Julius Streicher

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Julius Streicher
StreicherDarkerSharpHLSL.jpg
Julius Streicher as a defendant before the International Military Tribunal
Gauleiter of Franconia
In office
1929 – 16 February 1940
Leader Adolf Hitler
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Hans Zimmermann
(Acting, 1940)
Karl Holz
(acting from 1942, permanent from 1944)
Personal details
Born (1885-02-12)12 February 1885
Fleinhausen, Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire
Died 16 October 1946(1946-10-16) (aged 61)
Nuremberg, American Occupied Zone, Germany
Political party National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)
Spouse(s) Kunigunde Roth (m. 1913, died 1943)
Adele Tappe (m. 1945)
Children Lothar
Elmar
Profession Teacher, publisher, propagandist

Julius Streicher (12 February 1885 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) prior to World War II. He was the founder and publisher of the anti-Semitic newspaper Der Stürmer, which became a central element of the Nazi propaganda machine. His publishing firm also released three anti-Semitic books for children, including the 1938 Der Giftpilz (translated into English as The Toadstool or The Poisonous Mushroom[1]), one of the most widespread pieces of propaganda, which warned about the supposed dangers Jews posed by using the metaphor of an attractive yet deadly mushroom. The publishing firm was financially very successful and made Streicher a multi-millionaire.[2]

After the war, Streicher was convicted of crimes against humanity and executed.[3]

Early life

Streicher was born in Fleinhausen, Kingdom of Bavaria, one of nine children of the teacher Friedrich Streicher and his wife Anna (née Weiss). He worked as an elementary school teacher like his father, and in 1921 he began his political career, joining the NSDAP.[3] He would later claim that because his political work brought him into contact with German Jews, he "must therefore have been fated to become later-on, a writer and speaker on racial politics."[4][a] In 1913 Streicher married Kunigunde Roth, a baker's daughter, in Nuremberg. They had two sons, Lothar (born 1915) and Elmar (born 1918).[6]

Streicher joined the German Army in 1914. For his outstanding combat performance during the First World War, he was awarded the Iron Cross 1st and 2nd Class, as well as earning a battlefield commission as an officer (lieutenant), despite having several reported instances of poor behavior in his military record,[7] and at a time when officers were primarily from aristocratic families. Following the end of World War I, Streicher was demobilized and returned to Nuremberg.[8] Upon his return, Steicher took up another teaching position there but something happened (unknown) in 1919, which turned him into a "radical anti-Semite."[9]

Early politics

In February 1919 Streicher became active in the anti-Semitic Deutschvölkischer Schutz und Trutzbund (German Nationalist Protection and Defense Federation), one of the various radical-nationalist organizations that sprang up in the wake of the failed German Communist revolution of 1918.[10] Such groups fostered the view that Jews and "Bolsheviks" were synonymous, and that they were traitors trying to subject Germany to Communist rule.[11][12] In 1920 Streicher turned to the Deutschsozialistische Partei (German-Socialist Party), a group whose platform was close to that of the young NSDAP, or Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (National Socialist German Workers' Party). The German Socialist Party (Deutsch-Sozialistische Partei, DSP) was created in May 1919 as an initiative of Rudolf von Sebottendorf as a child of the Thule Society,[13][14] and its program was based on the ideas of the mechanical engineer Alfred Brunner (1881–1936)[15][b] Leading members of the DSP were Hans Georg Müller, Max Sesselmann and Dr. Friedrich Wiesel, the first two editors of the Münchner Beobachter. Julius Streicher founded his local branch in 1919 in Nuremberg.[16] The DSP was officially inaugurated in 1919 in Hanover.[14]

By the end of 1919, the DSP had branches in Düsseldorf, Kiel, Frankfurt am Main, Dresden, Nuremberg and Munich.[15] Streicher sought to move the German Socialists in a more virulently anti-Semitic direction – an effort which aroused enough opposition that he left the group and brought his now-substantial following to yet another organization in 1921, the Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft (German Working Community), which hoped to unite the various anti-Semitic völkisch movements.[17] Meanwhile, Streicher's rhetoric against the Jews continued to intensify to such a degree that the leadership of the Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft thought he was dangerous and criticized him for his obsessive "hatred of the Jews and foreign races."[18]

Nazism

In 1921, Streicher found his mentor. He visited Munich in order to hear Adolf Hitler speak, an experience that he later said left him transformed. When asked about that moment, Streicher stated:

