Julius Streicher

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Julius Streicher
StreicherDarkerSharpHLSL.jpg
incarcerated as a defendant in the Nuremberg trials
Gauleiter of Franconia
In office
1929 – 16 February 1940
Leader Adolf Hitler
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Hans Zimmermann
(Acting, 1940)
Karl Holz
(acting from 1942, permanent from 1944)
Personal details
Born (1885-02-12)12 February 1885
Fleinhausen
Kingdom of Bavaria
German Empire
Died 16 October 1946(1946-10-16) (aged 61)
Nuremberg
American Zone of Occupation
Germany
Political party Nazi Party
Spouse(s) Kunigunde Roth (m. 1913, died 1943)
Adele Tappe (m. 1945)
Children Lothar
Elmar
Profession Publisher of propaganda

Julius Streicher (12 February 1885 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) prior to World War II. He was the founder and publisher of the semi-pornographic and virulently anti-Semitic newspaper Der Stürmer, which became a central element of the Nazi propaganda machine. His publishing firm also released three anti-Semitic books for children, including the 1938 Der Giftpilz (translated into English as The Toadstool or The Poisonous Mushroom[1]), one of the most widespread pieces of propaganda, which warned about the supposed dangers Jews posed by using the metaphor of an attractive yet deadly mushroom. The publishing firm was financially very successful and made Streicher a multi-millionaire.[2]

After falling out with Hermann Göring in 1939, Streicher was declared unfit for leadership by a Nazi Party Court and stripped of his party posts, although he continued to publish Der Stürmer, which was not an official Party publication.[3]

At the end of the war, Streicher was convicted of crimes against humanity in the Nuremberg trials and was executed.[4]

Early life

Streicher was born in Fleinhausen, in the Kingdom of Bavaria, one of nine children of the teacher Friedrich Streicher and his wife Anna (née Weiss). He worked as an elementary school teacher like his father. In 1913, Streicher married Kunigunde Roth, a baker's daughter, in Nuremberg. They had two sons, Lothar (born 1915) and Elmar (born 1918).[5]

Streicher joined the German Army in 1914. For his outstanding combat performance during the First World War, he was awarded the Iron Cross 1st and 2nd Class, as well as earning a battlefield commission as an officer (lieutenant), despite having several reported instances of poor behavior in his military record,[6] and at a time when officers were primarily from aristocratic families. Following the end of World War I, Streicher was demobilized and returned to Nuremberg.[7] Upon his return, Steicher took up another teaching position there but something unknown happened in 1919, which turned him into a "radical anti-Semite."[8]

Early politics

Streicher was heavily influenced by the endemic anti-Semitism of pre-war Germany, especially that of Theodor Fritsch.[9] In February 1919, Streicher became active in the anti-Semitic Deutschvölkischer Schutz und Trutzbund (German Nationalist Protection and Defense Federation), one of the various radical-nationalist organizations that sprang up in the wake of the failed German Communist revolution of 1918.[10] Such groups fostered the view that Jews and "Bolsheviks" were synonymous, and that they were traitors trying to subject Germany to Communist rule.[11][12] In 1920 Streicher turned to the Deutschsozialistische Partei (German-Socialist Party), a group whose platform was close to that of the Nazi Party, or Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (National Socialist German Workers' Party or NSDAP). The German Socialist Party (Deutsch-Sozialistische Partei, DSP) was created in May 1919 as an initiative of Rudolf von Sebottendorf as a child of the Thule Society,[13][14] and its program was based on the ideas of the mechanical engineer Alfred Brunner (1881–1936)[15][a] Leading members of the DSP were Hans Georg Müller, Max Sesselmann and Dr. Friedrich Wiesel, the first two editors of the Münchner Beobachter. Julius Streicher founded his local branch in 1919 in Nuremberg.[16] The DSP was officially inaugurated in 1919 in Hanover.[14]

By the end of 1919, the DSP had branches in Düsseldorf, Kiel, Frankfurt am Main, Dresden, Nuremberg and Munich.[15] Streicher sought to move the German Socialists in a more virulently anti-Semitic direction – an effort which aroused enough opposition that he left the group and brought his now-substantial following to yet another organization in 1921, the Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft (German Working Community), which hoped to unite the various anti-Semitic völkisch movements.[17] Meanwhile, Streicher's rhetoric against the Jews continued to intensify to such a degree that the leadership of the Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft thought he was dangerous and criticized him for his obsessive "hatred of the Jews and foreign races."[18]

