Jiaqing Emperor

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Jiaqing Emperor
清 佚名 《清仁宗嘉庆皇帝朝服像》.jpg
Prince Jia of the First Rank
(嘉親王)
Reign 1789–1796
6th Emperor of the Qing Dynasty
Reign 9 February 1796 – 2 September 1820
Predecessor Qianlong Emperor
Successor Daoguang Emperor
Regent Qianlong Emperor (1796–1799)
Born Aisin Gioro Yongyan
(愛新覺羅 永琰)
(1760-11-13)13 November 1760
(乾隆二十五年 十月 六日)
Old Summer Palace
Died 2 September 1820(1820-09-02) (aged 59)
(嘉慶二十五年 七月 二十五日)
Chengde Mountain Resort
Burial Chang Mausoleum, Western Qing tombs
Consorts
Empress Xiaoshurui
(m. 1774; died 1797)

Empress Xiaoherui (m. 1790–1820)
Issue Princess Zhuangjing of the Second Rank
Daoguang Emperor
Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank
Miankai, Prince Dunke of the First Rank
Mianxin, Prince Ruihuai of the First Rank
Mianyu, Prince Huiduan of the First Rank
Full name
Aisin Gioro Yongyan
(愛新覺羅 顒琰)
Manchu: Yong yan ( ᠶᠣᠩ ᠶᠠᠨ)
Era dates
Jiaqing
(嘉慶; 9 February 1796 – 2 February 1821)
Manchu: Saicungga fengšen ( ᠰᠠᡳᠴᡠᠩᡤᠠ ᡶᡝᠩᡧᡝᠨ)
Mongolian: Сайшаалт ерөөлт ( ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠢᠷᠦᠭᠡᠯᠲᠦ)
Posthumous name
Emperor Shoutian Xingyun Fuhua Suiyou Chongwen Jingwu Guangyu Xiaogong Qinjian Duanmin Yingzhe Rui
(受天兴运敷化绥猷崇文经武光裕孝恭勤俭端敏英哲睿皇帝)
Manchu: Sunggiyen hūwangdi ( ᠰᡠᠩᡤᡳᠶᡝᠨ
ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡩᡳ
)
Temple name
Renzong
(仁宗)
Manchu: Žindzung ( ᡰᡳᠨᡯᡠᠩ)
House Aisin Gioro
Father Qianlong Emperor
Mother Empress Xiaoyichun
Jiaqing Emperor
Traditional Chinese 嘉慶帝
Simplified Chinese 嘉庆帝

The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. During his reign, he prosecuted Heshen, the corrupt favourite of his father, and attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire and curb the smuggling of opium into China.

Early years

Yongyan was born in the Old Summer Palace, 8 km (5 mi) northwest of the walls of Beijing. His personal name, "Yongyan" (永琰), was later changed to "Yongyan" (顒琰) when he became the emperor. The Chinese character for yong in his name was changed from the more common 永 to the less common 顒. This novelty was introduced by the Qianlong Emperor, who believed that it was not proper to have a commonly used Chinese character in an emperor's personal name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo in the imperial family.

Yongyan was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. His mother was Noble Consort Ling, the daughter of Wei Qingtai (魏清泰), a Han Chinese official whose family had been long integrated into the Manchu Eight Banners as part of a Han Banner.

The Qianlong Emperor originally had two other sons in mind for succeeding him, but both of them died early from diseases, hence in December 1773 he secretly chose Yongyan as his successor. In 1789, the Qianlong Emperor instated Yongyan as "Prince Jia of the First Rank" (嘉親王; or simply "Prince Jia").

Accession to the throne

In October 1795, the 60th year of his reign, the Qianlong Emperor announced his intention to abdicate in favour of Prince Jia. He made this decision because he felt that it was disrespectful for him to rule longer than his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor, who was on the throne for 61 years. Prince Jia ascended the throne and adopted the era name "Jiaqing" in February 1796, hence he is historically known as the Jiaqing Emperor. For the next three years however, the Jiaqing Emperor was emperor in name only because decisions were still made by his father, who became a Taishang Huang (emperor emeritus) after his abdication.

