Jefferson County, Missouri

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Jefferson County, Missouri
Jefferson County MO courthouse-20140524-015.jpg
County courthouse in Hillsboro
Seal of Jefferson County, Missouri
Seal
Map of Missouri highlighting Jefferson County
Location in the U.S. state of Missouri
Map of the United States highlighting Missouri
Missouri's location in the U.S.
Founded 1818
Named for Thomas Jefferson
Seat Hillsboro
Largest city Arnold
Area
 • Total 664 sq mi (1,720 km2)
 • Land 657 sq mi (1,702 km2)
 • Water 7.7 sq mi (20 km2), 1.2%
Population (est.)
 • (2015) 224,124
 • Density 333/sq mi (129/km2)
Congressional districts 2nd, 3rd, 8th
Time zone Central: UTC−6/−5
Website www.jeffcomo.org

Jefferson County is located in the eastern portion of the state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 218,733,[1] making it the sixth-most populous county in Missouri. Its county seat is Hillsboro.[2] The county was organized in 1818 and named in honor of former president Thomas Jefferson.[3][4]

In 1980, according to the U.S. census held that year, the county contained the mean center of U.S. population. Notably, this was the first census in which the center of population was west of the Mississippi River.

Jefferson County is part of the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area and encompasses many of the city's southern suburbs.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 664 square miles (1,720 km2), of which 657 square miles (1,700 km2) is land and 7.7 square miles (20 km2) (1.2%) is water.[5] The county's eastern border is the Mississippi River.

Adjacent counties

Major highways

National protected area

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1820 1,835
1830 2,592 41.3%
1840 4,296 65.7%
1850 6,928 61.3%
1860 10,344 49.3%
1870 15,380 48.7%
1880 18,736 21.8%
1890 22,484 20.0%
1900 25,712 14.4%
1910 27,878 8.4%
1920 26,555 −4.7%
1930 27,563 3.8%
1940 32,023 16.2%
1950 38,007 18.7%
1960 66,377 74.6%
1970 105,248 58.6%
1980 146,183 38.9%
1990 171,380 17.2%
2000 198,099 15.6%
2010 218,733 10.4%
Est. 2016 224,226 [6] 2.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
1790-1960[8] 1900-1990[9]
1990-2000[10] 2010-2015[1]

As of the 2010 Census Jefferson County had a population of 218,733. The reported ethnic and racial make up of the population was 95.4% non-Hispanic white, 0.8% African-American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% reporting some other race, 1.3% reporting two or more races and 1.6% Hispanic or Latino of any race.[11]

As of the census[12] of 2000, there were 198,099 people, 71,499 households, and 54,553 families residing in the county. The population density was 302 inhabitants per square mile (117/km2). There were 75,586 housing units at an average density of 115 per square mile (44/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 97.48% White, 0.68% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, and 0.93% from two or more races. Approximately 1.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 71,499 households out of which 38.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.00% were married couples living together, 10.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.70% were non-families. 18.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.12.

In the county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 31.80% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, and 9.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $60,636, and the median income for a family was $66,697. Males had a median income of $37,822 versus $25,440 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,058. About 4.90% of families and 6.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.10% of those under age 18 and 6.30% of those age 65 or over.

There were 146,316 registered voters in 2008.[13] As of Oct. 24, 2012, there were 148,011.[14]

Education

Public schools

Private schools

  • Christian Outreach School (K-12) - Hillsboro - Nondenominational Christian
  • People's Christian Academy (K-12) - Arnold - Assembly of God/Pentecostal
  • St. Pius X High School (09-12) - Festus - Roman Catholic
  • Twin City Christian Academy (PK-12) - Festus - Baptist
  • Good Shepherd Catholic School - (K-08) - Hillsboro - Roman Catholic
  • Holy Child Elementary & Middle School - Arnold - (K-08) - Roman Catholic
  • Manna Christian Academy - De Soto - (K-12) - Southern Baptist
  • Our Lady's Catholic School - Festus - (K-08) - Roman Catholic
  • Our Lady Queen of Peace School - House Springs - (K-08) - Roman Catholic
  • Sacred Heart Catholic School - Festus - (K-08) - Roman Catholic
  • St. Anthony's Catholic School - High Ridge - (K-08) - Roman Catholic
  • St. Joseph's Catholic School - Imperial - (K-08) - Roman Catholic
  • St. Johns Lutheran School - Arnold - (PK-08) - Lutheran
  • St. Johns School - Imperial - (K-08) - Nondenominational Christianity
  • St. Rose of Lima Catholic School - De Soto - (K-08) - Roman Catholic

Post-secondary

Jefferson College - Hillsboro A public, two-year community college

Public libraries

  • Crystal City Public Library[15]
  • De Soto Public Library[16]
  • Festus Public Library[17]
  • Herculaneum Public Library[18]
  • Jefferson County Public Library[19]

Politics

Local

Historically, the Democratic Party has controlled politics at the local level in Jefferson County. Democrats hold all but two of the elected positions in the county. However, Republicans have made gains in recent years; they hold five of seven seats on the county council.

