Khatumo State

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Khatumo State of Somalia
  • Dowlad Goboleedka Khaatumo ee Soomaaliya  (Somali)
  • ولاية خاتمة  (Arabic)
  • Wilāyat Arḍ al-Khatoum aṣ-Ṣūmāliyyah
Flag of Khatumo
Flag
Location of Khatumo
Capital
and largest city
Las Anod
9°8′N 48°25′E / 9.133°N 48.417°E / 9.133; 48.417
Official languages
Demonym Khatumite[1]
Government Autonomous presidential democracy
• President
Ali Khalif Galaydh
• Vice President
Abdul Sulub
Autonomy within Somalia
• Established
2012
Population
• 2014 estimate
2,000,000
Currency Somali shilling (SOS)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
• Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC+3)
Calling code +252 (Somalia)
ISO 3166 code [[ISO 3166-2:|]]
Internet TLD .so

Khatumo State (Somali: Khaatumo; Arabic: ولاية خاتمة‎), officially the Khatumo State of Somalia (Somali: Dowlad Goboleedka Khaatumo ee Soomaaliya), is an unrecognised proto-state in northern Somalia. Centred on the Sool, Sanaag and Cayn or SSC provinces, its leaders declared the territory an autonomous state in 2012.[2] Khatumo State is primarily inhabited by the Somali clan of Dhulbahante.

History

Khatumo is derived from an Arabic term meaning a "positive conclusion." The administration's stated aim is to bring development and stability to the region through the establishment of a locally based government.[2]Historically, the Sool, Sanaag and Cayn (SSC) regions of Somalia served as the seats of both the Warsangeli Sultanate and the Dervish State.

A Khatumo State launch ceremony in Dubai (2013).

Control of the territory is disputed between Khatumo State (formerly HBM-SSC or Hoggaanka Badbaadada iyo Mideynta SSC) and the autonomous region of somali Puntland and the self declared state of Somaliland [3] The most popular slogan among official Khatumites is midnimada which roughly tanslates as unity. Many inhabitants previously self-referred as being denizens from SSC, although now it's mostly KS (Khatumo State).[4]

According to the Northern Somali Unionist Movement (NSUM), Khatumo State's precursor, NSUM stands for the promotion of peace, reconciliation and unity among all people from Somalia. The organization does not recognize the self-declared independence of Somaliland. It also opposes the 2007 occupation of the Sool province by Somaliland troops.[5] In 2010, NSUM militants were involved in clashes between themselves and Somaliland militia near Widhwidh, in the Cayn region of Somalia.

In 2012, the Khatumo State administration was finalized after a series of domestic and overseas conferences beginning in 2007 between prominent political figures, traditional leaders and local residents. The territory's capital was initially at Taleh.[2] Since August 2014, Las Anod serves as Khatumo State's declared administrative center.[6]

In August 2016 Khatumo state commenced peace talks with Somaliland.[7][8]The talks, however, caused a major disagreement between the president and vice-president of the administation, Ali Khalif Galaydh and Abdulle Agalule respectively, which eventually produce two separate administration who both claimed to be the legitimate government.[9]The group led by Ali Khalif reached an agreement with Somaliland, at the town of Aynabo in October 2017, which stipulated that under the condition of changing the constitution of Somaliland, the two administration will join.[10]Abdulle Agalule was then elected interim-president of Khatumo state, till election are held in early 2018.

Demographics

Most residents belong to the Somali ethnic group, with the Dhulbahante sub-clan of the Harti Darod especially well represented. Other clans with a presence in the region include the Faqashini-Ayr, Abdirahman Harti (Kaskiqabe) and Gabooye.[2]

Major towns

Government

Administrative divisions of Khatumo State

The Khatumo State governmental authority is structured somewhat differently from Somalia's other autonomous regional administrations. At its establishment, it had three presidents, four councils and various ministerial positions.[2] In August 2014, Member of the Federal Parliament of Somalia and former Prime Minister of Somalia Ali Khalif Galaydh was elected President of Khatumo State. He defeated former co-president Mohamed Yusuf Jama (Indhosheel) by 21 votes to 9. Assembly members, who had been appointed by traditional leaders, also selected Abdul Sulub as Vice President.[11]

President

Incumbent
Former
  • Ahmed Elmi Osman (Karaash) - until 2013
  • Abdinuur Elmi Qaaji (Biindhe) - until 2013
  • Mohamed Yusuf Jama (Indhosheel) - until 2014

Vice President

  • Abdalla caga lule

Councils

As of April 2012, the executive branch of the Khatumo State administration included:[2]

  • Supreme Council of Traditional Leaders
  • Executive Council (G10 or Group 10)
  • Presidential Council (with three presidents and ministers)
  • Parliament Council