Nazism

In 1921 Streicher joined the Nazi Party,[4] bringing with him enough members of the German-Socialist Party to almost double the size of the Nazi Party overnight.[19][20][21] He would later claim that because his political work brought him into contact with German Jews, he "must therefore have been fated to become later on, a writer and speaker on racial politics".[22][b] He visited Munich in order to hear Adolf Hitler speak, an experience that he later said left him transformed. When asked about that moment, Streicher stated:

It was on a winter's day in 1922. I sat unknown in the large hall of the Bürgerbräuhaus...suspense was in the air. Everyone seemed tense with excitement, with anticipation. Then suddenly a shout. "Hitler is coming!" Thousands of men and women jumped to their feet as if propelled by a mysterious power...they shouted, "Heil Hitler! Heil Hitler!"...And then he stood on the podium...Then I knew that in this Adolf Hitler was someone extraordinary...Here was one who could wrest out of the German spirit and the German heart the power to break the chains of slavery. Yes! Yes! This man spoke as a messenger from heaven at a time when the gates of hell were opening to pull down everything. And when he finally finished, and while the crowd raised the roof with the singing of the "Deutschland" song, I rushed to the stage.[24]

Nearly religiously converted by this speech, Streicher believed from this point forward that, "it was his destiny to serve Hitler".[25]

In May 1923 Streicher founded the sensationalist popular newspaper Der Stürmer (The Stormer, or, loosely, The Attacker).[26] From the outset, the chief aim of the paper was to promulgate anti-Semitic propaganda; the first issue had an excerpt that stated, "As long as the Jew is in the German household, we will be Jewish slaves. Therefore he must go".[27] Historian Richard J. Evans describes the newspaper:

[Der Stürmer] rapidly established itself as the place where screaming headlines introduced the most rabid attacks on Jews, full of sexual innuendo, racist caricatures, made-up accusations of ritual murder and titillating, semi-pornographic stories of Jewish men seducing innocent German girls.[19]

In November 1923, Streicher participated in Hitler’s first effort to seize power, the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich. Streicher marched with Hitler in the front row of the would-be revolutionaries. As a result of his participation in the attempted Putsch, Streicher was suspended from teaching school.[28] His loyalty to the cause earned him Hitler's lifelong trust and protection; in the years that followed, Streicher would be one of the dictator's few true intimates.[29] Streicher and Rudolf Hess were the only Nazis mentioned in Mein Kampf;[21] in the book Hitler praised him for subordinating the German Socialist Party to the Nazi Party, a move Hitler believed was essential to the success of the National Socialists.[30] When Hitler was released from his sentence at Landsberg am Lech on 20 December 1924 for his role in the Putsch, Streicher was one of the few remaining followers waiting for him at his Munich apartment.[31]

Hitler – who would value loyalty and faithfulness very highly throughout his life – remained loyal to Streicher even when he landed in trouble with the Nazi hierarchy. Although Hitler would allow suppression of Der Stürmer at times when it was politically important for the Nazis to be seen as respectable, and although he would admit the Streicher was not a very good administrator, he never withdrew his personal loyalty.[9]

As a reward for Streicher's dedication, when the Nazi Party was again legalized and re-organized in 1925, Streicher was appointed Gauleiter (regional leader) of the Bavarian region of Franconia, which included his home town of Nuremberg.[32] In the early years of the party’s rise, Gauleiter were essentially party functionaries without real power; but in the final years of the Weimar Republic, as the Nazi Party grew, so did their power. During the 12 years of the Nazi regime, Gauleiters such as Streicher would wield immense power and authority, both over party matters and civil ones.