Jefferson County, Missouri
Elected countywide officials
Assessor Terry Roesch Democratic
Circuit Clerk Michael Reuter Republican
County Clerk Wes Wagner Democratic
Collector Beth Mahn Democratic
Commissioner
(Presiding)
Ken Waller Republican
Prosecuting Attorney Forrest Wegge Democratic
Public Administrator Steve Farmer Republican
Recorder Debbie Dunnegan Republican
Sheriff Dave Marshak Republican
Treasurer Linda Nees Democratic

State

Past Gubernatorial Elections Results
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 53.62% 56.755 42.74% 45.234 3.64% 3,848
2012 41.75% 40,470 55.68% 53,971 2.56% 2,484
2008 34.42% 35,947 63.87% 66,697 1.71% 1,781
2004 49.23% 45,891 49.25% 45,909 1.52% 1,424
2000 47.05% 36,060 49.33% 37,808 3.62% 2,775
1996 43.90% 28,986 52.96% 34,970 3.14% 2,077

Jefferson County is divided into seven legislative districts in the Missouri House of Representatives; six of which are held by Republicans and one held by a Democrat.

  • District 97 John McCaherty (R-High Ridge). Consists of Murphy and part of Arnold.
Missouri House of Representatives — District 97 — Jefferson County (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican John C. McCaherty 10,386 74.00% +7.02
Libertarian Tracy J. Scott 3,650 26.00% +26.00
Missouri House of Representatives — District 97 — Jefferson County (2014)[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican John C. McCaherty 4,681 66.98% +15.83
Democratic Tom Dohack 2,308 33.02% -15.83
Missouri House of Representatives — District 97 — Jefferson County (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican John C. McCaherty 6,946 51.15%
Democratic Sam Komo 6,633 48.85%
  • District 111 Shane Roden (R-Cedar Hill). Consists of Byrnes Mill, Cedar Hill, Cedar Hill Lakes, House Springs, and Scottsdale.
Missouri House of Representatives — District 111 — Jefferson County (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Shane Roden 10,699 62.10% +9.12
Democratic Del Viehland 5,020 29.14% -17.88
Independent Jon Schuesller 1,510 8.76% +8.76
Missouri House of Representatives — District 111 — Jefferson County (2014)[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Shane Roden 4,834 52.98% +3.66
Democratic Michael Frame 4,291 47.02% -3.66
Missouri House of Representatives — District 111 — Jefferson County (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Michael Frame 8,052 50.68%
Republican Derrick Good 7,836 49.32%
  • District 112 Rob Vescovo (R-Arnold). Consists of areas near Arnold and Byrnes Mill.
Missouri House of Representatives — District 112 — Jefferson County (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Rob Vescovo 10,754 59.64% -0.43
Democratic Robert Butler 7,278 40.36% +0.43
Missouri House of Representatives — District 112 — Jefferson County (2014)[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Rob Vescovo 5,432 60.07% +0.97
Democratic Robert Butler 3,611 39.93% -0.97
Missouri House of Representatives — District 112 — Jefferson County (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Paul Wieland 9,284 59.10%
Democratic Daniel James 6,425 40.90%
  • District 113 Dan Shaul (R-Imperial). Consists of most Arnold, all of Imperial and Kimmswick, and part of Barnhart.
Missouri House of Representatives — District 113 — Jefferson County (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Dan Shaul 9,598 57.84% -2.14
Democratic Karen Settlemoir-Berg 6,995 42.16% +2.14
Missouri House of Representatives — District 113 — Jefferson County (2014)[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Dan Shaul 4,749 59.98% +13.21
Democratic Sean Fauss 3,168 40.02% -13.21
Missouri House of Representatives — District 113 — Jefferson County (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Jeff Roorda 8,450 53.23%
Republican Dan Smith 7,225 46.77%
  • District 114 Becky Ruth (R-Festus). Consists of part of Barnhart, and all of Crystal City, Festus, Herculaneum, and Pevely.
Missouri House of Representatives — District 114 — Jefferson County (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Becky Ruth 14,639 100.00% +46.74%
Missouri House of Representatives — District 114 — Jefferson County (2014)[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Becky Ruth 4,791 53.26% +3.53
Democratic T. J. McKenna 4,204 46.74% -3.53
Missouri House of Representatives — District 114 — Jefferson County (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic T. J. McKenna 7,772 50.27%
Republican Becky Ruth 7,688 49.73%
  • District 115 Elaine Gannon (R-De Soto). Consists of Olympian Village and areas near De Soto.
Missouri House of Representatives — District 115 — Jefferson County (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Elaine Gannon 6,444 69.32% +5.68
Democratic Barbara Stocker 2,443 26.28% -5.12
Libertarian Charles Bigelow 409 4.40% +4.40
Missouri House of Representatives — District 115 — Jefferson County (2014)[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Elaine Gannon 3,285 63.64% +12.75
Democratic Dan Darian 1,621 31.40% -17.71
Constitution Jerry Dollar, Jr. 256 4.96% +4.96
Missouri House of Representatives — District 115 — Jefferson County (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Elaine Gannon 4,329 50.89%
Democratic Rich McCane 4,177 49.11%
  • District 118 Ben Harris (D-Hillsboro). Consists of De Soto and Hillsboro.
Missouri House of Representatives — District 118 — Jefferson County (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Ben Harris 8,164 100.00% +44.57
Missouri House of Representatives — District 118 — Jefferson County (2014)[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Ben Harris 3,239 55.43% -44.57
Republican Michael McGirl 2,604 44.57% +44.57
Missouri House of Representatives — District 118 — Jefferson County (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Ben Harris 7,514 100.00%

