K

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Writing cursive forms of K

K (named kay /k/)[1] is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. In English, the letter K usually represents the voiceless velar plosive.

History

Egyptian hieroglyph D Proto-Semitic K Phoenician
K
Etruscan K Greek
Kappa
d
Proto-semiticK-01.svg PhoenicianK-01.svg EtruscanK-01.svg Kappa uc lc.svg

The letter K comes from the Greek letter Κ (kappa), which was taken from the Semitic kap, the symbol for an open hand.[2] This, in turn, was likely adapted by Semites who had lived in Egypt from the hieroglyph for "hand" representing D in the Egyptian word for hand, d-r-t. The Semites evidently assigned it the sound value /k/ instead, because their word for hand started with that sound.[3]

In the earliest Latin inscriptions, the letters C, K and Q were all used to represent the sounds /k/ and /g/ (which were not differentiated in writing). Of these, Q was used to represent /k/ or /g/ before a rounded vowel, K before /a/, and C elsewhere. Later, the use of C and its variant G replaced most usages of K and Q. K survived only in a few fossilized forms such as Kalendae, "the calends".[4]

After Greek words were taken into Latin, the Kappa was transliterated as a C. Loanwords from other alphabets with the sound /k/ were also transliterated with C. Hence, the Romance languages generally use C and have K only in later loanwords from other language groups. The Celtic languages also tended to use C instead of K, and this influence carried over into Old English.

Use in writing systems

English

Today, English is the only Germanic language to productively use "hard" ⟨c⟩ (outside of the digraph ⟨ck⟩) rather than ⟨k⟩ (although Dutch uses it in loaned words of Latin origin, and the pronunciation of these words follows the same hard/soft distinction as in English).[citation needed] The letter ⟨k⟩ is usually silent at the start of an English word when it comes before the letter ⟨n⟩, as in the words "knight," "knife," "knot," "know," and "knee". Like J, X, Q, and Z, K is not used very frequently in English. It is the fifth least frequently used letter in the English language, with a frequency of about 0.8% in words.

Number

The SI prefix for a thousand is kilo-, officially abbreviated as k—for instance, prefixed to "metre" or its abbreviation m, kilometre or km signifies a thousand metres. As such, people occasionally represent numbers in a non-standard notation by replacing the last three zeros of the general numeral with "K": for instance, 30K for 30,000.

Other languages

In most languages where it is employed, this letter represents the sound /k/ (with or without aspiration) or some similar sound.

Other systems

The International Phonetic Alphabet uses ⟨k⟩ for the voiceless velar plosive.

Related characters

Ancestors, descendants and siblings

  • 𐤊 : Semitic letter Kaph, from which the following symbols originally derive
  • Κ κ/ϰ : Greek letter Kappa, from which K derives
  • К к : Cyrillic letter Ka, also derived from Kappa
  • K with diacritics: Ƙ ƙ Ꝁ ꝁ Ǩ ǩ Ḳ ḳ Ķ ķ Ⱪ ⱪ Ḵ ḵ
  • The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet uses various forms of the letter K:[5]
    • U+1D0B LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL K
    • U+1D37 MODIFIER LETTER CAPITAL K
    • U+1D4F MODIFIER LETTER SMALL K
  • ₖ : Subscript small k was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902[6]
  • Ʞ ʞ : Turned capital and small k were used in transcriptions of the Dakota language in publications of the American Board of Ethnology in the late 19th century.[7] Turned small k was also used for a velar click in the International Phonetic Alphabet but its use was withdrawn in 1970.

Ligatures and abbreviations

Computing codes

Character K k
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER K LATIN SMALL LETTER K KELVIN SIGN
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 75 U+004B 107 U+006B 8490 U+212A
UTF-8 75 4B 107 6B 226 132 170 E2 84 AA
Numeric character reference K K k k K K
EBCDIC family 210 D2 146 92
ASCII 1 75 4B 107 6B
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and nMacintosh families of encodings.

Other representation

NATO phonetic Morse code
Kilo –·–
ICS Kilo.svg Semaphore Kilo.svg Sign language K.svg ⠅
Signal flag Flag semaphore American manual alphabet (ASL fingerspelling) Braille
dots-13

Other usage

References

  1. ^ "K" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "kay," op. cit.
  2. ^ "K". The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., 1977, online(registration required)[dead link]
  3. ^ Gordon, Cyrus H. (1970). "The Accidental Invention of the Phonemic Alphabet". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 29 (3): 193. JSTOR 543451. doi:10.1086/372069. 
  4. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995). New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin (illustrated ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-19-508345-8. 
  5. ^ Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF). 
  6. ^ Ruppel, Klaas; Aalto, Tero; Everson, Michael (2009-01-27). "L2/09-028: Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF). 
  7. ^ Everson, Michael; Jacquerye, Denis; Lilley, Chris (2012-07-26). "L2/12-270: Proposal for the addition of ten Latin characters to the UCS" (PDF). 
  8. ^ Everson, Michael; Baker, Peter; Emiliano, António; Grammel, Florian; Haugen, Odd Einar; Luft, Diana; Pedro, Susana; Schumacher, Gerd; Stötzner, Andreas (2006-01-30). "L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF). 
  9. ^ Stephen Phillips (2009-06-04). "International Morse Code". 

External links

  • Media related to K at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of K at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of k at Wiktionary
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