Streicher was also elected to the Bavarian "Landtag" or legislature,[32] a position which gave him a margin of parliamentary immunity – a safety net that would help him resist efforts to silence his racist message.[29]

Rise of Der Stürmer

Beginning in 1924, Streicher used Der Stürmer as a mouthpiece not only for general antisemitic attacks, but for calculated smear campaigns against specific Jews, such as the Nuremberg city official Julius Fleischmann, who worked for Streicher's nemesis, mayor Hermann Luppe. Der Stürmer accused Fleischmann of stealing socks from his quartermaster during combat in World War I. Fleischmann sued Streicher and disproved the allegations in court, where Streicher was fined 900 marks but the detailed testimony exposed less-than-glorious details of Fleischmann's record, and his reputation was badly damaged. It was proof that Streicher's unofficial motto for his tactics was correct: "Something always sticks."[29][c] Der Stürmer's infamous official slogan, Die Juden sind unser Unglück (the Jews are our misfortune) was deemed non-actionable under German statutes, since it was not a direct incitement to violence.[29]

Public reading of Der Stürmer, Worms, 1933

Streicher's opponents complained to authorities that Der Stürmer violated a statute against religious offense with his constant promulgation of the "blood libel" – the medieval accusation that Jews killed Christian children to use their blood to make matzoh. Streicher argued that his accusations were based on race, not religion, and that his communications were political speech, and therefore protected by the German constitution.[29]

Streicher orchestrated his early campaigns against Jews to make the most extreme possible claims, short of violating a law that might get the paper shut down. He insisted in the pages of his newspaper that the Jews had caused the worldwide Depression, and were responsible for the crippling unemployment and inflation which afflicted Germany during the 1920s. He claimed that Jews were white-slavers responsible for Germany's prostitution rings. Real unsolved killings in Germany, especially of children or women, were often confidently explained in the pages of Der Stürmer as cases of "Jewish ritual murder."[33]

One of Streicher's constant themes was the sexual violation of ethnically German women by Jews, a subject which he used to publish semi-pornographic tracts and images detailing degrading sexual acts.[34][35] The fascination with the pornographic aspects of the propaganda in Der Stürmer was an important feature for many anti-Semites.[36] With the help of his notorious cartoonist Phillip "Fips" Rupprecht, Streicher published image after image of Jewish stereotypes and sexually-charged encounters.[37] His portrayal of Jews as subhuman and evil is widely considered to have played a critical role in the dehumanization and marginalization of the Jewish minority in the eyes of common Germans – creating the necessary conditions for the later perpetration of the Holocaust.[38][39][d] To protect himself from accountability, Streicher relied on Hitler's protection. Hitler declared that Der Stürmer was his favorite newspaper, and saw to it that each weekly issue was posted for public reading in special glassed-in display cases known as "Stürmerkasten". The newspaper reached a peak circulation of 600,000 in 1935.[40] One of the possible solutions to the Jewish problem Streicher mentioned within the pages of Der Stürmer was shipping all of them to Madagascar.[41]

Streicher in power

In April 1933, after Nazi control of the German state apparatus gave the Gauleiters enormous power, Streicher organised a one-day boycott of Jewish businesses which was used as a dress-rehearsal for other anti-Semitic commercial measures. As he consolidated his hold on power, he came to more or less rule the city of Nuremberg and his Gau Franken, and boasted that every Jew had been removed from Hersbruck. Among the nicknames provided by his enemies were "King of Nuremberg" and the "Beast of Franconia." Because of his role as Gauleiter of Franconia, he also gained the nickname of Frankenführer.[42][21]

The Great Synagogue of Nuremberg was built in 1874, and was ordered destroyed in 1938 by Julius Streicher – supposedly because he disapproved of its architecture – as part of what came to be known as Kristallnacht

Streicher later claimed that he was only "indirectly responsible" for passage of the anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and that he felt slighted because he was not directly consulted. Perhaps epitomizing the "profound anti-intellectualism" of the Nazi party, Streicher once opined that, "If the brains of all university professors were put at one end of the scale, and the brains of the Führer at the other, which end do you think would tip?"[43]

Streicher was ordered to take part in the establishment of the Institute for the Study and Elimination of Jewish Influence on German Church Life, that was to be organized together with the German Christians, the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, the Reich Ministry of Education and the Reich Ministry of the Churches. A surgical operation prevented Streicher from being able to fully participate and engage in this endeavor.[44] This anti-Semitic standpoint concerning the bible can be traced back to the earliest time of the Nazi movement, e.g., Dietrich Eckart's (Hitler's early mentor) book Bolshevism from Moses to Lenin: A Dialogue Between Adolf Hitler and Me, where it was claimed that "Jewish forgeries" had been added to the New Testament.[45]

In 1938, Streicher ordered the Great Synagogue of Nuremberg destroyed as part of his contribution to Kristallnacht; he later claimed that his decision was based on his disapproval of its architectural design, which in his opinion "disfigured the beautiful German townscape."[46]