After the death of the Qianlong Emperor in the beginning of February 1799, the Jiaqing Emperor took control of the government and prosecuted Heshen, a favourite official of his father. Heshen was charged with corruption and abuse of power, stripped of his titles, had his property confiscated, and ordered to commit suicide. Heshen's daughter-in-law, Princess Hexiao, a sister of the Jiaqing Emperor, was spared from punishment and given a few properties from Heshen's estates.

At the time, the Qing Empire faced internal disorder, most importantly the large-scale White Lotus (1796–1804) and Miao (1795–1806) rebellions, as well as an empty imperial treasury. The Jiaqing Emperor engaged in the pacification of the empire and the quelling of rebellions. He endeavored to bring China back to its 18th-century prosperity and power. However, due in part to large outflows of silver from the country as payment for the opium smuggled into China from British India, the economy declined.

Court intrigues and incidents

Members of the Qing imperial family tried to assassinate him twice – in 1803 and in 1813. The princes involved in the attempts on his life were executed. Other members of the imperial family, numbering in the hundreds, were sent into exile.[1][2][3]

Renaming Vietnam

The Jiaqing Emperor refused the Vietnamese ruler Gia Long's request to change his country's name to Nam Việt. He changed the name instead to Việt Nam.[4] Gia Long's Đại Nam thực lục contains the diplomatic correspondence over the naming.[5]

Opposition to Christianity

The Great Qing Code includes one statute titled "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses" (禁止師巫邪術). In 1811, a clause was added to it with reference to Christianity. It was modified in 1815 and 1817, settled in its final form in 1839 under the Daoguang Emperor, and abrogated in 1870 under the Tongzhi Emperor. It sentenced Europeans to death for spreading Catholicism among Han Chinese and Manchus. Christians who would not repent their conversion were sent to Muslim cities in Xinjiang, to be given as slaves to Muslim leaders and beys.[6]

Chinese nobility

The Jiaqing Emperor granted the title Wujing Boshi (五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì) to the descendants of Han Yu.[7][8][9][10]

Death and burial

On 2 September 1820, the Jiaqing Emperor died at the Rehe (Jehol) Traveling Palace (熱河行宫), 230 km (140 mi) northeast of Beijing, where the imperial court was in summer quarters. The Draft History of Qing did not record a cause of death. Some have alleged that he died after being struck by lightning, but others prefer the theory that he died of a stroke as the emperor was quite obese. He was succeeded by his second son, Mianning, who became known as the Daoguang Emperor.

Renzong was interred amidst the Western Qing Tombs, 120 km (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, in the Chang (昌; lit. "splendid") mausoleum complex.

