Khargram (community development block)

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Khargram
Community development block
Khargram is located in West Bengal
Khargram
Khargram
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 24°02′11″N 87°59′36″E / 24.0362700°N 87.9932710°E / 24.0362700; 87.9932710Coordinates: 24°02′11″N 87°59′36″E / 24.0362700°N 87.9932710°E / 24.0362700; 87.9932710
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Murshidabad
Government
 • Type Community development block
Area
 • Total 378.80 km2 (146.26 sq mi)
Elevation 27 m (89 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 273,332
 • Density 720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Literacy (2011)
 • Total literates 149,700 (63.56%)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 742159 (Khargram)
Telephone/STD code 03484
ISO 3166 code IN-WB
Vehicle registration WB-57, WB-58
Lok Sabha constituency Baharampur
Vidhan Sabha constituency Khargram
Website murshidbad.nic.in

Khargram is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Kandi subdivision of Murshidabad district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Overview

Khargram CD Block lies in the Mayurakshi Dwaraka plain in the south-eastern corner of Rarh region in Murshidabad district. The Bhagirathi River splits the district into two natural physiographic regions – Rarh on the west and Bagri on the east. The Rarh region is undulating and contains mostly clay and lateritic clay based soil.[1][2]

Geography

Khargram is located at 24°02′11″N 87°59′36″E / 24.0362700°N 87.9932710°E / 24.0362700; 87.9932710

Khargram CD Block is bounded by Nabagram CD Block in the north, Bharatpur II CD Block in the east, Kandi, Burwan and Bharatpur I CD Blocks in the south and Rampurhat II CD Block in the west.[3]

The Rarh region or the western part of the district is drained by the right bank tributarires of the Bhagirathi, flowing down from the hilly / plateau region of Santhal Pargana division in neighbouring Jharkhand. The Farakka Barrage regulates the flow of water into the Bhagirathi through the feeder canal. Thereafter, it is fed with the discharge from the Mayurakshi system. About 1,800 km2 of area in the neighbourhood of Kandi town is flooded by the combined discharge of the Mayurakshi, Dwarka, Brahmani, Gambhira, Kopai and Bakreshwar – the main contributor being the Mayurakshi. Certain other areas in the western sector also get flooded.[4]

Khargram CD Block has an area of 318.45 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 12 gram panchayats, 186 gram sansads (village councils), 160 mouzas and 155 inhabited villages. Khargram police station serves this block.[5]Headquarters of this CD Block is at Nagar.[6]

It is located 33 km from Baharampur, the district headquarters.[3]

Gram panchayats in Khargram block/ panchayat samiti are: Balia, Eroali, Indrani, Jhilli, Joypur, Khargram, Kirtipur, Margram, Mohisar, Padamkandi, Parulia and Sadal.[7]

Demographics

Population

As per 2011 Census of India Khargram CD Block had a total population of 273,332, all of which were rural. There were 139,533 (51%) males and 133,799 (49%) females. The population below 6 years was 37,804. Scheduled Castes numbered 59,929 (21.93%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 2,442 (0.89%).[8]

As per 2001 census, Khargram block has a total population of 234,715, out of which 120,352 were males and 114,363 were females. Khargram block registered a population growth of 16.04 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the district was 23.70 per cent.[9]Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[10]

The decadal growth of population in Khargram CD Block in 2001-2011 was 16.42%.[11]

Villages

Large villages in Khargram CD Block were (2011 population figures in brackets): Jhilli (5,162), Indrani (7,018), Rahigram (4,395), Sankarpur (10,124), Asalgram (5,010), Parulia (4,400), Nagar (11,882), Sahapur (5,409), Jatarpur (4,098), Khargram (11,209) and Mahisar (4,325).[8]

Literacy

As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Khargram CD Block was 149,700 (63.56% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 83,797 (69.69% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 65,903 (57.16% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 12.53%.[8]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion

In the 2001 census, Bengali was mother tongue of 98.3% of the population in Murshidabad district, followed by Santhali 0.8%, Hindi 0.4%, Telugu 0.2% and Urdu 0.1%.[12]

Religion in Khargram CD Block
Muslim
54.22%
Hindu
45.43%
Others
0.25%

In the 2011 census, Muslims numbered 148,206 and formed 54.22% of the population in Khargram CD Block. Hindus numbered 124,440 and formed 45.53% of the population. Others numbered 686 and formed 0.25% of the population. In Khargram CD Block while the proportion of Muslims increased from 47.31% in 1991 to 51.35% in 2001, the proportion of Hindus declined from 52.63% in 1991 to 48.48% in 2001.[13][14]