Fall from power

John Gunther described Streicher as "the worst of the anti-Semites",[47] and his excesses brought condemnation even from other Nazis. Streicher's behaviour was viewed as so irresponsible that he was embarrassing the party leadership;[48] chief among his enemies in Hitler's hierarchy was Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, who loathed him and later claimed that he forbade his own staff to read Der Stürmer.[49]

Despite his special relationship with Hitler, after 1938 Streicher's position began to unravel. He was accused of keeping Jewish property seized after Kristallnacht in November 1938; he was charged with spreading untrue stories about Göring – such as alleging that Göring's daughter Edda was conceived by artificial insemination; and he was confronted with his excessive personal behaviour, including unconcealed adultery, several furious verbal attacks on other Gauleiters and striding through the streets of Nuremberg cracking a bullwhip.[50][e] In February 1940 he was stripped of his party offices and withdrew from the public eye, although he was permitted to continue publishing Der Stürmer. Hitler remained committed to Streicher, whom he considered a loyal friend, despite his unsavory reputation.[51]

Streicher's wife, Kunigunde Streicher, died in 1943 after 30 years of marriage.[52]

When Germany surrendered to the Allied armies in May 1945, Streicher said later, he decided to commit suicide. Instead, he married his former secretary, Adele Tappe.[53] Days later, on 23 May 1945, Streicher was captured in the town of Waidring, Austria, by a group of American officers led by Major Henry Plitt.[54][f]

Trial and execution

Julius Streicher in custody

During his trial, Streicher claimed that he had been mistreated by Allied soldiers after his capture.[57] When the German version of the Wechsler-Bellevue IQ test was administrated by Gustave Gilbert Streicher had the lowest IQ among the defendants. Streicher was not a member of the military and did not take part in planning the Holocaust, or the invasion of other nations, yet his pivotal role in inciting the extermination of Jews was significant enough, in the prosecutors' judgment, to include him in the indictment of Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal – which sat in Nuremberg, where Streicher had once been an unchallenged authority. He complained throughout the process that all his judges were Jews.[58] Most of the evidence against Streicher came from his numerous speeches and articles over the years.[59] In essence, prosecutors contended that Streicher's articles and speeches were so incendiary that he was an accessory to murder, and therefore as culpable as those who actually ordered the mass extermination of Jews. They further argued that he kept them up his anti=Semitic propaganda even after he was aware that Jews were being slaughtered.[60]

Streicher was acquitted of crimes against peace, but found guilty of crimes against humanity, and sentenced to death on 1 October 1946. The judgment against him read, in part:

For his 25 years of speaking, writing and preaching hatred of the Jews, Streicher was widely known as 'Jew-Baiter Number One.' In his speeches and articles, week after week, month after month, he infected the German mind with the virus of anti-Semitism, and incited the German people to active persecution. ... Streicher's incitement to murder and extermination at the time when Jews in the East were being killed under the most horrible conditions clearly constitutes persecution on political and racial grounds in connection with war crimes, as defined by the Charter, and constitutes a crime against humanity.[4]

The body of Julius Streicher after being hanged, Oct. 16, 1946

During his trial, Streicher displayed for the last time the flair for courtroom theatrics that had made him famous in the 1920s. He answered questions from his own defence attorney with diatribes against Jews, the Allies, and the court itself, and was frequently silenced by the court officers. Streicher was largely shunned by all of the other Nuremberg defendants. He also peppered his testimony with references to passages of Jewish texts he had so often carefully selected and inserted into the pages of Der Stürmer.[61]

Streicher was hanged at Nuremberg Prison in the early hours of 16 October 1946, along with the nine other condemned defendants from the first Nuremberg trial. Göring, Streicher's nemesis, committed suicide only hours earlier. Streicher's was the most melodramatic of the hangings carried out that night. At the bottom of the scaffold he cried out "Heil Hitler!". When he mounted the platform, he delivered his last sneering reference to Jewish scripture, snapping "Purimfest!"[62][g] Streicher's final declaration before the hood went over his head was, "The Bolsheviks will hang you one day!"[64] Joseph Kingsbury-Smith, a journalist for the International News Service who covered the executions,[65] said in his filed report that after the hood descended over Streicher's head, he also apparently said "Adele, meine liebe Frau!" ("Adele, my dear wife!").[66]

