July 1944

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1944
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The following events occurred in July 1944:

July 1, 1944 (Saturday)

July 2, 1944 (Sunday)

July 3, 1944 (Monday)

July 4, 1944 (Tuesday)

July 5, 1944 (Wednesday)

July 6, 1944 (Thursday)

July 7, 1944 (Friday)

  • Regent of Hungary Miklós Horthy ordered a stop to the deportation of Jews from the country. Even so, the Nazis declared all of Hungary except for Budapest free of Jews.[10]
  • Japanese destroyer Tamanani was torpedoed and sunk off Manila by the American submarine Mingo.
  • German submarine U-678 was sunk in the English Channel by Allied warships.
  • The horror film The Mummy's Ghost starring Lon Chaney, Jr. was released.
  • Died: Georges Mandel, 59, French journalist, politician and French Resistance leader (executed by the Milice)

July 8, 1944 (Saturday)

July 9, 1944 (Sunday)

July 10, 1944 (Monday)

  • Because of the danger of the German flying bombs, over 41,000 mothers and children left London in the second wartime exodus from the city and returned to their former wartime billets in the country.[5]
  • The Battle of Vyborg Bay ended in defensive victory for the German/Finnish forces.
  • The Battle of Driniumor River began near Aitape in New Guinea.
  • The Axis troopship SS Duilio was sunk at Trieste by Allied aircraft.

July 11, 1944 (Tuesday)

July 12, 1944 (Wednesday)

July 13, 1944 (Thursday)

July 14, 1944 (Friday)

July 15, 1944 (Saturday)

July 16, 1944 (Sunday)

July 17, 1944 (Monday)

July 18, 1944 (Tuesday)

July 19, 1944 (Wednesday)

July 20, 1944 (Thursday)

  • 20 July Plot: An attempt was made to assassinate Adolf Hitler, perpetrated by Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators within the German military. At 12:42 p.m. during a conference at the Wolf's Lair, a bomb that Stauffenberg had concealed inside a briefcase went off, killing a stenographer and leaving three officers near death. The others in the room, including Hitler himself, were wounded but survived.[21]
  • Stauffenberg flew to Berlin to carry out the next step of the military coup, but the plan stalled when he was unable to get confirmation that Hitler was dead. A radio broadcast at 6:30 p.m. reported that Hitler had survived and the situation became increasingly confused. By the end of the day the coup had failed and Hitler loyalists began arresting the conspirators.[22][23]
  • A few minutes past four in the afternoon, Benito Mussolini arrived at the train station of the Wolf's Lair as scheduled and was surprised to see Hitler with his right arm in a sling. After learning of what had happened Mussolini was unsure of what he should do and considered leaving immediately, but he went ahead with his requests that included two Italian divisions to be sent from Germany and a pardon for four Italian naval officers who had just been condemned to death. Hitler, convinced that his remarkable escape was a sure sign of victory, was in a gracious mood and agreed to grant Mussolini almost everything he'd asked for. It would be the final meeting between the two dictators.[21]
  • The Battle of Auvere began as part of the larger Battle of Narva on the Eastern Front.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed the Democratic National Convention after being nominated for an unprecedented fourth presidential term. Speaking from the naval base in San Diego, he said his decision to accept the nomination was "based solely on a sense of obligation to serve if called upon to do so by the people of the United States." The president also said he would "not campaign, in the usual sense, for the office. In these days of tragic sorrow, I do not consider it fitting. And besides, in these days of global warfare, I shall not be able to find the time. I shall, however, feel free to report to the people the facts about matters of concern to them and especially to correct any misrepresentations."[24]
  • British destroyer Isis struck a mine and sank off Normandy.
  • The epic drama film Since You Went Away starring Claudette Colbert, Jennifer Jones, Joseph Cotten and Shirley Temple had its world premiere at the Capitol Theatre in New York City.[25]
  • Born: Mel Daniels, Hall of Fame basketball player, in Detroit, Michigan (d. 2015)
  • Died: Mildred Harris, 42, American film actress

July 21, 1944 (Friday)

  • At 1 a.m., Hitler gave a speech over the radio to prove to the German people that he was still alive. He declared that the conspirators would be "exterminated quite mercilessly."[26][27]
  • German troops poured into Berlin the day after the attempt on Hitler's life.[5]
  • Harry S. Truman was nominated to be President Roosevelt's running mate at the Democratic National Convention. The incumbent Vice President Henry A. Wallace won the first ballot, but on the second vote the supporters of William O. Douglas switched their support to Truman.[5]
  • Heinz Guderian succeeded Kurt Zeitzler as Chief of Staff of the German Army.[22]
  • The Battle of Guam began.
  • German submarine U-212 was depth charged and sunk south of Brighton by British warships.
  • Democratic vice presidential nomination of 1944: On the final day of the Democratic National Convention, Harry S. Truman won the vice presidential nomination due to dissatisfaction among party leaders with the incumbent Vice President Henry A. Wallace. Truman came to the podium and gave one of the shortest acceptance speeches on record, lasting less than a minute.[28]
  • Born: Paul Wellstone, politician, in Washington, D.C. (d. 2002)
  • Died: Ludwig Beck, 64, German general and member of the 20 July bomb plot (shot by a German sergeant after his suicide attempt only severely wounded himself); Heinz Brandt, 37, German Wehrmacht staff officer (died of wounds sustained in the 20 July bomb plot); Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim, 39, German colonel (executed by firing squad for his involvement in the 20 July plot); Claus von Stauffenberg, 36, German army officer and leading member of the 20 July plot (executed)

