Khasa kingdom

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Khasa Malla Kingdom
Nepali: खस राज्य
??–c. 1450 CE
Capital Sinja Valley
Common languages Khas
Vedic Sanskrit
Religion Hinduism
Brahmanism
Ancestral and Nature Worship
Shamanism
Government Monarchy
Raja (King)  
• c. 1150 - 11??
Nāgarāj
• 1223–87
Ashok Challa
History  
• Established
??
• Disestablished
c. 1450 CE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kushan Empire
Baise Rajya
Chaubisi Rajya
Today part of    Nepal

Khasa-Malla kingdom (Nepali: खस मल्ल राज्य), popularly known as Khasa Kingdom (Nepali: खस राज्य), was a kingdom established in present-day Nepal around 10th century. It was ruled by kings who bore the family name "Malla" (not to be confused with the later Malla dynasty of Kathmandu).[1]:37 The Khasa Malla kings ruled western parts of Nepal during 11th-14th century.[2] The 954 AD Khajuraho Inscription of Dhaṇga states Khasa Kingdom equivalent to Gauda of Bengal and Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty.[3]

Sinja Valley, capital of Khas Mallas where earliest Devanagari scripts from the 13th century[4]

Some of the earliest Devanagari script examples are the 13th century records from the sites in the former Khasa kingdom. These archaeological sites are located in Jumla, Surkhet and Dailekh districts. Sinja Valley was the ancient capital city and powerful town of the Khas Mallas[1]:76 between 12th and 14th century and the centre of origin of Nepali (Khas) language.[4]

History

An ancient tribe named Khasa is mentioned in several ancient legendary Indian texts, including the Mahabharata. The historical Khasa kingdom is different from the territory of this legendary tribe, although there have been some speculations about a connection between the two. The historical Khasas are mentioned in several Indian inscriptions dated between 8th and 13th centuries CE.[3]

Rulers

13th century inscription by King Ripu Malla on the Nigali Sagar pillar of Ashoka. The inscription reads "Om mani padme hum" and "Sri Ripu Malla Chiram Jayatu 1234" (year 1234 of the Saka Era, corresponding to 1312 CE).

The successors of King Nāgarāj adhered to some suffix as -illa and -challa like King Chapilla, King Krachalla.[1]:35 Challa and Malla were titles of kings and princes. Rāulā was the title of a high-ranking official. Personalities like Malayavarma, Medinivarma, Samsarivarma, Baliraj[5], etc. had title of Rāulā.[1]:89 Mandalesvara was a title conferred on powerful persons of the Kingdom. Royal princes, senior officials and defeated Kings were appointed to the post of Mandalesvara.[1]:84 The reign of King Punya Malla and Prithvi Malla had strict traditional Hindu ritual and customs.[1]:81 Prithvi Malla had firmly established the Kingdom aroound 1413 A.D.[6] This kingdom disintegrated after the death of Abhaya Malla and formed the Baise rajya confederacy.[6]

  • Naagraj (नागराज)
  • Chaap (चाप)
  • Chapilla (चापिल्ल)
  • Krashichalla (क्राशिचल्ल)
  • Kradhichalla (क्राधिचल्ल)
  • Krachalla (क्राचल्ल) (1189-1223)
  • Jitari Malla (जितारी मल्ल)
  • Ashok Chlla / Malla (अशोक चल्ल) (1223–87)
  • Ripu Malla (रिपु मल्ल) (1312–13) Nephew of Jitari Malla
  • Aditya Malla (आदित्य मल्ल) (end of Rule Nagraj Clan)
  • Punya Malla (पुन्य मल्ल) son in law of Aditya Malla
  • Prithvi Malla (पृथ्वी मल्ल) had no son
  • Surya Malla (सूर्य मल्ल) Son of Ripu Malla, Nagraj clan back to rule
  • Abhaya Malla

Decline

Copper Inscription by Baise King of Doti, Raika Mandhata Shahi at Saka Era 1612 (शाके १६१२) (or 1747 Bikram Samvat) in old Khas language using Devanagari script

After late 13th century the Khas empire collapsed and divided into Baise Rajya (22 principalities) in Karnali-Bheri region and 12 principalities in Gandak region; among Chaubise rajya (24 principalities) 12 were Khas and 12 were Magar Rajyas.

The 22 principalities were

The 24 principalities were

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Surya Mani Adhikary (1997). The Khaśa kingdom: a trans-Himalayan empire of the middle age. Nirala. ISBN 978-81-85693-50-7.
  2. ^ Krishna P. Bhattarai (1 January 2009). Nepal. Infobase Publishing. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-4381-0523-9.
  3. ^ a b Laxman S. Thakur (1990). K. K. Kusuman, ed. The Khasas An Early Indian Tribe. A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume. Mittal Publications. pp. 285–293. ISBN 978-81-7099-214-1.
  4. ^ a b Sinja valley - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
  5. ^ Baliraj went on to became sovereign king of Jumla and founder of Kalyal dynasty.[1]:72
  6. ^ a b Pradhan 2012, p. 21.

Books

  • Pradhan, Kumar L. (2012), Thapa Politics in Nepal: With Special Reference to Bhim Sen Thapa, 1806–1839, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, ISBN 9788180698132
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