Oct 8, 1946 newsreel of Nuremberg Trials sentencing

The consensus among eyewitnesses was that Streicher's hanging did not proceed as planned, and that he did not receive the quick death from spinal severing typical of the other executions at Nuremberg. Kingsbury-Smith reported that Streicher "went down kicking," which may have dislodged the hangman's knot from its ideal position. Smith stated that Streicher could be heard groaning under the scaffold after he dropped through the trap-door, and that the executioner intervened under the gallows, which was screened by wood panels and a black curtain, to finish the job.[67] U.S. Army Master Sergeant John C. Woods was the main executioner, and not only insisted he had performed all executions correctly, but stated he was very proud of his work.[68]

Streicher's body, as those of the other nine executed men and the corpse of Hermann Göring, was cremated at Ostfriedhof (Munich) and the ashes were scattered.[69]

Personal life

Streicher was a poet, whose work was described as "quite attractive", and he painted watercolours as a hobby. He had a strong sexual appetite, which occasionally got him into trouble with the Nazi hierarchy.[9]

In popular culture

Streicher was played by Alexander Granach in the 1944 American film The Hitler Gang, by Theo Marcuse in the 1962 American film Hitler, by Rolf Hoppe in the 1997 German film Comedian Harmonists, and by Sam Stone in the 2000 Canadian/American docudrama Nuremberg.