Murshidabad district, one of the three Muslim majority districts of West Bengal, had 4,707,573 Muslims who formed 66.27% of the population, 2,359,061 Hindus who formed 33.21% of the population, and 37, 173 persons belonging to other religions who formed 0.52% of the population, in the 2011 census. While the proportion of Muslim population in the district increased from 61.40% in 1991 to 63.67% in 2001, the proportion of Hindu population declined from 38.39% in 1991 to 35.92% in 2001.[13][15][16]

Murshidabad was the only Muslim majority district in West Bengal at the time of partition of India in 1947. The proportion of Muslims in the population of Murshidabad district in 1951 was 55.24%.[17][18]The Radcliffe Line had placed Muslim majority Murshidabad in India and the Hindu majority Khulna in Pakistan, in order to maintain the integrity of the Ganges river system In India.[19]

Rural poverty

According to India Today, writing about life in a Murshidabad village, : “National Sample Survey (NSS) data for 2009 accords the district the ignominious distinction of being India’s poorest, with an unbelieveable 56% of its population living below the ridiculously low Rs. 27 per capita per day poverty line recently proclaimed by the Planning Commission.”[20]

Economy

Livelihood

In Khargram CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators formed 20.68%, agricultural labourers 53.69%, household industry workers 7.32% and other workers 18.31%.[21]

Infrastructure

There are 138 inhabited villages in Khargram CD Block. 100% villages have power supply. 137 villages (99.28%) have drinking water supply. 30 villages (21.74%) have post offices. 132 villages (95.65%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 35 villages (25.36%) have a pucca approach road and 54 villages (39.14%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 17 villages (12.32%) have agricultural credit societies and 9 villages (6.52%) have banks.[22]

Agriculture

Persons engaged in agriculture
in Khargram CD Block

  Bargadars (7.12%)
  Patta holders (10.56%)
  Small farmers (4.42%)
  Marginal farmers (27.36%)
  Agricultural labourers (50.53%)

From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[23]Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Khargram CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 6,816 (7.12%,) patta (document) holders 10,104 (10.56%), small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 4,230 (4.42%), marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 26,180 (27.36%) and agricultural labourers 48,349 (50.53%).[21]

Khargram CD Block had 114 fertiliser depots, 2 seed stores and 63 fair price shops in 2013-14.[21]

In 2013-14, Khargram CD Block produced 72,974 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 25,198 hectares, 51,158 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 14,290 hectares, 125 tonnes of wheat from 24 hectares, 41 tonnes of jute from 4 hectares, 6,741 tonnes of potatoes from 225 hectares and 4,845 tonnes of sugar cane from 60 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.[21]

In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Khargram CD Block was 13,447 hectares, out of which 7,089 hectares were irrigated by canal water, 2,187 hectares with tank water, 118 hectares by river lift irrigation, 40 hectares by deep tube wells, and 4,013 hectares by other means.[21]

Silk and handicrafts

Murshidabad is famous for its silk industry since the middle ages. There are three distinct categories in this industry, namely (i) Mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing (ii) Peeling of raw silk (iii) Weaving of silk fabrics.[24]Prime locations for weaving (silk and cotton) are: Khargram, Raghunathganj I, Nabagram, Beldanga I, Beldanga II and Raninagar-I CD Blocks.[25]

Ivory carving is an important cottage industry from the era of the Nawabs. The main areas where this industry has flourished are Khagra and Jiaganj. 99% of ivory craft production is exported. In more recent years sandalwood etching has become more popular than ivory carving. Bell metal and Brass utensils are manufactured in large quantities at Khagra, Berhampore, Kandi and Jangipur. Beedi making has flourished in the Jangipur subdivision.[24][26]

Banking

In 2013-14, Khargram CD Block had offices of 11 commercial banks and 1 gramin bank.[21]

Transport

Khargram CD Block has 9 ferry services and 11 originating/ terminating bus routes. The nearest railway station is 45 km from the CD Block headquarters.[21]

SH 7 running from Rajgram (in Birbhum district) to Midnapore (in Paschim Medinipur district) passes through this CD Block.[27]