It was on a winter's day in 1922. I sat unknown in the large hall of the Bürgerbräuhaus...suspense was in the air. Everyone seemed tense with excitement, with anticipation. Then suddenly a shout. "Hitler is coming!" Thousands of men and women jumped to their feet as if propelled by a mysterious power...they shouted, "Heil Hitler! Heil Hitler!"...And then he stood on the podium...Then I knew that in this Adolf Hitler was someone extraordinary...Here was one who could wrest out of the German spirit and the German heart the power to break the chains of slavery. Yes! Yes! This man spoke as a messenger from heaven at a time when the gates of hell were opening to pull down everything. And when he finally finished, and while the crowd raised the roof with the singing of the "Deutschland" song, I rushed to the stage.[19]

Nearly religiously converted by this speech, Streicher believed from this point forward that, "it was his destiny to serve Hitler."[20] That same year, Streicher joined the Nazi Party (NSDAP) and merged his personal following with Hitler's, more than doubling the party membership.[21] In May 1923 Streicher founded the newspaper Der Stürmer (The Stormer, or, loosely, The Attacker).[22] From the outset, the chief aim of the paper was to promulgate anti-Semitic propaganda. For example, the first issue had an excerpt that stated, "As long as the Jew is in the German household, we will be Jewish slaves. Therefore he must go."[23]

In November 1923, Streicher participated in Hitler’s first effort to seize power, the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich. Streicher marched with Hitler in the front row of the would-be revolutionaries. As a result of his participation in the attempted Putsch, Streicher was suspended from teaching school.[24] His loyalty to the cause earned him Hitler's lifelong trust and protection; in the years that followed, Streicher would be one of the dictator's few true intimates.[25] Within the pages of Mein Kampf, Hitler even praised Streicher for subordinating the German Socialist Party to the Nazi Party, a move Hitler believed was essential to the success of the National Socialists.[26] When Hitler was released from his sentence at Landsberg am Lech on 20 December 1924 for his role in the Putsch, Streicher was one of the few remaining followers waiting for him at his Munich apartment.[27]

As a reward for his dedication, when the Nazi Party was again legalized and re-organized in 1925 Streicher was appointed Gauleiter of the Bavarian region of Franconia (which included his home town of Nuremberg).[28] In the early years of the party’s rise, Gauleiter were essentially party functionaries without real power; but in the final years of the Weimar Republic, as the Nazi Party grew, so did their power as regional party leaders. An early confidant of Streicher, who in October 1923 had founded one of the earliest Nazi student fraternities at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, was Ludwig Franz Gengler (de), and he was considered by party comrades to be the "intellectual leader of the Nuremberg Gau".[29][c] During the 12 years of the Nazi regime, party Gauleiter like Streicher would wield immense power, and be in large measure untouchable by legal authority. Streicher was also elected to the Bavarian "Landtag" or legislature,[28] a position which gave him a margin of parliamentary immunity – a safety net that would help him resist efforts to silence his racist message.[25]

Rise of Der Stürmer

German citizens, public reading of Der Stürmer, Worms, 1933

Beginning in 1924, Streicher used Der Stürmer as a mouthpiece not only for general antisemitic attacks, but for calculated smear campaigns against specific Jews, such as the Nuremberg city official Julius Fleischmann, who worked for Streicher's nemesis, mayor Hermann Luppe (de). Der Stürmer accused Fleischmann of stealing socks from his quartermaster during combat in World War I. Fleischmann sued Streicher and disproved the allegations in court, where Streicher was fined 900 marks but the detailed testimony exposed less-than-glorious details of Fleischmann's record, and his reputation was badly damaged. It was proof that Streicher's unofficial motto for his tactics was correct: "Something always sticks."[25][d] Der Stürmer's infamous official slogan, Die Juden sind unser Unglück (the Jews are our misfortune) was deemed non-actionable under German statutes, since it was not a direct incitement to violence.[25]

Streicher's opponents complained to authorities that Der Stürmer violated a statute against religious offense with his constant promulgation of the "blood libel" – the medieval accusation that Jews killed Christian children to use their blood to make matzoh. Streicher argued that his accusations were based on race, not religion, and that his communications were political speech, and therefore protected by the German constitution.[25]

Streicher orchestrated his early campaigns against Jews to make the most extreme possible claims, short of violating a law that might get the paper shut down. He insisted in the pages of his newspaper that the Jews had caused the worldwide Depression, and were responsible for the crippling unemployment and inflation which afflicted Germany during the 1920s. He claimed that Jews were white-slavers responsible for Germany's prostitution rings. Real unsolved killings in Germany, especially of children or women, were often confidently explained in the pages of Der Stürmer as cases of "Jewish ritual murder."[30]

