Khana Ratsadon

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Khana Ratsadon
Khana Ratsadon
Military leader Phraya Phahonphonphayuhasena
Civilian leader Pridi Banomyong
Founded 1927 (1927)
Dissolved September 16, 1957 (1957-09-16)
Headquarters Bangkok, Thailand
Ideology Nationalism
Militarism
Populism
International affiliation None

Khana Ratsadon (Thai: คณะราษฎร, pronounced [kʰā.náʔ râːt.sā.dɔ̄ːn]; meaning "People's Party") was a Siamese group of military and civil officers, and later a political party, which staged a bloodless coup against King Prajadhipok and transformed the country's absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy on 24 June 1932.

Background

The promoters

In 1927, the Kingdom of Siam was under the absolutist rule of the House of Chakri, under King Prajadhipok, Rama VII. Under his reign, the nation experienced troubles stemming from an archaic government confronted with serious economic problems and threats from abroad, the British and French Empires. The country was also experiencing a dramatic social change as the urban and middle classes of Bangkok were starting to grow, slowly demanding more rights from their government, criticizing it as ineffective. These changes were mostly led by men, civilians and military, who had graduated or travelled abroad. They wanted to transform Siam into a modern country along the lines of a Western Democracy.

In February 1927, a group of seven Siamese students met at a hotel on the Rue Du Sommerard in Paris and founded what would become the Khana Ratsadon. For five days they met and proposed arguments for and against various aspects of the movement, the men were:

1. Lieutenant Prayoon Pamornmontri (Thai: ร.ท. ประยูร ภมรมนตรี), Army officer, formerly of King Vajiravudh's Royal Guards
2. Lieutenant Plaek Khittasangkha (Thai: ร.ท. แปลก ขีตตะสังคะ), later Luang Phibulsonggram, Army officer, student, School of Applied Artillery, France
3. Lieutenant Thatsanai Mitphakdi (Thai: ร.ต. ทัศนัย มิตรภักดี), Army officer, student, French Cavalry Academy
4. Tua Lophanukrom (Thai: ตั้ว ลพานุกรม), Scientist studying in Switzerland
5. Luang Siriratchamaitri (Thai: หลวงสิริราชไมตรี), Diplomat, officer at the Siamese Embassy in Paris
6. Naep Phahonyothin (Thai: แนบ พหลโยธิน), Law student studying in England
7. Pridi Banomyong (Thai: ปรีดี พนมยงค์), Law student studying at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris)

Six principles

A school notebook published in 1934, with illustrations of the six principles on its cover, displayed at Thai Parliament Museum, Bangkok.

The revolutionaries made Pridi Panomyong their president and termed themselves the "promoters" (Thai: ผู้ก่อการ; rtgsPhu Ko Kan). The party determined a sixfold objective which was later called the "Six Principles" (Thai: หลักหกประการ; rtgsLak Hok Prakan), as follows:

1. To maintain the supreme power of the Thai people.
2. To maintain national security.
3. To maintain the economic welfare of the Thai people in accordance with the National Economic Project.
4. To protect the equality of the Thai people.
5. To maintain the people's rights and liberties, insofar as they are not inconsistent with any of the above-mentioned principles.
6. To provide public education for all citizens.

To achieve these goals, the party determined that they must overthrow, using force if necessary, the present government and the system of absolute monarchy and turn the tiny Asian kingdom into a modern constitutional monarchy. Most of the members were students educated abroad, mostly in the United Kingdom and France.

When the group returned to Siam, they enlisted members from among the army and navy, the merchant class, civil servants and others. Their membership eventually reached 102, separated into four main branches. These included the civilians, led by Pridi Banomyong; the navy, led by Luang Sinthusongkhramchai; the junior army officers, led by Major Phibulsonggram; and finally the senior officers, led by Colonel Phot Phahonyothin

Legacy

The party was eventually successful in their goal of revolution by bloodless coup. By 1933 they had turned Siam into a single party state. However the party itself was short-lived, due to infighting as the party had too many factions, conflicting interests, and political beliefs. The party eventually divided into two factions, a civilian faction led by Pridi Bhanomyong, and a military faction led by Marshal Pibulsongkram.

They would dominate Thai politics for the next two decades, producing six Prime Ministers of Thailand from their ranks. The party declined at about the time the Second World War ended.

Members of Khana Ratsadon

The members of Khana Ratsadon were a mix of both military officers and civilians. Lieutenant Krachang Tularak was its last surviving member. He died on 24 June 2009 at the age of 98.[1]

