51. ^ a b Great Britain. Colonial Office 1962, pp. 300.
  52. ^ Saunders 2013, pp. 80.
  53. ^ a b Wright 1988, pp. 95.
  54. ^ Cramb 2007, pp. 116.
  55. ^ Chang 1995, pp. 45–47.
  56. ^ Chin 1996, pp. 23.
  57. ^ Reece 2004, pp. 35.
  58. ^ a b Press 2017, pp. 23.
  59. ^ a b Press 2017, pp. 24.
  60. ^ Wright 1988, pp. 94.
  61. ^ McDougall 1882.
  62. ^ Madden, Fieldhouse & Darwin 1985, pp. 556.
  63. ^ Baring-Gould & Bampfylde 1909, pp. 128.
  64. ^ a b c Purcell 1965, pp. 58.
  65. ^ Pybus 1996, pp. 51.
  66. ^ Sidhu 2016, pp. 83.
  67. ^ la Boda 1994, pp. 498.
  68. ^ Rowthorn, Cohen & Williams 2008, pp. 25.
  69. ^ Welman 2017, pp. 176.
  70. ^ a b c Ledesma, Lewis & Savage 2003, pp. 401.
  71. ^ a b c Cramb 2007, pp. 124.
  72. ^ Yong 1994, pp. 35.
  73. ^ Cotterell 2011, pp. 135.
  74. ^ a b c d e Wright 1988, pp. 85.
  75. ^ Olson & Shadle 1996, pp. 200.
  76. ^ Ooi 1999, pp. 1.
  77. ^ Shepley 2015, pp. 46.
  78. ^ a b c Kratoska 2013, pp. 136.
  79. ^ a b Rottman 2002, pp. 206.
  80. ^ Williams 1999, pp. 6.
  81. ^ a b Tarling 2001, pp. 91.
  82. ^ a b Tan 2011.
  83. ^ Jackson 2006, pp. 440.
  84. ^ Pateman 2017, pp. 42.
  85. ^ Bayly & Harper 2005, pp. 217.
  86. ^ Ooi 2013, pp. 15.
  87. ^ Yust 1947, pp. 382.
  88. ^ Lockard 2009, pp. 102.
  89. ^ Sarawak State Government 2014.
  90. ^ a b Talib 1993, pp. 6.
  91. ^ Hock 2011.
  92. ^ Aspalter 2017, pp. 112.
  93. ^ Talib 1999, pp. 47.
  94. ^ Tarling 2003, pp. 319.
  95. ^ Ellinwood Jr. & Enloe 1978, pp. 201.
  96. ^ a b c d e Epstein 2016, pp. 102.
  97. ^ Brooke (3) 1853, pp. 159.
  98. ^ Cooke 2006, pp. 46.
  99. ^ Eguavoen & Laube 2010, pp. 216.
  100. ^ Uncle DI 2017.
  101. ^ a b Tajuddin 2012, pp. 35.
  102. ^ Eliot, Bickersteth & Ballard 1996, pp. 297.
  103. ^ Ling 2013, pp. 290.
  104. ^ Brooke (1) 1853, pp. 101.
  105. ^ Bissonnette, Bernard & Koninck 2011, pp. 59.
  106. ^ Baker 2008, pp. 160.
  107. ^ Ringgit 2015.
  108. ^ Yeong Jia 2007.
  109. ^ Bulbeck et al. 1998, pp. 68.
  110. ^ Cramb 2007, pp. 128.
  111. ^ Lockard 2009, pp. 101.
  112. ^ Ishikawa 2010, pp. 72.
  113. ^ Bissonnette, Bernard & de Koninck 2011, pp. 59.
  114. ^ Crisswell 1978, pp. 216.
  115. ^ Shiraishi 2009, pp. 34.
  116. ^ Cuhaj 2014, pp. 1058.
  117. ^ Whitaker 1848, pp. 476.
  118. ^ Appleton 1894, pp. 396.
  119. ^ Jackson 2007.
  120. ^ Kaplan & Roberts 1955, pp. 115.
