Kagayanen language

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Kagayanen
Native to Philippines
Region eastern Palawan
Native speakers
30,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 cgc
Glottolog kaga1256[2]
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The Kagayanen language is spoken in the province of Palawan in the Philippines.

Distribution

Kagayanen is spoken in the following areas (Ethnologue).

Phonology

Kagayanen consonant phonemes[3]
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative s (h)
Approximant
(Lateral)
ð̞ j w
l
Rhotic r

[h] occurs only in loan words, proper names, or in words that have [h] in the cognates of neighboring languages.[4] Outside of loanwords, /d/ becomes [r] between vowels.[5]

Comparative and historical evidence suggests that /ð̞/ and /l/ were in complementary distribution before a split occurred with pressure from contact with English, Spanish, and Tagalog.[6]

Vowels of Kagayanen[7]
Front Central Back
Close i ə u
Open a

/i/ ranges between [i] and [e], except in unstressed syllables (as well as before consonant clusters) where it lowers to [ɪ] or [ɛ].[8] Similarly, /u/ lowers to [ʊ] in unstressed syllables, before consonant clusters, and word-finally. It is otherwise [u].[9]

Notes

  1. ^ Kagayanen at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kagayanen". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Olson et al. (2010:206)
  4. ^ Olson et al. (2010:206), citing MacGregor (1995:365)
  5. ^ Olson et al. (2010:207)
  6. ^ Olson et al. (2010:207–209)
  7. ^ Olson & Mielke (2007)
  8. ^ Olson & Mielke (2007:845)
  9. ^ Olson & Mielke (2007:847)

References

  • MacGregor, Louise A. (1995), "Kagayanen: Introduction and wordlist", in Tryon, Darrell T., Comparative Austronesian dictionary: An introduction to Austronesian studies, part 1: fascicle 1, Trends in Linguistics., 10, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 363–368 
  • Olson, Kenneth S.; Mielke, Jeff (2007), "Acoustic properties of the Kagayanen vowel space", in Trouvain, Jürgen; Barry, William, Proceedinngs of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (PDF), Universität des Saarlandes, pp. 845–848, retrieved 2009-03-15  Missing |last2= in Editors list (help)
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296 
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