Jefferson County is also divided into two districts in the Missouri Senate.

  • District 3 — Gary Romine (R-Farmington) Consists of De Soto, Hillsboro, and Olympian Village as well as part of Festus.
Missouri Senate — District 3 — Jefferson County (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Gary Romine 16,356 77.75% +27.90
Green Edward Weissler 4,681 22.24% +22.24
Missouri Senate — District 3 — Jefferson County (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Gary Romine 10,069 49.85
Democratic Joseph Fallert, Jr. 10,129 50.15
Missouri Senate — District 22 — Jefferson County (2014)[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Paul Wieland 22,208 54.19
Democratic Jeff Roorda 18,774 45.81

Federal

U.S. Senate — Missouri — (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Roy Blunt 53,218 50.34% +10.37
Democratic Jason Kander 46,975 44.44% -9.07
Libertarian Jonathan Dine 2,941 2.78% -3.74
Green Johnathan McFarland 1,450 1.37% +1.37
Constitution Fred Ryman 1,124 1.06% +1.06
U.S. Senate — Missouri — (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Claire McCaskill 51,862 53.51%
Republican Todd Akin 38,745 39.97%
Libertarian Jonathan Dine 6,316 6.52%

Jefferson County is divided among three congressional districts. Prior to the 2012 election all of it was included in Missouri's 3rd Congressional District, but now about half of it is in the 3rd District, while the northeastern portion is in the 2nd Congressional District and the southern portion is in the 8th Congressional District.

U.S. House of Representatives — District 2 — Jefferson County (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Ann Wagner 11,930 61.04% -0.87
Democratic Bill Otto 6,542 33.47% -0.10
Libertarian Jim Higgins 783 4.00% -0.52
Green David Justus Arnold 291 1.49% +1.49
U.S. House of Representatives — District 2 — Jefferson County (2014)[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Ann Wagner 5,988 61.91% +6.38
Democratic Arthur Lieber 3,247 33.57% -7.41
Libertarian Bill Slantz 437 4.52% +1.68
U.S. House of Representatives — District 2 — Jefferson County (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Ann Wagner 9,976 55.53%
Democratic Glenn Koenen 7,361 40.98%
Libertarian Bill Slantz 511 2.84%
Constitution Anatol Zorikova 116 0.65%
U.S. House of Representatives — District 3 — Jefferson County (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Blaine Luetkemeyer 33,530 61.56% +1.44
Democratic Kevin Miller 18,333 33.66% -1.33
Libertarian Dan Hogan 2,077 3.81% -1.07
Constitution Doanita Simmons 526 0.97% +0.97
U.S. House of Representatives — District 3 — Jefferson County (2014)[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Blaine Luetkemeyer 16,558 60.12% +7.09
Democratic Courtney Denton 9,637 34.99% -7.29
Libertarian Steven Hedrick 1,345 4.88% +0.19
U.S. House of Representatives — District 3 — Jefferson County (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Blaine Luetkemeyer 25,898 53.03%
Democratic Eric Mayer 20,650 42.28%
Libertarian Steven Wilson 2,288 4.69%
U.S. House of Representatives — District 8 — Jefferson County (2016)[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jason Smith 18,030 63.98% +11.75
Democratic Dave Cowell 9,155 32.49% -5.26
Libertarian Jonathan Shell 996 3.53% +0.70
U.S. House of Representatives — District 8 — Jefferson County (2014)[21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jason Smith 8,060 52.23% -5.47
Democratic Barbara Stocker 5,826 37.75% -0.80
Libertarian Rick Vandeven 436 2.83% +1.22
Constitution Doug Enyart 544 3.52% +1.38
Independent Terry Hampton 567 3.67%
U.S. House of Representatives — District 8 — Jefferson County (Special Election, June 4, 2013)[23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jason Smith 1,862 57.70% +0.78
Democratic Steve Hodges 1,244 38.55% -0.54
Libertarian Bill Slantz 52 1.61% -2.38
Constitution Doug Enyart 69 2.14% +2.14
U.S. House of Representatives — District 8 — Jefferson County (2012)[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Joann Emerson 14,692% 56.92
Democratic Jack Rushin 10,090 39.09%
Libertarian Rick Vandeven 1,030 3.99%