Military faction

Army faction

(L to R): Phraya Songsuradet. Phraya Phahonphonphayuhasena, Phraya Ritthiakhaney and Phra Phrasasphithayayut, the Four Musketeers or the Four Tiger Soldiers
Khana Ratsadon (army faction)
  1. Colonel Phahon Phonphayuhasena (Phot Phahonyothin), the Head of the military faction and leader of Khana Ratsadon
  2. Major Luang Phibulsonggram (Plaek Khittasangkha)
  3. Captain Luang Chamnanyutthasin (Choei Rayanan)
  4. Captain Luang Katsongkhram (Thian Kengradomying)
  5. Captain Luang Kriangsakphichit (Khuan Chittakhun)
  6. Captain Luang Chansongkhram (Phan Chalichan)
  7. Captain Luang Chawengsaksongkhram (Chuang Khwanchoet)
  8. Captain Luang Thatsanainiyomsuek (Thatsanai Mittraphakdi)
  9. Captain Luang Phrommayothi (Mangkon Phonchiwin)
  10. Captain Luang Ronnasitthiphichai (Chuea Kanchanaphinthu)
  11. Captain Luang Sawatronnarong (Sawat Darasawat)
  12. Captain Luang Seriroengrit (Charun Rattanakun)
  13. Captain Luang Adundetcharat (Bat Phuengphrakhun)
  14. Lieutenant Khun Sucharitronnakan (Phong Nakhanut)
  15. Lieutenant Khun Chamnongphummiwet (Chamnong Siwaphaet)
  16. Lieutenant Khun Nirandonchai (Sawek Nilanchai)
  17. Lieutenant Khun Phiphatsorakan (Theng Phatthanasiri)
  18. Lieutenant Khun Plotporapak (Plot Phanusawa)
  19. Lieutenant Khun Rueangwirayut (Bunrueang Wirahong)
  20. Lieutenant Khun Wimonsorakit (Wimon Kengrian)
  21. Lieutenant Khun Sisarakon (Chalo Sithanakon)
  22. Lieutenant Chai Prathipasen
  23. Lieutenant Thuan Wichaikhatthakha
  24. Lieutenant Nom Ketunuti
  25. Minor Lieutenant Charun Chittralak
  26. Minor Lieutenant Saman Thephatsadin Na Ayutthaya
  27. Minor Lieutenant Udom Phutthikasetarin
  28. Major Luang Wichakkonlayut (Sian Susin)

Navy faction

Khana Ratsadon (navy faction)
  1. Group Commander Luang Sinthusongkhramchai (Sin Kamalanavin)
  2. Lieutenant Commander Luang Supphachalasai (Bung Supphachalasai)
  3. Senior Lieutenant Luang Thamrongnawasawat (Thawan Tharisawat)
  4. Senior Lieutenant Luang Sangworayutthakit (Sangson Suwannachip)
  5. Senior Lieutenant Luang Nithetkonlakit (Klang Rotchanasena)
  6. Senior Lieutenant Luang Nawawichit (Phan Amphaiwan)
  7. Senior Lieutenant Sa-nguan Ruchirapha
  8. Senior Lieutenant Sa-ngop Charunphon
  9. Senior Lieutenant Chalit Kunkamthon
  10. Junior Lieutenant Thonglo Khamhiran
  11. Junior Lieutenant Chip Siriphaibun
  12. Junior Lieutenant Prasoet Suksamai
  13. Junior Lieutenant Wan Ruyuphon
  14. Ensign Chan Ratsamithat
  15. Ensign Thongdi Ra-ngapphai
  16. Mr. Chamrat Suwannachip

Civil faction

Pridi Banomyong, leader of civilian faction
  1. Major Minister Luang Praditmanutham (Pridi Phanomyong), the head of the civil faction and vice leader of Khana Ratsadon
  2. Major Minister Luang Sirirajmaitree (Charun Singhaseni)
  3. Deputy First-grade Minister Luang Kowit-aphaiwong (Khuang Aphaiwong)
  4. Major Court Official Luang Naruebetmanit (Sa-nguan Chuthatemi)
  5. Deputy High Minister Luang Chamnanitikaset (Uthai Saengmani)
  6. Deputy High Minister Luang Atthasanraprasit (Thongyen Lilamia)
  7. Deputy High Minister Luang Atthakitikamchon (Klueng Phahomyonh)
  8. Deputy High Minister Luang Sunthonthephatsadin (Saphrang Thephatsadin Na Ayutthaya)
  9. Deputy High Minister Luang Dechatiwongwarawat (M.L. Kri Dechatiwong)
  10. Deputy High Minister Tua Laphanukrom
  11. Deputy High Minister Prachuap Bunnak
  12. Deputy High Minister M.L. Udom Sanitwong
  13. Mr. Naep Phahonlayothin
  14. Deputy Minor Minister Tawee Boonyaket
  15. Junior Lieutenant Prayun Phamonmontri
  16. Mr. Wilat Osathanon
  17. Deputy Minor Minister Charun Suepsaeng
  18. Mr. Leng Sisonwong
  19. Mr. Direk Jayanama
  20. Mr. Wichian Suwannathat
  21. Deputy Minor Minister Chun Pinthanon
  22. Mr. Sawat Sotthithat
  23. Mr. Chittasen Pancha
  24. Mr. Yong Phonlabun
  25. Mr. Ek Supphapodok
  26. Mr. Surin Chinothai
  27. Mr. Siri Chatinan
  28. Mr. Chaliao Pathummarot
  29. Mr. Banchong Sicharun
  30. Mr. Prasoet Sicharun
  31. Mr. Chaeng Muttafa
  32. Mr. Karim Sicharun
  33. Mr. Sa-nguan Tularak
  34. Mr. Sim Wirawaithaya
  35. Mr. Nguan Thongprasoet
  36. Mr. Pramot Phuengsunthon
  37. Mr. Charoen Pantharo
  38. Mr. Thongpleo Chonlaphum
  39. Mr. Phadoem Angsuwat
  40. Mr. Chup Salayachiwin
  41. Mr. Klin Thephatsadin Na Ayutthaya
  42. Mr. Son Bunchung
  43. Mr. Yon Samananon
  44. Mr. Yin Samananon
  45. Police Lieutenant Choei Kalanchai
  46. Police Lieutenant Thiang Chaloemsak.

See also

References

  1. ^ Prachathai, the Last Member of Khana Ratsadon dead, 24 June 2009

Further reading

  • Sombat Thamrongthanyawong. (2006) Kan mueang kan pok khrong thai phoso 1762-2500 (Fourth publication). Bangkok: Sematham Publishing House.
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