Jeju Island

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Jeju Island
Native name: 제주도
Nickname: Sammu-samda-do (Island of no three kinds and many three kinds)
Image of Jeju Island
Image of Jeju Island
Map Jeju-do.svg
Map of Jeju Island
Geography
Location East Asia
Archipelago Jeju
Area 1,848 km2 (714 sq mi)
Length 73 km (45.4 mi)
Width 31 km (19.3 mi)
Highest elevation 1,950 m (6,400 ft)
Highest point Hallasan
Administration
South Korea
Special Autonomous Province Jeju Special Autonomous Province
Largest settlement Jeju City (pop. 408,364)
Demographics
Population 621,550 (2014)
Pop. density 316 /km2 (818 /sq mi)
Ethnic groups Korean
Jeju Island
Hangul 제주도
Hanja 濟州島
Revised Romanization Jejudo
McCune–Reischauer Chejudo

Jeju Island (Korean pronunciation: [tɕe.dʑu.do] Jejudo; previously Cheju-do) is the largest island off the coast of the Korean Peninsula, and the main island of Jeju Province of South Korea. The island lies in the Korea Strait, south of South Jeolla Province. The island contains the natural World Heritage Site Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes.[1] Jejudo has a moderate climate; even in winter, the temperature rarely falls below 0 °C (32 °F).

History

Historical names

Historically, the island has been called by many different names including:

  • Doi (Hangul: 도이 , hanja: , literally "Island barbarian")
  • Dongyeongju (Hangul: 동영주 ; hanja: 東瀛州)
  • Juho (Hangul: 주호 , hanja: )
  • Tammora (탐모라, 耽牟羅)
  • Seomra (섭라, 涉羅)
  • Tangna (탁라, 乇羅)
  • Tamna (탐라, 耽羅)
  • Quelpart,[2][3] Quelparte[4] or Quelpaert Island[5]
  • Joonwonhado (준원하도, 준원下島 meaning southern part of peninsula)
  • Taekseungnido (Hangul: 택승리도 , meaning the peaceful hot island in Joseon)
  • Samdado (Hangul: 삼다도 , meaning "Island of Three Abundances")[6]

Before the Japanese annexation in 1910, the island was usually known as Quelpart to Europeans. The name apparently came from the first European ship to spot the island, the Dutch Quelpaert, which sighted it after being blown off course on its way to the Dutch trading base in Nagasaki, Japan, from Taiwan (then the Dutch colony of Formosa).

"According to Korean records, a fleet of seventy pirate craft attacked Quelpart Island and adjacent parts of the Korean peninsula in 1555."[7]

When Korea was annexed by Japan in 1910, Jeju then became known as Saishū, which is the Japanese reading of the hanja for Jeju.

Before 2000, when the Seoul government established the official Revised Romanization of Korean, Jejudo was spelled Cheju-do. Almost all written references to the island before that use that spelling.

Jeju Uprising

From April 3, 1948 to May 1949, the South Korean government conducted an anticommunist campaign to suppress an attempted uprising on the island.[8][9] The main cause for the rebellion was the election scheduled for May 10, 1948, designed by the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea (UNTCOK) to create a new government for all of Korea. The elections were only planned for the south of the country, the half of the peninsula under UNTCOK control. Fearing that the elections would further reinforce division, guerrilla fighters for the South Korean Labor party (SKLP) reacted violently, attacking local police and rightist youth groups stationed on Jeju Island.[9][10]

Atrocities were committed by both sides, but those by South Korean government forces are the best-documented.[9][10][11] On one occasion, American soldiers discovered the bodies of 97 people who had been killed by government forces. On another, American soldiers encountered police who were executing 76 villagers.[9]

Between 14,000 and 30,000 people died as a result of the rebellion, or up to 10% of the island’s total population.[9][11] Some 40,000 others fled to Japan to escape the fighting.[10][12] In the decades after the uprising, memory of the event was suppressed by the government through strict punishment.[11] However, in 2006, the Korean government apologized for its role in the killings and promised reparations. As of 2010, these had not been paid.[13]

In 2008, bodies of victims of a massacre were discovered in a mass grave near Jeju International Airport.[14]

Geography

Jejudo is a volcanic island, dominated by Hallasan: a volcano 1,950 metres (6,400 ft) high and the highest mountain in South Korea. The island measures approximately 73 kilometres (45 mi) across, east to west, and 41 kilometres (25 mi) from north to south.[15]

The island was created by volcanic eruptions approximately 2 million years ago, during the Cenozoic era.[16] The island consists chiefly of basalt and lava.

