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Temporal range: Middle Jurassic, 166 Ma
Kileskus aristotocus ZIN PH 5.117.png
Diagram showing known fossil remains
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Clade: Saurischia
Clade: Theropoda
Family: Proceratosauridae
Genus: Kileskus
Averianov et al., 2010
K. aristotocus
Binomial name
Kileskus aristotocus
Averianov et al., 2010
Estimated size, compared to a human.

Kileskus (meaning lizard in the Khakas language) is a genus of tyrannosauroid dinosaur known from partial remains found in Middle Jurassic (Bathonian stage) Itat Formation of Sharypovsky District, Krasnoyarsk Krai (Russia). Fossils recovered include the holotype maxilla, a premaxilla, a surangular, and a few bones from the hand and foot.[1] Additional remains referred to the species include cervical and caudal vertebrae, as well as a fibula.[2] The skull bones are similar to those of Proceratosaurus. The type species is K. aristotocus. Kileskus was named in 2010 by Averianov and colleagues.


Kileskus has been included in two phylogenetic analyses and found to be a basal proceratosaurid both times.[1][3]

Although it is unknown whether Kileskus sported a nasal crest, it can be assigned to Proceratosauridae due to a number of other features. These include elongated external nares, a short ventral margin of the premaxilla, and the area of the antorbital fossa directly below the antorbital fenestra being deeper than the maxilla directly below it. Kileskus also shares with Proceratosaurus nares inclined posterodorsally at a 40 degree angle to the skull. Kileskus is distinguished from other proceratosaurids by the anterior rim of its maxilla being confluent with the ascending process of the maxilla and gently sloping posterodorsally.[1]

Below is a cladogram published in 2013 by Loewen et al..[3]


Proceratosaurus bradleyi

Kileskus aristotocus

Guanlong wucaii

Sinotyrannus kazuoensis

Juratyrant langhami

Stokesosaurus clevelandi

Dilong paradoxus

Eotyrannus lengi

Bagaraatan ostromi

Raptorex kriegsteini

Dryptosaurus aquilunguis

Alectrosaurus olseni

Xiongguanlong baimoensis

Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis

Alioramus altai

Alioramus remotus


Cladogram published in 2018.[4]


Guanlong wucaii Cartography of Asia.svg

Proceratosaurus bradleyi Cartography of Europe.svg

Kileskus aristotocus Cartography of Asia.svg

Sinotyrannus kazuoensis Cartography of Asia.svg

Yutyrannus huali Cartography of Asia.svg


Aviatyrannis jurassica Cartography of Europe.svg

Dilong paradoxus Cartography of Asia.svg

Santanaraptor placidus Cartography of South America.svg

Timimus hermani Cartography of Australia.svg

Stokesosaurus clevelandi Cartography of North America.svg

Juratyrant langhami Cartography of Europe.svg

Eotyrannus lengi Cartography of Europe.svg

Xiongguanlong baimoensis Cartography of Asia.svg

NMV P186046 ("Australian tyrannosaur") Cartography of Australia.svg

Alectrosaurus olseni Cartography of Asia.svg

Timurlengia euotica Cartography of Asia.svg


Dryptosaurus aquilunguis Cartography of North America.svg

Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis Cartography of North America.svg

Bistahieversor sealeyi Cartography of North America.svg


Gorgosaurus libratus Cartography of North America.svg

Albertosaurus sarcophagus Cartography of North America.svg


Qianzhousaurus sinensis Cartography of Asia.svg

Alioramus remotus Cartography of Asia.svg

Alioramus altai Cartography of Asia.svg

Nanuqsaurus hoglundi Cartography of North America.svg

Teratophoneus curriei Cartography of North America.svg

Lythronax argestes Cartography of North America.svg

Daspletosaurus torosus Cartography of North America.svg

Daspletosaurus horneri Cartography of North America.svg

Zhuchengtyrannus magnus Cartography of Asia.svg

Tarbosaurus bataar Cartography of Asia.svg

Tyrannosaurus rex Cartography of North America.svg


  1. ^ a b c Averianov, A. O.; Krasnolutskii, S. A.; Ivantsov, S. V. (2010). "A new basal coelurosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Middle Jurassic of Siberia". Proceedings of the Zoological Institute. 314 (1): 42–57.
  2. ^ O. Averianov, Alexander; Osochnikova, Anastasia; Skutschas, Pavel; Krasnolutskii, Sergei; Schellhorn, Rico; A. Schultz, Julia; Martin, Thomas (2019-09-16). "New data on the tyrannosauroid dinosaur Kileskus from the Middle Jurassic of Siberia, Russia". Historical Biology: 1–7. doi:10.1080/08912963.2019.1666839. ISSN 0891-2963.
  3. ^ a b Loewen, M.A.; Irmis, R.B.; Sertich, J.J.W.; Currie, P. J.; Sampson, S. D. (2013). Evans, David C (ed.). "Tyrant Dinosaur Evolution Tracks the Rise and Fall of Late Cretaceous Oceans". PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e79420. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079420. PMC 3819173. PMID 24223179.
  4. ^ Delcourt, R.; Grillo, O. N. (2018). "Tyrannosauroids from the Southern Hemisphere: Implications for biogeography, evolution, and taxonomy". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 511: 379–387

See also

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