Education

In 2013-14, Khargram CD Block had 148 primary schools with 16,885 students, 14 middle schools with 1,610 students, 14 high school with 9,603 students and 15 higher secondary schools with 15,179 students. Khargram CD Block had 1 general college with 1,676 students, and 421 institutions for special and non-formal education with 19,862 students.[21]

Nagar College was eatblished in 1998 at Nagar. Affliated to the University of Kalyani, it offers honours courses in Bengali, English, Sanskrit, Arabic, philosophy, political science, history, geography and mathematics. [28]

In Khargram CD Block, amongst the 138 inhabited villages, 6 villages do not have a school, 64 villages have more than 1 primary school, 55 villages have at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 29 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[29]

Healthcare

In 2014, Khargram CD Block had 1 rural hospital, 4 primary health centres and 1 private nursing home with total 92 beds and 6 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 38 family welfare subcentres. 10,450 patients were treated indoor and 135,786 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[21]

Khargram CD Block has Khargram Rural Hospital at Khargram (with 50 beds), Margram Primary Health Centre (with 10 beds), Jhili PHC at Nonadanga (with 10 beds), Parulia PHC at Debiparulia (with 10 beds) and Indrani PHC (with 2 beds)[30]

Khargram CD Block is one of the areas of Murshidabad district where ground water is affected by moderate level of arsenic contamination. The WHO guideline for arsenic in drinking water is 10 mg/ litre, and the Indian Standard value is 50 mg/ litre. All but one of the 26 blocks of Murshidabad district have arsenic contamination above the WHO level, all but two of the blocks have arsenic concentration above the Indian Standard value and 17 blocks have arsenic concentration above 300 mg/litre. The maximum concentration in Khargram CD Block is 75 mg/litre.[31]

References

  1. ^ "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Physiography, Page 13. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  2. ^ "Murshidabad". Geography. Murshidabad district authorities. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "Khargram Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 18 February 2016. 
  4. ^ "Types and sources of floods in Murshidabad, West Bengal" (PDF). Swati Mollah. Indian Journal of Applied Research, February 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  5. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad, Tables 2.1, 2.2". Note: At the time of uploading of the revised version of this page the internet version of the District Statistical Handbook had been taken off but there is a print version. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017. 
  6. ^ "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Map of Murshidabad with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fourth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  7. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Murshidabad - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 14 October 2015. 
  9. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001 – Mushidabad district. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  10. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2012-04-12. 
  11. ^ "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Brief Analysis of Inset Tables based on Primary Census Abstract 2011 (Inset Tables 1-35), Table I: Decadal change in population of Tahsils (Sub-district) by Residence, 2001-2011, Page. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  12. ^ "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Mother-tongue, page 48. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  13. ^ a b "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 20 July 2016. 
  14. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad". Table 17.1, Population by religion in the blocks of Murshidabad. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  15. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad". Table 2.10, Population by religion in the district of Murshidabad, 1991 and 2001. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  16. ^ "Bengal beats India in Muslim growth rate". The Times of India, 26 August 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  17. ^ "The rise and rise of Muslims in West Bengal". Dinajpur-Maldah-Murshidabad-Birbhum region. Hindu Post. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  18. ^ "Report taking shape amid infiltration buzz". The Telegraph, 23 August 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  19. ^ Chatterji, Joya. The Spoils of Partition: Bengal and India, 1947–1967. pages 42-60. University of Cambridge, first published 2007. ISBN 978-0-521-87536-3. Retrieved 23 July 2017. 
  20. ^ "A day in the Life of India's Poorest". Asit Jolly. India Today, 2 August 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad". Tables 2.7, 17.2, 16.1, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
  22. ^ "District Census Handbook, Murshidabad, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 96-97 Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities,2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
  23. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  24. ^ a b "District Census Handbook, Murshidabad, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 22-23: Industry. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
  25. ^ Kar, Sunirmal. "Child workers in household industry: a study of beedi industry in Murshidabad district of West Bengal" (PDF). Viswa Bharati University thesis, page 5. Shodhganga. Retrieved 28 August 2017. 
  26. ^ "Egiye Bangla Murshidabad district". Handicrafts and Silk Industry. Murshidabad district administration. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  27. ^ "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 5 February 2017. 
  28. ^ "Nagar College". NC. Retrieved 12 September 2017. 
  29. ^ "District Census Handbook, Murshidabad, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 901-902, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
  30. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department". Health Statistics. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 19 September 2017. 
  31. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (20 years study )". Murshidabad. SOES. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
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