  121. ^ Durand & Curtis 2014, pp. 175.
  122. ^ Sarawak Government Railway 2015.
  123. ^ Forrester-Wood 1959, pp. 575.
  124. ^ Kaur 2016, pp. 77–80.
  125. ^ Sarawak Gazette 1870.

References

  • anon (1836). Obituary – Thomas Brooke, Esg in The Gentleman's Magazine, Or Monthly Intelligencer. 41. William Pickering. 
  • anon (1846). Mr Brooke of Borneo in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine. 59. William Blackwood. 
  • Belcher, Edward; Adams, Arthur (1848). Narrative of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Samarang, During the Years 1843–46: Employed Surveying the Islands of the Eastern Archipelago, Accompanied by a Brief Vocabulary of the Principal Languages .. Reeve, Benham, and Reeve. 
  • Whitaker, Joseph (1848). An Almanack for the Year of Our Lord .. J. Whitaker. 
  • Brooke (1), James (1853). The Private Letters of Sir James Brooke, K.C.B., Rajah of Sarawak, Narrating the Events of His Life, from 1838 to the Present Time. 1. R. Bentley. 
  • Brooke (3), James (1853). The Private Letters of Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak: Narrating the Events of His Life from 1838 to the Present Time. 3. R. Bentley. 
  • Foggo, George (1853). Adventures of Sir J. Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak. Effingham Wilson. 
  • anon (1862). Mr. St. John's Borneo in The North British Review. 36–37. Leonard Scott [American Edition]. 
  • Boyle, Frederick (1868). The Career and Character of Rajah Brooke in Temple Bar. 24. Richard Bentley. 
  • Sarawak Gazette (1870). "Sarawak Gazette". [Govt. Printer]. ISSN 0036-4762. 
  • anon (1879). St.John's Life of Sir James Brooke in Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science and Art. XLVIII. 
  • McDougall, Harriette (1882). "Sketches of Our Life at Sarawak (Illanun Pirates)". Project Canterbury, Anglican History. 
  • Great Britain. Foreign Office (1888). British and Foreign State Papers. H.M. Stationery Office. 
  • Appleton (1894). Appletons' Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events. D. Appleton & Company [Data published in 1893]. 
  • Baynes, Thomas Spencer (1902). The Encyclopaedia Britannica: Latest Edition. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature. Werner. 
  • Baring-Gould, Sabine; Bampfylde, Charles Agar (1909). A History of Sarawak Under Its Two White Rajahs, 1839–1908. H. Sotheran & Company. 
  • Great Britain. War Office (1942). Strategic survey of British North Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak: British Empire Section. May 8, 1942. Intelligence Division. 
  • Yust, Walter (1947). Ten eventful years: a record of events of the years preceding, including and following World War II, 1937 through 1946. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
  • Kaplan, Irving; Roberts, Chester F. (1955). Area Handbook on British Borneo. University of Chicago for the Human Relations Area Files. 
  • Irwin, Graham (1955). Nineteenth-century Borneo; a Study in Diplomatic Rivalry. M. Nijhoff. 
  • Forrester-Wood, W. R. (1959). The Stamps and Postal History of Sarawak. Sarawak Specialists Society. 
  • Royal Asiatic Society (1960). Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 33. Royal Asiatic Society. 
  • Great Britain. Colonial Office (1962). Sarawak. H.M. Stationery Office. 
  • Purcell (1965). South East Asia Since 1800. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-06007-3. 
  • Hilton, P. B.; Tate, Donna J. (1966). The modern world. Oxford University Press. 
  • Mills, Lennox Algernon (1966). British Malaya, 1824–1867. Oxford University Press. 
  • Miller, Harry (1970). Pirates of the Far East. Hale. 
  • Crisswell, Colin N. (1978). Rajah Charles Brooke: monarch of all he surveyed. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-580392-1. 
  • Ellinwood Jr., DeWitt C.; Enloe, Cynthia H. (1978). Ethnicity and the Military in Asia. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-2290-9. 