Political culture

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results[24]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 64.5% 69,036 29.5% 31,568 6.0% 6,391
2012 55.1% 53,978 42.4% 41,564 2.5% 2,482
2008 47.9% 50,804 50.4% 53,467 1.7% 1,779
2004 50.0% 46,624 49.4% 46,057 0.6% 583
2000 47.6% 36,766 50.0% 38,616 2.4% 1,822
1996 36.1% 23,877 48.5% 32,073 15.4% 10,152
1992 28.1% 20,637 44.3% 32,569 27.6% 20,295
1988 51.2% 29,279 48.5% 27,738 0.4% 215
1984 63.3% 34,525 36.7% 20,026
1980 52.0% 28,546 43.8% 24,042 4.2% 2,294
1976 41.6% 18,261 57.3% 25,159 1.1% 495
1972 61.4% 21,947 38.6% 13,787
1968 37.7% 11,708 42.6% 13,230 19.7% 6,115
1964 29.4% 7,887 70.6% 18,916
1960 43.1% 12,910 56.9% 17,054
1956 43.6% 10,712 56.4% 13,868
1952 42.8% 9,607 57.1% 12,808 0.1% 22
1948 37.0% 6,085 62.6% 10,280 0.4% 70
1944 45.8% 6,758 53.9% 7,953 0.2% 34
1940 43.9% 7,517 55.8% 9,553 0.3% 45
1936 37.2% 5,575 61.2% 9,158 1.6% 241
1932 35.5% 4,559 63.3% 8,130 1.2% 155
1928 54.5% 6,285 45.3% 5,231 0.2% 22
1924 48.9% 4,870 43.7% 4,356 7.4% 737
1920 54.1% 5,730 44.2% 4,684 1.7% 181
1916 51.0% 3,310 46.6% 3,021 2.4% 158
1912 40.8% 2,127 45.5% 2,368 13.7% 713
1908 52.0% 3,050 46.0% 2,698 2.0% 117
1904 52.1% 2,909 45.8% 2,560 2.1% 116
1900 49.2% 2,775 49.6% 2,798 1.2% 67
1896 50.5% 2,876 48.9% 2,785 0.7% 38
1892 44.7% 2,207 53.0% 2,617 2.3% 113
1888 47.3% 2,228 51.8% 2,438 0.9% 43

A predominantly suburban county, Jefferson County is fairly independent-leaning at the federal level but does have a tendency to tilt Democratic. Presidential elections in Jefferson County are almost always extremely close; George W. Bush just narrowly carried the county in 2004 by less than 600 votes and by just over a half of a percentage point. Al Gore and Barack Obama also just narrowly carried the county in 2000 and 2008, respectively. Bill Clinton, however, did manage to carry Jefferson County by double digits both times in 1992 and 1996. However, in 2012 the county swung hard to Mitt Romney, who carried it with 55 percent of the vote. In 2016 Donald Trump carried the county with 65% of the vote, the largest margin of any candidate since Lyndon Johnson in 1964.