An area covering about 12% (224 square kilometres or 86 square miles) of Jejudo is known as Gotjawal Forest.[17] This area remained uncultivated until the 21st century, as its base of ʻAʻā lava made it difficult to develop for agriculture. Because this forest remained pristine for so long, it has a unique ecology.[18]

The forest is the main source of groundwater and thus the main water source for the half million people of the island, because rainwater penetrates directly into the aquifer through the cracks of the ʻAʻā lava under the forest. Gotjawal forest is considered an internationally important wetland under the Ramsar Convention by some researchers[19] because it is the habitat of unique species of plants and is the main source of water for the residents, although to date it has not been declared a Ramsar site.[20]

Formation

  • About 2 million years ago, the island of Jeju was formed through volcanic activity.[16]
  • About 1.2 million years ago, a magma chamber formed under the sea floor and began to erupt.
  • About 700 thousand years ago, the island had been formed through volcanic activity. Volcanic activity then stopped for approximately 100 thousand years.
  • About 300 thousand years ago, volcanic activity restarted along the coastline.
  • About 100 thousand years ago, volcanic activity formed Halla Mountain.
  • About 25 thousand years ago, lateral eruptions around Halla Mountain left multiple oreum (smaller 'parasitic' cones on the flanks of the primary cone).
  • Volcanic activity stopped and prolonged weathering and erosion helped shape the island.[21]

Climate

Jeju has a humid subtropical climate, making it warmer than that of the rest of South Korea. Four distinct seasons are experienced on Jeju; winters are cool and dry while summers are hot, humid, and sometimes rainy.

In January 2016, a cold wave affected the region. Snow and frigid weather forced the cancellation of 1,200 flights on Jejudo, stranding approximately 90,300 passengers.[22]

Climate data for Jeju City, Jejudo (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
9.4
(48.9)
12.8
(55)
17.5
(63.5)
21.6
(70.9)
24.8
(76.6)
29.0
(84.2)
29.8
(85.6)
25.8
(78.4)
21.3
(70.3)
16.0
(60.8)
11.0
(51.8)
18.9
(66)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.7
(42.3)
6.4
(43.5)
9.4
(48.9)
13.8
(56.8)
17.8
(64)
21.5
(70.7)
25.8
(78.4)
26.8
(80.2)
23.0
(73.4)
18.2
(64.8)
12.8
(55)
8.1
(46.6)
15.8
(60.4)
Average low °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
3.6
(38.5)
6.1
(43)
10.2
(50.4)
14.4
(57.9)
18.7
(65.7)
23.3
(73.9)
24.3
(75.7)
20.4
(68.7)
15.1
(59.2)
9.8
(49.6)
5.3
(41.5)
12.9
(55.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 65.2
(2.567)
62.6
(2.465)
88.6
(3.488)
89.6
(3.528)
96.4
(3.795)
181.4
(7.142)
239.9
(9.445)
262.5
(10.335)
221.6
(8.724)
80.3
(3.161)
61.9
(2.437)
47.7
(1.878)
1,497.6
(58.961)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.6 10.3 11.2 10.0 10.4 11.8 12.5 13.5 10.8 7.0 9.3 10.8 130.2
Average relative humidity (%) 65.3 64.9 64.9 66.5 70.4 76.8 78.3 76.5 73.7 66.9 65.1 65.1 69.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 70.4 105.4 158.9 194.4 211.9 170.9 195.6 195.6 161.7 178.5 126.0 84.8 1,854.1
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration[23]
Climate data for Seogwipo-si, Jejudo (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 10.7
(51.3)
11.6
(52.9)
14.4
(57.9)
18.5
(65.3)
22.0
(71.6)
24.6
(76.3)
28.3
(82.9)
30.1
(86.2)
27.4
(81.3)
23.4
(74.1)
18.2
(64.8)
13.2
(55.8)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
7.8
(46)
10.6
(51.1)
14.8
(58.6)
18.6
(65.5)
21.7
(71.1)
25.6
(78.1)
27.1
(80.8)
23.9
(75)
19.3
(66.7)
14.1
(57.4)
9.3
(48.7)
16.6
(61.9)
Average low °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
4.4
(39.9)
7.1
(44.8)
11.3
(52.3)
15.3
(59.5)
19.2
(66.6)
23.5
(74.3)
24.6
(76.3)
21.1
(70)
15.9
(60.6)
10.6
(51.1)
5.9
(42.6)
13.5
(56.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 61.0
(2.402)
77.1
(3.035)
131.2
(5.165)
174.9
(6.886)
205.8
(8.102)
276.9
(10.902)
309.8
(12.197)
291.6
(11.48)
196.6
(7.74)
81.6
(3.213)
71.4
(2.811)
45.1
(1.776)
1,923
(75.709)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 10.3 9.5 11.0 10.5 10.7 12.9 14.3 14.2 10.3 6.1 7.4 8.1 125.3
Average relative humidity (%) 62.8 62.1 62.4 64.5 69.9 78.2 84.1 79.0 72.5 63.9 63.2 62.2 68.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 152.2 152.6 174.0 190.9 199.0 144.2 142.1 184.2 176.1 207.1 170.5 161.8 2,054.7
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration[24]


Places of interest

Seongsan Ilchulbong or "Sunrise Peak"

Utilities

The island's power-grid is connected to mainland plants by the HVDC Haenam–Cheju, and electricity is also provided by generators located on the island. As of 2001, there were four power plants on Jeju, with more under planning and construction. The most notable of these are the gas-fired generators of Jeju Thermal Power Plant, located in Jeju City. The present-day generators of this plant were constructed from 1982 onwards, replacing earlier structures that dated from 1968.[28] As elsewhere in Korea, the power supply is overseen by the Korea Electric Power Corporation, or KEPCO.