Family

  • Parents:
    • Hongli, Gaozong (高宗 弘曆; 25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799)
    • Empress Xiaoyichun, of the Weigiya clan (孝儀純皇后 魏佳氏; 23 October 1727 – 28 February 1775)
      貴人→令嬪→令妃→令貴妃→皇貴妃
  • Consorts and Issue:
  1. Empress Xiaoshurui, of the Hitara clan (孝淑睿皇后 喜塔臘氏; 2 October 1760 – 5 March 1797)
    嫡福晉→皇后
    1. Unnamed daughter (2 June 1780 – 6 September 1783), second daughter
    2. Minning, Xuanzong (宣宗 旻寧; 16 September 1782 – 26 February 1850), second son
    3. Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank (莊靜固倫公主; 20 October 1784 – 27 June 1811), fourth daughter
    4. Miscarriage at three months (18 August 1785)
  2. Empress Xiaoherui, of the Niohuru clan (孝和睿皇后 鈕祜祿氏; 20 November 1776 – 23 January 1850)
    側福晉→貴妃→皇貴妃→皇后→恭慈皇太后
    1. Unnamed daughter (2 August 1793 – July/August 1795), seventh daughter
    2. Miankai, Prince Dunke of the First Rank (惇恪親王 綿愷; 6 August 1795 – 18 January 1838), third son
    3. Mianxin, Prince Ruihuai of the First Rank (瑞懷親王 綿忻; 9 March 1805 – 27 September 1828), fourth son
  3. Imperial Noble Consort Heyu, of the Liugiya clan (和裕皇貴妃 劉佳氏; 9 January 1761 – 27 April 1834)
    格格→諴妃→諴貴妃→諴禧皇貴妃
    1. Prince Mu of the Second Rank (穆郡王; 4 February 1779 – 10 April 1780), first son
    2. Princess Zhuangjing of the Second Rank (莊敬和碩公主; 14 January 1782 – 4 April 1811), third daughter
  4. Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun, of the Niohuru clan (恭順皇貴妃 鈕祜祿氏; 28 May 1787 – 23 April 1860)
    如貴人→如嬪→如妃→如貴妃→如皇貴妃
    1. Unnamed daughter (8 March 1805 – December 1805 or January 1806), eighth daughter
    2. Princess Huimin of the First Rank (慧愍固倫公主; 18 February 1811 – June/July 1815), ninth daughter
    3. Mianyu, Prince Huiduan of the First Rank (惠端親王 綿愉; 8 March 1814 – 9 January 1865), fifth son
  5. Consort Shu, of the Wanyan clan (恕妃 完顏氏)
    側福晉
  6. Consort Hua, of the Hougiya clan (華妃 侯佳氏; d. 3 August 1804)
    格格→瑩嬪→華妃
    1. Unnamed daughter (2 August 1789 – 1790), sixth daughter
  7. Consort Zhuang, of the Wanggiya clan (莊妃 王佳氏; d. 9 March 1811)
    格格→春常在→春貴人→吉嬪→莊妃
  8. Consort Xin, of the Liugiya clan (信妃 劉佳氏; d. 26 November 1822)
    信貴人→信嬪→信妃
  9. Concubine Jian, of the Guan clan (簡嬪 關氏; d. 14 May 1780)
    格格
    1. Unnamed daughter (14 May 1780 – 24 November 1783), first daughter
  10. Concubine Xun, of the Shen clan (遜嬪 沈氏)
    格格
    1. Princess Hui'an of the Second Rank (慧安和碩公主; 31 December 1786 – June/July 1795), fifth daughter
  11. Concubine Chun, of the Donggiya clan (淳嬪 董佳氏; d. 30 November 1819)
    淳貴人→淳嬪
  12. Concubine Rong, of the Liang clan (榮嬪 梁氏; d. 15 June 1826)
    榮常在→榮貴人→榮嬪
  13. Concubine En, of the Uya clan (恩嬪 烏雅氏; 21 October 1791 – 7 March 1846)
    恩貴人→恩嬪
  14. Concubine An, of the Suwan Gūwalgiya clan (安嬪 蘇完瓜爾佳氏; 1 March 1785 – 29 July 1837)
    安常在→安嬪

In fiction and popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ Ernst Faber (1897). China in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 17. Retrieved 2011-06-06.
  2. ^ The Chinese recorder, Volume 27. American Presbyterian Mission Press. 1896. p. 242. Retrieved 2011-06-06.
  3. ^ Ernst Faber (1897). China in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 17. Retrieved 2011-06-06.
  4. ^ Woodside 1971, p. 120.
  5. ^ Jeff Kyong-McClain; Yongtao Du (2013). Chinese History in Geographical Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-0-7391-7230-8.
  6. ^ Robert Samuel Maclay (1861). Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China. Carlton & Porter. p. 336. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
  7. ^ Qin ding da Qing hui dian (Jiaqing chao). 1818. p. 1084.
  8. ^ 王士禎 [Wang Shizhen] (3 September 2014). 池北偶談 [Chi Bei Ou Tan]. 朔雪寒 [Shuo Xue Han]. GGKEY:ESB6TEXXDCT.
  9. ^ 徐錫麟 [Xu, Xilin]; 錢泳 [Qian, Yong] (10 September 2014). 熙朝新語 [Xi Chao Xin Yu]. 朔雪寒 [Shuo Xue Han]. GGKEY:J62ZFNAA1NF.
  10. ^ Brunnert, H. S.; Hagelstrom, V. V. (15 April 2013). Present Day Political Organization of China. Routledge. pp. 493–94. ISBN 978-1-135-79795-9.
  •  This article incorporates text from China in the light of history, by Ernst Faber, a publication from 1897 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Chinese recorder, Volume 27, a publication from 1896 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Life among the Chinese: with characteristic sketches and incidents of missionary operations and prospects in China, by Robert Samuel Maclay, a publication from 1861 now in the public domain in the United States.
Jiaqing Emperor
Born: 13 November 1760 Died: 2 September 1820
Regnal titles
Preceded by
The Qianlong Emperor
Emperor of China
1796–1820
Succeeded by
The Daoguang Emperor

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