  • Madden, A. F.; Fieldhouse, David Kenneth; Darwin, John (1985). Select Documents on the Constitutional History of the British Empire and Commonwealth: "The Empire of the Bretaignes," 1175–1688. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-23897-0. 
  • Wright, Leigh R. (1988). The Origins of British Borneo. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-213-6. 
  • Leake, David (1989). Brunei: the modern Southeast-Asian Islamic sultanate. McFarland. 
  • Morrison, Alastair (1993). Fair Land Sarawak: Some Recollections of an Expatriate Official. SEAP Publications. ISBN 978-0-87727-712-5. 
  • Talib, Naimah S. (1993). The Development of the Sarawak Administrative Service from Its Inception (1840s) to 1963 (PDF). University of Hull. 
  • la Boda, Sharon (1994). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6. 
  • Yong, Paul (1994). A dream of freedom: the early Sarawak Chinese. Pelanduk Publications. ISBN 978-967-978-377-3. 
  • Chang, Pat Foh (1995). The Land of Freedom Fighters. Ministry of Social Development, Sarawak. 
  • Olson, James Stuart; Shadle, Robert (1996). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-29366-5. 
  • Eliot, Joshua; Bickersteth, Jane; Ballard, Sebastian (1996). Indonesia, Malaysia & Singapore Handbook. Trade & Trade & Travel Publications ; New York, NY. 
  • Bickersteth, Jane; Hinton, Amanda (1996). Malaysia & Singapore Handbook. Footprint Handbooks. ISBN 978-0-8442-4909-4. 
  • Pybus, Cassandra (1996). White Rajah: A Dynastic Intrigue. Univ. of Queensland Press. ISBN 978-0-7022-2857-5. 
  • Chin, Ung Ho (1996). Chinese Politics in Sarawak: A Study of the Sarawak United People's Party. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-983-56-0007-4. 
  • Webster, Anthony (1998). Gentleman Capitalists: British Imperialism in Southeast Asia 1770–1890. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-171-8. 
  • Bulbeck, David; Reid, Anthony; Cheng, Tan Lay; Yiqi, Wu (1998). Southeast Asian Exports Since the 14th Century: Cloves, Pepper, Coffee, and Sugar. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-3055-67-4. 
  • Williams, Mary H. (1999). Special Studies, Chronology, 1941–1945. Government Printing Office. ISBN 978-0-16-001876-3. 
  • Talib, Naimah S. (1999). Administrators and Their Service: The Sarawak Administrative Service Under the Brooke Rajahs and British Colonial Rule. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-983-56-0031-9. 
  • Ooi, Keat Gin (1999). Rising Sun over Borneo: The Japanese Occupation of Sarawak, 1941–1945. Palgrave Macmillan UK. ISBN 978-1-349-27300-3. 
  • Tarling, Nicholas (2001). A Sudden Rampage: The Japanese Occupation of Southeast Asia, 1941–1945. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85065-584-8. 
  • Lea; et al. (2001). A Political Chronology of South East Asia and Oceania. Europa Publications. ISBN 978-1-135-35659-0. 
  • Walker, John Henry (2002). Power and Prowess: The Origins of Brooke Kingship in Sarawak. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-86508-711-5. 
  • Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War II Pacific Island Guide: A Geo-military Study. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-31395-0. 
  • Ledesma, Charles de; Lewis, Mark; Savage, Pauline (2003). Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-094-7. 
  • Tarling, Nicholas (2003). Imperialism in Southeast Asia. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-57081-3. 
  • Reece, Bob (2004). The White Rajahs of Sarawak: A Borneo Dynasty. Archipelago Press. ISBN 978-981-4155-11-3. 
  • Bayly, Christopher Alan; Harper, Timothy Norman (2005). Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941–1945. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01748-1. 
  • Jackson, Ashley (2006). The British Empire and the Second World War. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-8264-3760-0. 
  • Cooke, Fadzilah Majid (2006). State, Communities and Forests in Contemporary Borneo. ANU E Press. ISBN 978-1-920942-52-6. 