Ministers

  • Ahmed Gacmayare, Minister for Information and Culture
  • Mahamoud Ismail Shabac, Minister for International Relations and federal
  • Mohamed Ducaale Abdi, Minister for Security
  • Ibrahim Jama Garab-Yare, Minister for Finance
  • Abdikariim Farah Dhaaye, Minister for Development and Natural Resources
  • Mohamoud Diiriye Abdi Joof, Minister for Social Services
  • Yaasin Ahmed Sulub, Minister for Interior Affairs and
Deputies
  • Hasan Ali Jama, First Deputy Minister for International Relations
  • Jama Hassan Khaliif, Deputy Minister for Security
  • Ibraahim Mohamoud Guure, Deputy Minister for Development and Natural Resources
  • Abdi Farah Mahad, Second Deputy Minister for Development and Natural Resources
  • Hassan Muse Awl, First Deputy Minister for Interior Affairs
  • Abshir Abdi Shiekh, Second Deputy Minister for Interior Affairs
  • Abdifatah Osman Dhala, First Deputy Minister for Social Affairs
  • Asia Hassan Jama, First Deputy Minister for Social Affairs
  • Ali Osman Gedle, First Deputy Minister for Finance

Other

  • Mukhatar Ibraahim Habashi, Chief of Cabinet
  • Omar Jama Saleebaan, Spokesman for Khatumo State

Military

Khatumo maintains its own security forces. Exclusively financed by the state administration, they are tasked with assuring local security and defending the region's borders. According to Khatumo President Abdinuur Elmi Qaaji, the forces are well trained and armed.[2] Khatumo troops have been deployed in defence operations against invading Somaliland troops in Buhoodle and other disputed towns within SSC territory.[2][12] As of 2012, Khatumo forces are led by Abdirisak Fanah, with Omar Jama Saleiman serving as official spokesman.[13][14]

Economy

Livestock is the backbone of the Khatumo State's economy. Camel, cattle, goats and sheep are exported from the region and other parts of northern Somalia to neighboring Gulf Arab countries, such as Saudi Arabia.[15] In rural areas, some farming is also practiced.[16]

Khatumo State's social and economic infrastructure is in the gradual process of rehabilitation after a prolonged period of conflict.[2] Remittances sent by Somali expatriates to relatives in the region contribute significantly to the local economy. Through the construction of a new air transportation facility, Khatumo officials have sought to encourage the repatriation of SSC residents. The returnees would in turn be accommodated in newly built hotels, restaurants and other businesses, which would serve to create additional employment opportunities.[16]

Transportation

Air transportation in Khatumo State is served by the Taleh Airport (Taleex Airport). The facility is named in honor of Sayyid Mohamed Abdullah Hassan, leader of the Dervish State. Air travel to Taleh Airport was planned and organized by Khatumo officials. On 4 December 2012, the airport hosted its inaugural flight from Mogadishu, the national capital.[16]

Additionally, the Ismail Mire International Airport began providing flights to and from Buuhoodle in April 2014.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Somalia". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 14 May 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "What is Khatumo State?". Somalia Report. 26 April 2012. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  3. ^ Somaliland’s Quest for International Recognition and the HBM-SSC Factor Archived 28 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ Pegg, Scott, and Pål Kolstø. "Somaliland: Dynamics of internal legitimacy and (lack of) external sovereignty." Geoforum 66 (2015): 193-202.
  5. ^ "About us: Northern Somali Unionist Movement (NSUM)". Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. 
  6. ^ "SOMALIA: New Khatumo President vows to liberate Las'anod town from Somaliland forces". Raxanreeb. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  7. ^ "Wadahadallo u socda Somaliland iyo Khaatumo". BBC Somali. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  8. ^ "Somalia: Khatumo begins peace talks with Somaliland". Garowe Online. 8 August 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  9. ^ "Khilaaf ballaaran oo soo kala dhexgalay madaxda Khaatumo". BBC Somali. 4 August 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  10. ^ "Somaliland iyo Khatumo oo kala saxiixday heshiisyo dhowr ah". BBC Somali. 21 October 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  11. ^ "Somalia: Puntland leader arrives back in Garowe after provincial tour". Garowe Online. 14 August 2014. Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  12. ^ "Somalia: Silanyo calls for peace after Somaliland forces clash with armed group". Garowe Online. 2 April 2012. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  13. ^ Omar, Shiine (2 August 2012). "Deadly Fighting in Buhoodle". Somalia Report. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  14. ^ Said Ismail, Aweys Cadde (26 January 2012). "Somaliland Attacks Khatumo Militia". Somalia Report. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  15. ^ "Livestock: The Mainstay". FAO. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  16. ^ a b c Hashi, Ahmed. "Khatumo State Gains Access to International Air Travel". Awdalstate. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  17. ^ "DEG DEG:Diyaaradi Labaad Oo buhodle Iyo taleeex Ku Wajahan sacadaha Soo Socda". Marqaan News. 11 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 

External links

  • What is Khatumo State?

Coordinates: 8°15′17″N 46°19′42″E / 8.25472°N 46.32833°E / 8.25472; 46.32833 (Buuhoodle)

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