Jean-Charles Chapais

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The Hon.
Jean-Charles Chapais
Jean-Charles Chapais.jpg
Jean-Charles Chapais as Receiver-General, in 1870
Senator for De la Durantaye, Quebec
In office
January 30, 1868 – July 17, 1885
Appointed by John A. Macdonald
Preceded by Joseph-Noël Bossé
Succeeded by John Jones Ross
Member of the Legislative Assembly of Quebec for Champlain
In office
Preceded by John Jones Ross
Succeeded by François-Xavier-Anselme Trudel
Personal details
Born (1811-12-02)December 2, 1811
Rivière-Ouelle, Lower Canada
Died July 17, 1885(1885-07-17) (aged 73)
Ottawa, Ontario
Political party Conservative
Other political
Conservative Party of Quebec
Children Thomas Chapais
Cabinet Minister of Agriculture (1867-1869)
Receiver General (1869-1873)

Jean-Charles Chapais, PC (December 2, 1811 – July 17, 1885) was a Canadian Conservative politician, and considered a Father of Canadian Confederation for his participation in the Quebec Conference to determine the form of Canada's government.

Chapais was born in Rivière-Ouelle, a small town in Kamouraska, Quebec, and was educated in Nicolet. Following his success as a farmer and merchant, in 1845 he became the first mayor of Saint-Denis-de-la-Bouteillerie, the town he had lived in from 1833. The following year, he married Georgina Dionne; they had six children together.

Political career

At the prompting of his father-in-law, Chapais entered regional politics. In 1851, he was elected for the first time to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada; he was eventually to serve a total of five terms representing Kamouraska. A "bleu", he was a supporter of Augustin-Norbert Morin, Étienne-Paschal Taché and George-Étienne Cartier. He worked to abolish the system of seigneurial tenure in Quebec and reform agricultural legislation.

Following the Charlottetown Conference in September 1864, Chapais attended the Quebec Conference to negotiate on behalf of Canada East for provincial governments to have greater power in the Canadian federal system.

Chapais was Commissioner of Public Works in the Great Coalition of 1864–1867, and is credited with establishing the Intercolonial Railway and expanding the Grand Trunk Railway. In 1867 the British North America Act was passed, creating the Dominion of Canada, and Chapais became the first Minister of Agriculture. At this time, he also switched to representing Champlain in the Quebec legislature, due to a scandal over electoral irregularities in Kamouraska. On 30 January 1868, Jean-Charles Chapais entered the Senate of Canada, and sat in the body until his death.

As Minister, Chapais was in charge of more than simply agriculture: the department was also responsible for the import and export of animals, immigration, the census, patent administration and trademarks, public health, manufacturing, and the arts. After less than three years, he was replaced by Christopher Dunkin, which he greatly resented. His new position of Receiver General for Canada was significantly less prestigious and powerful, requiring little more than making and accepting payments on behalf of the government. (Today, the portfolio has passed to the Minister of Public Works.) Chapais resigned in 1873, saying that he wanted to spend more time with his family and business. He is buried in Saint-Denis-De La Bouteillerie, Quebec.

Chapais' house in Saint-Denis-De La Bouteillerie was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1962.[1]


  1. ^ Chapais House. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 19 March 2012.


  • "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours (in French). National Assembly of Quebec. 
  • "Jean-Charles Chapais". Dictionary of Canadian Biography (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016. 
  • Jean-Charles Chapais – Parliament of Canada biography
  • Biography Libraries and Collections Canada
  • Biography from the Ministry of Agriculture
Political offices
Preceded by
Edward Kenny
Receiver General
1869-11-16 – 1873-01-29
Succeeded by
Théodore Robitaille
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