Junagadh State

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Junagadh State
Princely State of British India

Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Junagadh
Location of Junagadh State in Saurashtra,
among all princely states shown in pink
 •  Established 1730
 •  Indian integration of Junagadh 1948
 •  1921 8,643 km2 (3,337 sq mi)
 •  1921 465,493 
Density 53.9 /km2  (139.5 /sq mi)
Today part of Gujarat, India

Junagadh was a princely state in Gujarat [1] ruled by the Muslim Babi or Babai dynasty in British India, until its integration into the Indian Union in 1948.


Muhammad Sher Khan Babai was the founder of the Babi dynasty of Junagadh State in 1654. His descendants, the Babi Nawabs of Junagadh, conquered large territories in southern Saurashtra.

However, during the collapse of the Mughal Empire, the Babis became involved in a struggle with the Gaekwad dynasty of the Maratha Empire over control of Gujarat during the reign of the local Mohammad Mahabat Khanji I. Mohammad Khan Bahadur Khanji I declared independence from the Mughal governor of Gujarat subah, and founded the state of Junagadh in 1730. This allowed the Babi to retain sovereignty of Junagadh and other princely states. During the reign of his heir Junagadh was a tributary to the Maratha Empire,[2] until it came under British suzerainty in 1807 under Mohammad Hamid Khanji I,[1] following the Second Anglo-Maratha War.

In 1807, the Junagadh State became a British protectorate and The East India Company took control of the state. By 1818, the Saurashtra area, along with other princely states of Kathiawar, were separately administrated under the Kathiawar Agency by British India.

In 1947, upon the independence and partition of India, the last Babi dynasty ruler of the state, Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III, decided to merge Junagadh into the newly formed Pakistan. However, the Hindu citizens, who formed the majority of the population, revolted, leading to several events and also a plebiscite, resulting in the integration of Junagadh into India.[3]


The Nawabs of Junagadh belonged to Pathan Babi or Babai (Pashtun tribe). They were granted a 13 gun salute by the British authorities:[4]

  • 1730–1758 : Mohammad Bahadur Khanji I or Mohammad Sher Khan Babai [5]
  • 1758–1774 : Mohammad Mahabat Khanji I
  • 1774–1811 : Mohammad Hamid Khanji I
  • 1811–1840 : Mohammad Bahadur Khanji II
  • 1840–1851 : Mohammad Hamid Khanji II
  • 1851–1882 : Mohammad Mahabat Khanji II
  • 1882–1892 : Mohammad Bahadur Khanji III
  • 1892–1911 : Mohammad Rasul Khanji
  • 1911–1948 : Mohammad Mahabat Khanji III (last de facto ruler)
Junagadh Nawabs and state officials, 19th century
Mohammad Mahabat Khanji II, the Nawab of Junagarh, with young, Mohammad Bahadur Khanji III, 1870s
Bahadur Khanji II (r. 1882–1892), Nawab of Junagadh, and state officials, 1880s
Mohammad Rasul Khanji, Nawab of Junagadh, Bahaduddinbhai Hasainbhai, Wazier, Junagadh, 1890s

Koli Revolt In Junagadh State

Koli revolt in junagadh raised q by Mansa Khant during time of Nawab Sher Khan the first ruler of junagadh. He was against Mughal Rule, Made Uparkot Fort his centre. He made a series of raids in surrounding villages and cities. Nawab was unsuccessful to control the rebellion. Mansa khant occupied the uparkot for thirteen months and make numerous raids mostly in countryside. Nawab started compaign against khant. Nawab was assisted by king of Gondal State thakur haloji Jadeja and arab jamadar sheikh abdullah zubeidi. The combined forces defeated the khant and captured uparkot and burnt down the rebellion.[6][7]

Integration into India

In 1947, Shah Nawaz Bhutto joined the council of ministers of Nawab Muhammad Mahabat Khan III, and in May became his dewan or prime minister.

With the independence of India in 1947, the princely states were left by the British to decide whether to accede to one of the newly independent states of India or Pakistan or to remain outside them. The Constitutional Advisor to the Nawab, Nabi Baksh, indicated to Lord Mountbatten that he was recommending that Junagadh should join India. However, upon the advice of Dewan Bhutto, on 15 August 1947, the Nawab announced that Junagadh had acceded to Pakistan. On 13 September, the Government of Pakistan accepted the accession.[8]

The Hindu majority of Junagadh revolted, leading to the near-collapse of the state government, and a December plebiscite which overwhelmingly called for the integration of Junagadh into India.[3] Nawab Muhammad Mahabat Khan III of Junagadh (erstwhile Babi nawab dynasty of Junagadh) left to live in Sindh, Pakistan.[9]

See also


  1. ^ a b Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Junagarh". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 554–555.
  2. ^ Georg Pfeffer and Deepak Kumar Behera, Contemporary Society: Concept of tribal society, p. 198
  3. ^ a b Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan. p. 292.
  4. ^ Soszynski, Henry. "JUNAGADH".
  5. ^ Nawabs of Junagadh Archived 9 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. British Library.
  6. ^ Williams, Raymond Brady; Trivedi, Yogi (2016-05-12). Swaminarayan Hinduism: Tradition, Adaptation, and Identity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199089598.
  7. ^ shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in (PDF) http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/59303/8/08_chapter%20iv.pdf. Retrieved 2019-01-01. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ Menon, V. P. (1956). The Story of Integration of the Indian States (PDF). Orient Longman. pp. 85–87.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 February 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2016.

External links

  • Official website
  • Classic Gallery of Indian Numismatics
  • Heraldry of the princely states of Gujarat

Coordinates: 21°31′N 70°28′E / 21.52°N 70.47°E / 21.52; 70.47

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