References

Informational notes
  1. ^ This system included socialist ideas like the takeover of the financial sector by the state and the cutting-back of the "interest-based economy".
  2. ^ According to Streicher, his dislike of Jews stemmed from an incident when he was but five-years-old, during which he witnessed his mother weeping after claiming to have been cheated by the Jewish owner of a fabric shop.[23]
  3. ^ The slanderous attacks continued, and lawsuits followed. Like Fleischmann, other outraged German Jews defeated Streicher in court, but his goal was not necessarily legal victory; he wanted the widest possible dissemination of his message, which press coverage often provided. The rules of the court provided Streicher with an arena to humiliate his opponents, and he characterized the inevitable courtroom loss as a badge of honor.
  4. ^ Streicher also combed the pages of the Talmud and the Old Testament in search of passages potentially depicting Judaism as harsh or cruel. In 1929, this close study of Jewish scripture helped convict Streicher in a case known as "The Great Nuremberg Ritual Murder Trial." His familiarity with Jewish text was proof to the court that his attacks were religious in nature; Streicher was found guilty and imprisoned for two months. In Germany, press reaction to the trial was highly critical of Streicher; but the Gauleiter was greeted after his conviction by hundreds of cheering supporters, and within months Nazi Party membership surged to its highest levels yet.[29]
  5. ^ Streicher's characteristic behaviour is portrayed on screen in the 1944 Hollywood film, The Hitler Gang.
  6. ^ At first Streicher claimed to be a painter named "Joseph Sailer," but, misunderstanding Plitt's poor German, he came to believe the latter already knew who he was, and quickly admitted his identity.[55][56]
  7. ^ The Jewish holiday Purim celebrates the escape by the Jews from extermination at the hands of Haman, an ancient Persian government official. At the end of the Purim story, Haman is hanged, as are his ten sons. [63]
Citations
  1. ^ "Der Giftpilz". German Propaganda Archive - Calvin College. 
  2. ^ Zelnhefer, Siegfried. "Der Stürmer. Deutsches Wochenblatt zum Kampf um die Wahrheit". Historisches Lexikon Bayerns - Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (in German). 
  3. ^ "Julius Streicher: Biography". Holocaust Encyclopedia - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 
  4. ^ a b c "Judgement : Streicher". Avalon ProjectYale Law School. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  5. ^ Bytwerk 2001, p. 5.
  6. ^ Snyder 1976, p. 336.
  7. ^ Bytwerk 2001, p. 6.
  8. ^ Bytwerk 2001, p. 8.
  9. ^ a b c Evans 2003, p. 189.
  10. ^ Bracher 1970, pp. 81–2.
  11. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 12–3.
  12. ^ Kershaw 2000, pp. 137–8.
  13. ^ Kershaw 2000, pp. 138–9.
  14. ^ a b Bracher 1970, p. 93.
  15. ^ a b Kershaw 2000, p. 138.
  16. ^ Franz-Willing 1962, p. 89.
  17. ^ Bytwerk 2001, pp. 12–4.
  18. ^ Rees 2017, p. 22.
  19. ^ a b Evans 2003, p. 188.
  20. ^ Rees 2017, p. 23.
  21. ^ a b c Gunther 1940, p. 76.
  22. ^ Friedman 1998, p. 300.
  23. ^ Rees 2017, p. 21.
  24. ^ Dolibois 2000, p. 114.
  25. ^ Rees 2017, pp. 22–3.
  26. ^ Bytwerk 2001, pp. 51–2.
  27. ^ Bytwerk 2001, p. 52.
  28. ^ Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 921.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Showalter, Dennis E. (1997). "Jews, Nazis, and the Law: The Case of Julius Streicher". Museum of Tolerance Online - Simon Wiesenthal Center. Retrieved 7 May 2017. 
  30. ^ Bullock 1962, p. 124.
  31. ^ Fest 1974, p. 219.
  32. ^ a b Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 922.
  33. ^ Snyder 1989, pp. 47–51.
  34. ^ Bytwerk 2001, pp. 143–150.
  35. ^ Wistrich 2001, p. 42.
  36. ^ Welch 2002, p. 75.
  37. ^ Koonz 2005, pp. 232–3.
  38. ^ Fischer 1995, pp. 135–6.
  39. ^ Welch 2002, p. 76–7.
  40. ^ Snyder 1989, p. 50.
  41. ^ Kershaw 2001, p. 320.
  42. ^ Nadler 1969, p. 5.
  43. ^ Wall 1997, p. 98.
  44. ^ Kater, Mommsen & Papen 1999, p. 151.
  45. ^ Steigmann-Gall 2003, pp. 17–24.
  46. ^ Kershaw 2001, p. 132.
  47. ^ Gunther 1940, p. 61.
  48. ^ Snyder 1989, pp. 52–3.
  49. ^ Maser 2000, p. 282.
  50. ^ Snyder 1989, pp. 47, 50–3.
  51. ^ Wistrich 1995, pp. 251–2.
  52. ^ Davidson 1997, p. 43.
  53. ^ Davidson 1997, p. 44.
  54. ^ Tofahrn 2008, p. 163.
  55. ^ "Henry Plitt Interview". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 16 April 2018. 
  56. ^ "U.S. Jewish Major Who Captured Streicher Anxious to Combat Nazi Slurs on Jewish Heroism". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 25 May 1945. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  57. ^ Bytwerk 2001, p. 42.
  58. ^ Snyder 1989, pp. 54–6.
  59. ^ Snyder 1989, pp. 56–7.
  60. ^ Snyder 1989, p. 57.
  61. ^ Conot 2000, pp. 381–9.
  62. ^ Wistrich 1995, p. 252.
  63. ^ Ephraim Rubin (28 October 1946). "Purim 1946? Not Exactly". Newsweek.  Online text in TalkReason.
  64. ^ Conot 2000, p. 506.
  65. ^ "J. Kingsbury-Smith; Honored Journalist". Los Angeles Times. 6 February 1999. Obituaries. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  66. ^ Radlmeier 2001, pp. 345–6.
  67. ^ Kingsbury Smith (16 October 1946). "The Execution of Nazi War Criminals". International News Service.  Online text by University of Missouri, Kansas City.
  68. ^ Duff 1999, p. 130.
  69. ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2011, p. 393.
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  • Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2003). The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity, 1919–1945. New York and London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52182-371-5. 
  • Tofahrn, Klaus W. (2008). Das Dritte Reich und der Holocaust (in German). Frankfurt am Main; New York: Peter Lang GmbH. ISBN 978-3-63157-702-8. 
  • Wall, Donald D. (1997). Nazi Germany and World War II. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing. ISBN 978-0-31409-360-8. 
  • Welch, David (2002). The Third Reich: Politics and Propaganda. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41511-910-8. 
  • Wistrich, Robert (1995). Who's Who In Nazi Germany. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41511-888-0. 
  • Wistrich, Robert (2001). Hitler and the Holocaust. New York: Modern Library Chronicles. ISBN 0-679-64222-6. 
  • Zentner, Christian; Bedürftig, Friedemann (1991). The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. (2 vols.) New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-897500-6. 

External links

  • Spiegel TV short biography (German)
  • Caricatures from Der Stürmer
  • Der Giftpilz ("The Poison Mushroom")
  • Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 12 Transcript of the testimony of Julius Streicher
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