July 22, 1944 (Saturday)

July 23, 1944 (Sunday)

July 24, 1944 (Monday)

July 25, 1944 (Tuesday)

July 26, 1944 (Wednesday)

July 27, 1944 (Thursday)

  • The Lwów Uprising ended in Polish victory and the liberation of the city from the Nazis, although the Polish fighters would shortly afterwards be arrested by the invading Soviets.
  • The Gloster Meteor, the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only operational jet aircraft of the war, entered active service with No. 616 Squadron RAF.
  • The Belostock Offensive ended in Soviet victory.
  • Operation Spring ended in German tactical success but Allied strategic victory.
  • The Soviet submarine V-1 (formerly HMS Sunfish) was bombed and sunk off Norway by an RAF Liberator when she dived instead of firing recognition signals that the submarine was friendly.
  • Born: Bobbie Gentry, singer-songwriter, in Chickasaw County, Mississippi

July 28, 1944 (Friday)

PVT John MacDonald from Hoboken, NJ of the 38th Infantry 2nd Div. company E was killed in WW II

July 29, 1944 (Saturday)

  • Radio Moscow broadcast appeals from Polish communists for Warsaw to rise up against the German occupiers.[15]
  • During the Battle of Guam, the U.S. III Amphibious Corps captured Orote Peninsula, including an airstrip.[32]
  • Died: Hans Collani, 36, German SS officer (committed suicide as his command post was being overrun by the Red Army); Bin Uehara, 35, Japanese popular music singer and soldier (killed in action in New Guinea)

July 30, 1944 (Sunday)

July 31, 1944 (Monday)

References

  1. ^ "War Diary for Saturday, 1 July 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  2. ^ Fredricksen, John C. (2001). America's Military Adversaries: From Colonial Times to the Present. ABC CLIO. p. 444. ISBN 978-1-57607-603-3. 
  3. ^ "Events occurring on Saturday, July 1, 1944". WW2 Timelines. 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  4. ^ "War Diary for Monday, 3 July 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Mercer, Derrik, ed. (1989). Chronicle of the 20th Century. London: Chronicle Communications Ltd. pp. 605–606. ISBN 978-0-582-03919-3. 
  6. ^ "Campaign Diary July 1944". The National Archives. Archived from the original on July 6, 2007. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  7. ^ "Auschwitz: Chronology". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  8. ^ "Casualties, Damage and Counter-Measures". ibiblio. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  9. ^ Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. "Was Jackie Robinson Court-Martialed?". PBS. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  10. ^ Lindeman, Yehudi (2007). Shards of Memory: Narratives of Holocaust Survival. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-275-99423-5. 
  11. ^ "1944: Key Dates". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  12. ^ "War Diary for Wednesday, 12 July 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  13. ^ "Conflict Timeline, July 6-15 1944". OnWar.com. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c d Mitcham, Samuel W., Jr. (2001). The German Defeat in the East, 1944–45. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-8117-3371-7. 
  15. ^ a b "1944". MusicAndHistory. Retrieved March 1, 2016. [permanent dead link]
  16. ^ "War Diary for Sunday, 16 July 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  17. ^ a b c "Conflict Timeline, July 16-25 1944". OnWar.com. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  18. ^ Zaloga, Steven J. (2001). Operation Cobra 1944: Breakout from Normandy. Osprey Publishing Ltd. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-84176-296-8. 
  19. ^ Williamson, Gordon (2005). German Commanders of World War II (1): Army. Osprey Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-84176-596-9. 
  20. ^ Pitt, Steve (2008). Day of the Flying Fox: The True Story of World War II Pilot Charley Fox. Toronto: Dundurn Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-55002-808-9. 
  21. ^ a b Corvaja, Santi (2008). Hitler & Mussolini: The Secret Meetings. New York: Enigma Books. pp. 291, 293–295, 302. ISBN 978-1-929631-42-1. 
  22. ^ a b c d Davidson, Edward; Manning, Dale (1999). Chronology of World War Two. London: Cassell & Co. pp. 204–205. ISBN 0-304-35309-4. 
  23. ^ Short, Neil (2013). Kill Hitler - Operation Valkyrie. Osprey Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-78096-258-0. 
  24. ^ Jordan, David M. (2011). FDR, Dewey, and the Election of 1944. Indiana University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-253-35683-3. 
  25. ^ Holston, Kim R. (2013). Movie Roadshows: A History and Filmography of Reserved-Seat Limited Showings, 1911–1973. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-7864-6062-5. 
  26. ^ "Hitler to Germany: 'I'm still alive.'". History. A&E Networks. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  27. ^ "That You May Hear My Voice". ibiblio. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  28. ^ Jordan, p. 176.
  29. ^ "22/07/1944: The Liberation of Majdanek Concentration Camp". Holocaust Memorial Day Trust. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  30. ^ "War Diary for Sunday, 23 July 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  31. ^ Chen, C. Peter. "Pacific Strategy Conference". World War II Database. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  32. ^ "War Diary for Saturday, 29 July 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
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