Typical of the suburban culture in most counties throughout the country, voters in Jefferson County tend to be rather centrist on social issues but more liberal on economic issues. In 2004, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to define marriage as the union between a man and a woman—it overwhelmingly passed Jefferson County with 72.56 percent of the vote. The initiative passed the state with 71 percent of support from voters as Missouri became the first state to ban same-sex marriage. In 2006, Missourians voted on a constitutional amendment to fund and legalize embryonic stem cell research in the state—it narrowly passed Jefferson County with 51.85 percent voting for the measure. The initiative narrowly passed the state with 51 percent of support from voters as Missouri became one of the first states in the nation to approve embryonic stem cell research. In 2006, Missourians voted on a proposition (Proposition B) to increase the minimum wage in the state to $6.50 an hour—it passed Jefferson County with 79.90 percent of the vote. The proposition strongly passed every single county in Missouri with 78.99 percent voting in favor as the minimum wage was increased to $6.50 an hour in the state. During the same election, voters in five other states also strongly approved increases in the minimum wage.

2008 Missouri presidential primary

Republican

U.S. Senator John McCain (R-Arizona) won Jefferson County with 33.54% of the vote. Former Governor Mitt Romney (R-Massachusetts finished in second with 30.45% of the vote, while former Governor Mike Huckabee (R-Arkansas) came in third with 30.19% in Jefferson County. Libertarian-leaning U.S. Representative Ron Paul (R-Texas) finished a distant fourth place with 3.94% of the vote in Jefferson County. McCain received all of Missouri’s 58 delegates as the Republican Party utilizes the winner-takes-all system.

Democratic

U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton (D-New York) won Jefferson County over Senator Barack Obama (D-Illinois) with 61.32% of the vote, while Obama received 35.02% of the vote. Although he withdrew from the race, former U.S. Senator John Edwards (D-North Carolina) still received 2.74% of the vote in Jefferson County. Jefferson County gave Clinton one of her strongest showings in a predominantly suburban county in the entire country.

Clinton had a large initial lead in Missouri at the beginning of the evening as the rural precincts began to report, leading several news organizations to call the state for her; however, Obama rallied from behind as the heavily African American precincts from St. Louis began to report and eventually put him over the top. In the end, Obama received 49.32 percent of the vote to Clinton’s 47.90% — a 1.42% difference. Both candidates split Missouri’s 72 delegates, as the Democratic Party utilizes proportional representation.

  • Hillary Rodham Clinton received more votes, a total of 19,075, than any candidate from either party in Jefferson County during the 2008 Missouri Presidential Primaries. She also received more votes than the total number of votes cast in the entire Republican Primary in Jefferson County.

Recreation

  • Big River Saddle Club
  • Brown's Ford
  • Cedar Hill
  • Fletcher House
  • High Ridge Civic Center
  • Rockford Beach
  • Jefferson Winter Park
  • Minnie Ha Ha Park
  • Morse Mill
  • Pleasant Valley
  • Sunridge
  • NW Jefferson County Sports Complex

Communities

Cities

Villages

Census-designated places

Other unincorporated communities

Seckman

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 12, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. ^ Eaton, David Wolfe (1916). How Missouri Counties, Towns and Streams Were Named. The State Historical Society of Missouri. p. 179.
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 168.
  5. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  6. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Archived from the original on May 29, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  7. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  8. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  9. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2014. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  10. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  11. ^ 2010 census report for Jefferson County, Missouri Archived 2014-12-14 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  13. ^ "Registered Voters in Missouri 2008". Archived from the original on 2011-11-16.
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2012-10-28. Retrieved on Jul. 9, 2013
  15. ^ Breeding, Marshall. "Crystal City Public Library". Libraries.org. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  16. ^ Breeding, Marshall. "De Soto Public Library". Libraries.org. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  17. ^ Breeding, Marshall. "Festus Public Library". Libraries.org. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  18. ^ Breeding, Marshall. "Herculaneum Public Library". Libraries.org. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  19. ^ Breeding, Marshall. "Jefferson County Public Library". Libraries.org. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Official Results November 8, 2016 General Election" (PDF). Jefferson County Clerk. November 8, 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 3, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "November 4, 2014 General Election Official Results" (PDF). Jefferson County Clerk. November 4, 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Certification of Election Results" (PDF). Jefferson County Clerk. November 6, 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  23. ^ "June 4, 2013 Special Election" (PDF). Jefferson County Clerk. June 4, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  24. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on 2018-03-23. Retrieved 2018-03-25.

External links

  • Jefferson County Heritage and Historical Society of Missouri
  • Jefferson County Online
  • Digitized 1930 Plat Book of Jefferson County from University of Missouri Division of Special Collections, Archives, and Rare Books

Coordinates: 38°16′N 90°32′W / 38.26°N 90.54°W / 38.26; -90.54

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