  • Cramb, Rob A. (2007). Land and Longhouse: Agrarian Transformation in the Uplands of Sarawak. NIAS Press. ISBN 978-87-7694-010-2. 
  • Jackson, Caroline (2007). "Enlivening Brooke legacy". The Star. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. 
  • Rowthorn, Chris (2008). Borneo. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74059-105-8. 
  • Baker, Jim (2008). Crossroads (2nd Edn): A Popular History of Malaysia and Singapore. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. ISBN 978-981-4435-48-2. 
  • Lockard, Craig (2009). Southeast Asia in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-972196-2. 
  • Shiraishi, Takashi (2009). Across the Causeway: A Multi-dimensional Study of Malaysia-Singapore Relations. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-230-783-5. 
  • Runciman, Steven (2010). The White Rajah: A History of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-12899-5. 
  • Ishikawa, Noboru (2010). Between Frontiers: Nation and Identity in a Southeast Asian Borderland. Ohio University Press. ISBN 978-0-89680-476-0. 
  • Eguavoen, Irit; Laube, Wolfram (2010). Negotiating Local Governance: Natural Resources Management at the Interface of Communities and the State. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3-643-10673-5. 
  • Gott, Richard (2011). Britain's Empire: Resistance, Repression and Revolt. Verso Books. ISBN 978-1-84467-892-1. 
  • Bissonnette, Jean-Francois; Bernard, Stephane; de Koninck, Rodolphe (2011). Borneo Transformed: Agricultural Expansion on the Southeast Asian Frontier. NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-544-6. 
  • Cotterell, Arthur (2011). Western Power in Asia: Its Slow Rise and Swift Fall, 1415 – 1999. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-16999-5. 
  • Hock, Lim Kian (2011). "A look at the civil administration of Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. 
  • Tan, Gabriel (2011). "Under the Nippon flag". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. 
  • Hazis, Faisal S. (2012). Domination and Contestation: Muslim Bumiputera Politics in Sarawak. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-4311-58-8. 
  • Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul (2012). Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-63979-1. 
  • Tajuddin, Azlan (2012). Malaysia in the World Economy (1824–2011): Capitalism, Ethnic Divisions, and "Managed" Democracy. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-7196-7. 
  • Storey, Nicholas (2012). Great British Adventurers. Casemate Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84468-130-3. 
  • Ling, Alex (2013). Golden Dreams of Borneo. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4797-9168-2. 
  • Fraser, George MacDonald (2013). Flashman's Lady. Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-101-63386-1. 
  • Barley, Nigel (2013). White Rajah: A Biography of Sir James Brooke. Little, Brown Book Group. ISBN 978-0-349-13985-2. 
  • Ooi, Keat Gin (2013). Post-war Borneo, 1945–50: Nationalism, Empire and State-Building. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-05803-9. 
  • Kratoska, Paul H. (2013). Southeast Asian Minorities in the Wartime Japanese Empire. Routledge. ISBN 1-136-12506-X. 
  • Saunders, Graham (2013). A History of Brunei. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-87394-2. 
  • Durand, Frédéric; Curtis, Richard (2014). Maps of Malaysia and Borneo: Discovery, Statehood and Progress. Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 978-967-10617-3-2. 
  • Straumann, Lukas (2014). Money Logging: On the Trail of the Asian Timber Mafia. Schwabe AG. ISBN 978-3-905252-69-9. 
  • Cuhaj, George S. (2014). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, General Issues, 1368–1960. "F+W Media, Inc.". ISBN 978-1-4402-4267-0. 
  • Sarawak State Government (2014). "Sarawak as a British Crown Colony (1946 â€" 1963)". Government of Sarawak. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. 
  • Wesseling, H. L. (2015). The European Colonial Empires: 1815–1919. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-89507-7. 
  • Shepley, Nick (2015). Red Sun at War Part II: Allied Defeat in the Far East. Andrews UK Limited. ISBN 978-1-78166-302-8. 