In February 2012, the governor of the state of Hawaii (USA), Neil Abercrombie, and the director of the Electricity Market and Smart Grid Division at the Korea Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Choi Kyu-Chong, signed a letter of intent to share information about Smart Grid technology. The Jeju Smart Grid was initially installed in 6,000 homes in Gujwa-eup and is being expanded. South Korea is using the pilot program of the Smart Grid on Jejudo as the testing ground in order to implement a nationwide Smart Grid by 2030.[29]

Transportation

As of 2012, the Seoul – Jeju City air route is by a significant margin the world's busiest, with 10,156,000 passengers flown between the two cities that year.[30]

Cheju/Jeju Naval Base

In 1993 the Republic of Korea (ROK) began planning a naval base on Jejudo (Jeju) Island, and in 2007, construction began in the village of Gangjeong, with planned completion by 2011. The base was planned to accommodate 20 warships, three submarines and two 150,000-ton cruise ships, as a private-military complex port, similar to those in Sydney and Hawaii. Jeju residents, environmentalists, and opposition parties opposed the base, causing delays in the construction schedule.[31] The base was completed in 2016 and the official name is the Jeju Civilian-Military Complex Port. Activists opposed to the plan[32] claim environmental hazards will damage the “Island of Peace” designated as such by the government.[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Unesco names World Heritage sites". BBC News. June 28, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2010. 
  2. ^ "The Island of Quelpart". JSTOR 198722. 
  3. ^ "Quelpart Island and Its People". JSTOR 208503. 
  4. ^ "The Queen of Quelparte". 
  5. ^ "The Name of Quelpaert Island". 
  6. ^ "Jeju Island Facts". 
  7. ^ Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. p. 269. ISBN 0804705259. 
  8. ^ Hugh Deane (1999). The Korean War, 1945-1953. China Books&Periodicals, Inc. pp. 54–58. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Merrill, John (1980). "Cheju-do Rebellion". The Journal of Korean Studies: 139–197. 
  10. ^ a b c Deane, Hugh (1999). The Korean War 1945-1953. San Francisco: China Books and Periodicals Inc. pp. 54–58. ISBN 0-8351-2644-7. 
  11. ^ a b c Kim, Hun Joon (2014). The Massacre at Mt. Halla: Sixty Years of Truth Seeking in South Korea. Cornell University Press. pp. 13–41. ISBN 9780801452390. 
  12. ^ Hideko takayama in tokyo (June 19, 2000). "Ghosts Of Cheju". newsweek. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  13. ^ O, John Kie-Chiang (1999). "Korean Politics: The Quest for Democratization and Economic Development". Cornell University Press. 
  14. ^ Song Jung Hee, Islanders still mourn April 3 massacre, Jeju Weekly, March 3, 2010
  15. ^ Map of Korea: Cheju Island The People's Korea. Accessed 8 July 2012
  16. ^ a b Woo, Kyung; Sohn, Young; Ahn, Ung; Spate, Andy (January 2013), "Geology of Jeju Island", Jeju Island Geopark - A Volcanic Wonder of Korea: 13–14, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-20564-4_5 
  17. ^ "RISS 통합검색 - 국내학술지논문 상세보기". www.riss4u.net. 
  18. ^ "RISS 통합검색 - 학위논문 상세보기". www.riss4u.net. 
  19. ^ Jang, Yong-chang and Chanwon Lee, 2009, "Gotjawal Forest as an internationally important wetland," Journal of Korean Wetlands Studies, 2009, Vol 1.
  20. ^ "Ramsar site list" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 14, 2009. Retrieved 2007-06-20.  Accessed June 2009
  21. ^ "제주특별자치도 자연환경생태정보시스템". nature.jeju.go.kr. Archived from the original on 2016-07-12. Retrieved 2016-03-14. 
  22. ^ Ap, Tiffany (January 25, 2016). "Deaths, travel disruption as bitter cold grips Asia". CNN. Retrieved January 25, 2016. 
  23. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 제주(184)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  24. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 서귀포(189)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  25. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 성산(188)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  26. ^ "평년값자료(1981–2010) 고산(185)". Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  27. ^ "제주도상세기후특성집(2010) 윗세오름(871)". Jeju Regional Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  28. ^ "Jeju Thermal P/P". Korea Midland Power website. Archived from the original on June 16, 2005. Retrieved July 29, 2005. 
  29. ^ "Korea and Hawaii join forces in Smart Grid venture". The Jeju Weekly. Feb 24, 2012. Retrieved Mar 5, 2012. 
  30. ^ "300 world 'super routes' attract 20% of all air travel, Amadeus reveals in new analysis of global trends". www.amadeus.com. 
  31. ^ Jeju naval base: The Koreaherald.com, Published; 2016-02-29, - Retrieved 2017-03-05
  32. ^ Save Jeju Now- Retrieved 2017-03-05
  33. ^ Cheju / Jeju Naval Base: GlobalSecurity.org- Retrieved 2017-03-05

External links

  • Media related to Jeju at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 33°23′N 126°32′E / 33.38°N 126.53°E / 33.38; 126.53

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