One of Streicher's constant themes was the sexual violation of ethnically German women by Jews, a subject which he used to publish semi-pornographic tracts and images detailing degrading sexual acts.[31][32] The fascination with the pornographic aspects of the propaganda in Der Stürmer was an important feature for many anti-Semites.[33] With the help of his notorious cartoonist Phillip "Fips" Rupprecht, Streicher published image after image of Jewish stereotypes and sexually-charged encounters.[34] His portrayal of Jews as subhuman and evil is widely considered to have played a critical role in the dehumanization and marginalization of the Jewish minority in the eyes of common Germans – creating the necessary conditions for the later perpetration of the Holocaust.[35][36][e] To protect himself from accountability, Streicher relied on Hitler's protection. Hitler declared that Der Stürmer was his favorite newspaper, and saw to it that each weekly issue was posted for public reading in special glassed-in display cases known as "Stürmerkasten". The newspaper reached a peak circulation of 600,000 in 1935.[37] One of the possible solutions to the Jewish problem Streicher mentioned within the pages of Der Stürmer before it was officially tabled as a possibility, was shipping all of them to Madagascar.[38]

Streicher in power

In April 1933, after Nazi control of the German state apparatus gave the Gauleiters enormous power, Streicher organised a one-day boycott of Jewish businesses which was used as a dress-rehearsal for other anti-Semitic commercial measures. As he consolidated his hold on power, he came to more or less rule the city of Nuremberg and his Gau Franken. Among the nicknames provided by his enemies were "King of Nuremberg" and the "Beast of Franconia." Because of his role as Gauleiter of Franconia, he also gained the nickname of Frankenführer.[39]

A ruined synagogue in Munich after Kristallnacht
A ruined synagogue in Eisenach after Kristallnacht

Streicher later claimed that he was only "indirectly responsible" for passage of the anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and that he felt slighted because he was not directly consulted. Perhaps epitomizing the "profound anti-intellectualism" of the Nazi party, Streicher once opined that, "If the brains of all university professors were put at one end of the scale, and the brains of the Führer at the other, which end do you think would tip?"[40]

Streicher was ordered to take part in the establishment of the Institute for the Study and Elimination of Jewish Influence on German Church Life, that was to be organized together with the German Christians, the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, the Reich Ministry of Education and the Reich Ministry of the Churches. A surgical operation prevented Streicher from being able to fully participate and engage in this endeavor.[41] This anti-Semitic standpoint concerning the bible can be traced back to the earliest time of the Nazi movement, e.g., Dietrich Eckart's (Hitler's early mentor) book Bolshevism from Moses to Lenin: A Dialogue Between Adolf Hitler and Me, where it was claimed that "Jewish forgeries" had been added to the New Testament.[42]

In 1938, Streicher ordered the Great Synagogue of Nuremberg destroyed as part of his contribution to Kristallnacht; he later claimed that his decision was based on his disapproval of its architectural design, which in his opinion "disfigured the beautiful German townscape."[43]

Fall from power

Streicher's excesses brought condemnation even from other Nazis. His behaviour was viewed as so irresponsible that he was embarrassing the party leadership;[44] chief among his enemies in Hitler's hierarchy was Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, who loathed him and later claimed that he forbade his own staff to read Der Stürmer.[45]

Despite his special relationship with Hitler, after 1938 Streicher's position began to unravel. He was accused of keeping Jewish property seized after Kristallnacht in November 1938; he was charged with spreading untrue stories about Göring – such as alleging that Göring's daughter Edda was conceived by artificial insemination; and he was confronted with his excessive personal behaviour, including unconcealed adultery, several furious verbal attacks on other Gauleiters and striding through the streets of Nuremberg cracking a bullwhip.[46][f] In February 1940 he was stripped of his party offices and withdrew from the public eye, although he was permitted to continue publishing Der Stürmer. Hitler remained committed to Streicher, whom he considered a loyal friend, despite his unsavory reputation.[47]

Streicher's wife, Kunigunde Streicher, died in 1943 after 30 years of marriage.[48]

When Germany surrendered to the Allied armies in May 1945, Streicher said later, he decided to commit suicide. Instead, he married his former secretary, Adele Tappe.[49] Days later, on 23 May 1945, Streicher was captured in the town of Waidring, Austria, by a group of American officers led by Major Henry Plitt.[50][g]

Trial and execution

Julius Streicher in custody

During his trial, Streicher claimed that he had been mistreated by Allied soldiers after his capture.[51] Julius Streicher was not a member of the military and did not take part in planning the Holocaust, or the invasion of other nations. Yet his pivotal role in inciting the extermination of Jews was significant enough, in the prosecutors' judgment, to include him in the indictment of Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal – which sat in Nuremberg, where Streicher had once been an unchallenged authority. He complained throughout the process that all his judges were Jews.[52] Most of the evidence against Streicher came from his numerous speeches and articles over the years.[53] In essence, prosecutors contended that Streicher's articles and speeches were so incendiary that he was an accessory to murder, and therefore as culpable as those who actually ordered the mass extermination of Jews (such as Hans Frank and Ernst Kaltenbrunner). They further argued that he kept them up when he was well aware Jews were being slaughtered.[54]

He was acquitted of crimes against peace, but found guilty of crimes against humanity, and sentenced to death on 1 October 1946. The judgment against him read, in part:

For his 25 years of speaking, writing and preaching hatred of the Jews, Streicher was widely known as 'Jew-Baiter Number One.' In his speeches and articles, week after week, month after month, he infected the German mind with the virus of anti-Semitism, and incited the German people to active persecution. ... Streicher's incitement to murder and extermination at the time when Jews in the East were being killed under the most horrible conditions clearly constitutes persecution on political and racial grounds in connection with war crimes, as defined by the Charter, and constitutes a crime against humanity.[3]

During his trial, Streicher displayed for the last time the flair for courtroom theatrics that had made him famous in the 1920s. He answered questions from his own defence attorney with diatribes against Jews, the Allies, and the court itself, and was frequently silenced by the court officers. Streicher was largely shunned by all of the other Nuremberg defendants. He also peppered his testimony with references to passages of Jewish texts he had so often carefully selected and inserted into the pages of Der Stürmer.[55]

Oct 8, 1946 newsreel of Nuremberg Trials sentencing

Streicher was hanged in the early hours of 16 October 1946, along with the nine other condemned defendants from the first Nuremberg trial (Göring, Streicher's nemesis, committed suicide only hours earlier). Streicher's was the most melodramatic of the hangings carried out that night. At the bottom of the scaffold he cried out "Heil Hitler!". When he mounted the platform, he delivered his last sneering reference to Jewish scripture, snapping "Purimfest!"[56][h] Streicher's final declaration before the hood went over his head was, "The Bolsheviks will hang you one day!"[57] Joseph Kingsbury-Smith, who covered the executions,[i] said in his filed report that after the hood descended over Streicher's head, he also apparently said "Adele, meine liebe Frau!" ("Adele, my dear wife!").[58]

The consensus among eyewitnesses was that Streicher's hanging did not proceed as planned, and that he did not receive the quick death from spinal severing typical of the other executions at Nuremberg. Kingsbury-Smith, who covered the executions for the International News Service, reported that Streicher "went down kicking," which may have dislodged the hangman's knot from its ideal position. Smith stated that Streicher could be heard groaning under the scaffold after he dropped through the trap-door, and that the executioner intervened under the gallows, which was screened by wood panels and a black curtain, to finish the job.[j] U.S. Army Master Sergeant John C. Woods was the main executioner, and not only insisted he had performed all executions correctly, but stated he was very proud of his work.[59]

Streicher's body, as those of the other nine executed men and the corpse of Hermann Göring, was cremated at Ostfriedhof (Munich) and the ashes were scattered.[60]

Portrayals

References

Informational notes

  1. ^ According to Streicher, his dislike of Jews stemmed from an incident when he was but five-years-old, during which he witnessed his mother weeping after claiming to have been cheated by the Jewish owner of a fabric shop.[5]
  2. ^ This system included socialist ideas like the takeover of the financial sector by the state and the cutting-back of the "interest-based economy".
  3. ^ Original in German: "geistiger Leiter des Nürnberger Gaues"
  4. ^ The slanderous attacks continued, and lawsuits followed. Like Fleischmann, other outraged German Jews defeated Streicher in court, but his goal was not necessarily legal victory; he wanted the widest possible dissemination of his message, which press coverage often provided. The rules of the court provided Streicher with an arena to humiliate his opponents, and he characterized the inevitable courtroom loss as a badge of honor.
  5. ^ Streicher also combed the pages of the Talmud and the Old Testament in search of passages potentially depicting Judaism as harsh or cruel. In 1929, this close study of Jewish scripture helped convict Streicher in a case known as "The Great Nuremberg Ritual Murder Trial." His familiarity with Jewish text was proof to the court that his attacks were religious in nature; Streicher was found guilty and imprisoned for two months. In Germany, press reaction to the trial was highly critical of Streicher; but the Gauleiter was greeted after his conviction by hundreds of cheering supporters, and within months Nazi Party membership surged to its highest levels yet.[25]
  6. ^ Streicher's characteristic behaviour is portrayed on screen in the 1944 Hollywood film, The Hitler Gang.
  7. ^ At first Streicher claimed to be a painter named "Joseph Sailer," but, misunderstanding Plitt's poor German, he came to believe the latter already knew who he was, and quickly admitted his identity."Henry Plitt Interview". Archived from the original on August 20, 2009. "U.S. Jewish Major Who Captured Streicher Anxious to Combat Nazi Slurs on Jewish Heroism". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 25 May 1945. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  8. ^ The Jewish holiday Purim celebrates the escape by the Jews from extermination at the hands of Haman, an ancient Persian government official. At the end of the Purim story, Haman is hanged, as are his ten sons. Ephraim Rubin (October 28, 1946). "Purim 1946? Not Exactly". Newsweek. TalkReason. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. 
  9. ^ "J. Kingsbury-Smith; Honored Journalist". Los Angeles Times. Obituaries. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  10. ^ Kingsbury Smith. "Nuremberg News Article Oct. 16, 1946 – The Execution of Nazi War Criminals". University of Missouri-Kansas City. 

Citations

  1. ^ "Der Giftpilz"
  2. ^ Historisches Lexikon Bayerns
  3. ^ a b c Avalon Project–Yale University, Judgement: Streicher.
  4. ^ Friedman 1998, p. 300.
  5. ^ Rees 2017, p. 21.
  6. ^ Bytwerk 2001, p. 5.
  7. ^ Snyder 1976, p. 336.
  8. ^ Bytwerk 2001, p. 6.
  9. ^ Bytwerk 2001, p. 8.
  10. ^ Bracher 1970, pp. 81–82.
  11. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 12–13.
  12. ^ Kershaw 2000, pp. 137–138.
  13. ^ Kershaw 2000, pp. 138–139.
  14. ^ a b Bracher 1970, p. 93.
  15. ^ a b Kershaw 2000, p. 138.
  16. ^ Franz-Willing 1962, p. 89.
  17. ^ Bytwerk 2001, pp. 12–14.
  18. ^ Rees 2017, p. 22.
  19. ^ Dolibois 2000, p. 114.
  20. ^ Rees 2017, pp. 22–23.
  21. ^ Rees 2017, p. 23.
  22. ^ Bytwerk 2001, pp. 51–52.
  23. ^ Bytwerk 2001, p. 52.
  24. ^ Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 921.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Showalter 1997, Jews, Nazis, and the Law: The Case of Julius Streicher.
  26. ^ Bullock 1962, p. 124.
  27. ^ Fest 1974, p. 219.
  28. ^ a b Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 922.
  29. ^ Ruault 2006, p. 267.
  30. ^ Snyder 1989, pp. 47–51.
  31. ^ Bytwerk 2001, pp. 143–150.
  32. ^ Wistrich 2001, p. 42.
  33. ^ Welch 2002, p. 75.
  34. ^ Koonz 2005, pp. 232–233.
  35. ^ Fischer 1995, pp. 135–136.
  36. ^ Welch 2002, p. 76–77.
  37. ^ Snyder 1989, p. 50.
  38. ^ Kershaw 2001, p. 320.
  39. ^ Nadler 1969, p. 5.
  40. ^ Wall 1997, p. 98.
  41. ^ Kater, Mommsen & Papen 1999, pp. 151.
  42. ^ Steigmann-Gall 2003, pp. 17–24.
  43. ^ Kershaw 2001, p. 132.
  44. ^ Snyder 1989, pp. 52–53.
  45. ^ Maser 2000, p. 282.
  46. ^ Snyder 1989, pp. 47, 50–53.
  47. ^ Wistrich 1995, pp. 251–252.
  48. ^ Davidson 1997, p. 43.
  49. ^ Davidson 1997, p. 44.
  50. ^ Tofahrn 2008, p. 163.
  51. ^ Bytwerk 2001, p. 42.
  52. ^ Snyder 1989, pp. 54–56.
  53. ^ Snyder 1989, pp. 56–57.
  54. ^ Snyder 1989, p. 57.
  55. ^ Conot 2000, pp. 381–389.
  56. ^ Wistrich 1995, p. 252.
  57. ^ Conot 2000, p. 506.
  58. ^ Radlmeier 2001, pp. 345–346.
  59. ^ Duff 1999, p. 130.
  60. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2011, p. 393.

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External links

  • Spiegel TV short biography (German)
  • Caricatures from Der Stürmer
  • Der Giftpilz ("The Poison Mushroom")
  • Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 12 Transcript of the testimony of Julius Streicher
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