  • Ringgit, Danielle Sendou (2015). "The Bau Rebellion: What sparked it all?". The Borneo Post Seeds. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. 
  • Sarawak Government Railway (2015). "Sarawak Government Railway". Malayan Railways. 
  • Andaya, Barbara Watson; Andaya, Leonard Y. (2016). A History of Malaysia. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-60515-3. 
  • Knapman, Gareth (2016). Race and British Colonialism in Southeast Asia, 1770–1870: John Crawfurd and the Politics of Equality. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-315-45216-6. 
  • Sidhu, Jatwan S. (2016). Historical Dictionary of Brunei Darussalam. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4422-6459-5. 
  • Epstein, M. (2016). The Statesman's Year-Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1933. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-27062-6. 
  • Pateman, Colin (2017). B-24 Bridge Busters: RAF Liberators Over Burma. Fonthill Media. GGKEY:ZSXA7694KY6. 
  • Press, Steven (2017). Rogue Empires: Contracts and Conmen in Europe's Scramble for Africa. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-97185-1. 
  • Aspalter, Christian (2017). Health Care Systems in Developing Countries in Asia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-12313-2. 
  • Welman, Frans (2017). Borneo Trilogy Sarawak: Volume 1. Booksmango. ISBN 978-616-245-082-2. 
  • Uncle DI (2017). "Nibbling at land rights of indigenous peoples". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. 
  • Yeong Jia, Joshua Chia (2007). "The Borneo Company Limited". National Library Board. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  • Kaur, A. (2016). Economic Change in East Malaysia: Sabah and Sarawak since 1850. Springer. p. 77. ISBN 978-023-037-709-7. 

Further reading

  • Keppel, Henry; Brooke, James; WalterKeating, Kelly (1847). "The expedition to Borneo of H.M.S. Dido for the suppression of piracy : with extracts from the journal of James Brooke, Esq., of Sarawak". University of California Libraries. London : Chapman and Hall. p. 347. 
  • Low, Hugh (1848). "Sarawak; its inhabitants and productions: being notes during a residence in that country with His Excellency Mr. Brooke". Robarts Library, University of Toronto Libraries. London, Richard Bentley. p. 466. 
  • Jacob, Gertrude Le Grand (1876). "The Raja of Sarawak : An account of Sir James Brooke, K.C.B., LL.D., given chiefly through letters and journals". University of Michigan Library. London : Macmillan and co. p. 413. 
  • St. John, Spencer (1879). "The Life of Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak: From His Personal Papers and Correspondence". University of California Libraries. W. Blackwood. p. 433. 
  • Treacher, W. H (1891). "British Borneo: sketches of Brunai, Sarawak, Labuan, and North Borneo". University of California Libraries. Singapore, Govt. print. dept. p. 190. 
  • Roth, Henry Ling; Low, Hugh Brooke (1896). "The natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo; based chiefly on the mss. of the late H. B. Low, Sarawak government service". University of Michigan Library. London, Truslove & Hanson. p. 503. 
  • Baring-Gould, Sabine; Bampfylde, Charles Agar (1909). "A history of Sarawak under its two white Rajahs, 1839–1908". Robarts Library, University of Toronto Libraries. London, Richard Bentley. p. 466. 
  • Runciman, Steven (1960). "The White Rajahs". Cambridge University Press. University of Allahabad, Digital Library of India. p. 340. 
  • "Sarawak: A Kingdom in the Jungle". The New York Times. 1986. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. 
  • "Chronology of Sarawak throughout the Brooke Era to Malaysia Day". The Borneo Post. 2011. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. 
  • "Sarawak: A Most Unusual Territory". The London Gazette. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. 
  • "The Brooke Era (1841 â€" 1941)". Sarawak State Government. 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. 
  • Yap, Joanna (2016). "Tracing influence of Brunei and Sambas in formation of S'wak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. 


External links

  • The Brooke Trust – More information on heritage of the Brooke dynasty
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kingdom_of_Sarawak&oldid=814223326"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Sarawak
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Kingdom of Sarawak"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA