Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau

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Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur de Rochambeau
Rochambeau Versailles.jpg
Rochambeau wearing the sash of the Order of Saint Louis
Born (1725-07-01)1 July 1725
Vendôme, Orléanais, France
Died 30 May 1807(1807-05-30) (aged 81)
Thoré, Loir-et-Cher, France
Buried Thore Cemetery, Thore-la-Rochette
Allegiance  Kingdom of France
 Kingdom of the French
Service/branch French Army
Years of service 1742–1792
Rank Marshal of France
Battles/wars War of the Austrian Succession
Seven Years' War
American Revolutionary War
French Revolutionary Wars
Awards Ordre du Saint-Esprit Chevalier ribbon.svg Order of the Holy Spirit
Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis Chevalier ribbon.svg Order of Saint Louis
Society of the Cincinnati

Marshal Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (French pronunciation: ​[ʁɔʃɑ̃bo]; 1 July 1725 – 10 May 1807) was a French nobleman and general who played a major role in helping the Thirteen Colonies win independence during the American Revolution. During this time, he served as commander-in-chief of the French Expeditionary Force that embarked from France in order to help the American Continental Army fight against British forces.

Military life

Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur was born in Vendôme, in the province of Orléanais, and he was schooled at the Jesuit college in Blois. After the death of his elder brother, he entered a cavalry regiment and served in Bohemia, Bavaria, and on the Rhine during the War of the Austrian Succession. By 1747, he had attained the rank of colonel. He took part in the Siege of Maastricht (1748) and became governor of Vendôme in 1749. He distinguished himself in the Battle of Minorca (1756) on the outbreak of the Seven Years' War and was promoted to Brigadier General of infantry. In 1758, he fought in Germany, notably in the Battle of Krefeld and the Battle of Clostercamp, receiving several wounds at Clostercamp.

American Revolution

Landing of a French auxiliary army in Newport, Rhode Island on July 11, 1780 under the command of the comte de Rochambeau. This image is one of 12 scenes from the American Revolution printed in Allegemeines historisches Taschenbuch by Daniel Nickolaus Chodowiecki, a well-known Polish engraver.

In 1780, Rochambeau was appointed commander of land forces as part of the project code named Expédition Particulière.[1] He was given the rank of Lieutenant General in command of some 7,000 French troops and sent to join the Continental Army under George Washington during the American Revolutionary War. Axel von Fersen the Younger served as his aide-de-camp and interpreter. The small size of the force at his disposal made him initially reluctant to lead the expedition.[2]

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis by John Trumbull, depicting Cornwallis surrendering at Yorktown to the French troops of General Rochambeau (left) and American troops of Washington (right); oil on canvas, 1820

He landed at Newport, Rhode Island on July 10 but was held there inactive for a year due to his reluctance to abandon the French fleet blockaded by the British in Narragansett Bay. The College in the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations served as an encampment site for some of Rochambeau's troops, and the College Edifice was converted into a military hospital, now known as University Hall.[3] In July 1781, Rochambeau's force left Rhode Island and marched across Connecticut to join Washington on the Hudson River in Mount Kisco, New York. From July 6 to August 18, 1781, the Odell farm served as Rochambeau's headquarters.[4] There then followed the celebrated march of the combined forces, the siege of Yorktown, and the Battle of the Chesapeake. On September 22, they combined with the Marquis de Lafayette's troops and forced Lord Cornwallis to surrender on October 19. In recognition of his services, the Congress of the Confederation presented him with two cannons taken from the British. Rochambeau returned them to Vendôme, and they were requisitioned in 1792.

Return to France

Upon his return to France, Rochambeau was honored by King Louis XVI and was made governor of the province of Picardy. He supported the French Revolution of 1789, and on 28 December 1791 he and Nicolas Luckner became the last two generals created Marshal of France by Louis XVI. When the French Revolutionary Wars broke out, he commanded the Armée du Nord for a time in 1792 but resigned after several reversals to the Austrians. He was arrested during the Reign of Terror in 1793–94 and narrowly escaped the guillotine. He was subsequently pensioned by Napoleon and died at Thoré-la-Rochette during the First Empire.

Legacy

Honors

US Postage Stamp, 1931 issue, honoring Rochambeau, George Washington, and François Joseph Paul de Grasse, commemorating 150th anniversary of the victory at Yorktown, 1781

President Theodore Roosevelt unveiled a statue of Rochambeau by Ferdinand Hamar as a gift from France to the United States on May 24, 1902, standing in Lafayette Square, Washington, D.C.. The ceremony was made the occasion of a great demonstration of friendship between the two nations. France was represented by ambassador Jules Cambon, Admiral Fournier, and General Henri Brugère, as well as a detachment of sailors and marines from the battleship Gaulois. Representatives of the Lafayette and Rochambeau families also attended. A Rochambeau fête was held simultaneously in Paris. In 1934, A. Kingsley Macomber donated a statue of General Rochambeau to the city of Newport, Rhode Island. The sculpture is a replica of a statue in Paris.[2]

The French Navy gave his name to the ironclad frigate Rochambeau. The USS Rochambeau was a transport ship that saw service in the United States Navy during World War II. President Obama signed the Omnibus Public Land Management Act on March 30, 2009 with a provision to designate the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route as a National Historic Trail. A bridge is named for Rochambeau in the complex of bridges known as the 14th Street Bridge (Potomac River) connecting Washington D.C. with Virginia. A mansion on the campus of Brown University is named Rochambeau House and houses the French Department.

Memoirs

Jeanne Therese Tilles D'Acosta, Madame la Marquise de Rochambeau

Rochambeau's Mémoires militaires, historiques et politiques, de Rochambeau was published by Jean-Charles-Julien Luce de Lancival in 1809. Part of the first volume was translated into English and published in 1838 under the title Memoirs of the Marshal Count de R. relative to the War of Independence in the United States. His correspondence during the American campaign was published in 1892 in H. Doniol's History of French Participation in the Establishment of the United States[5]

Other

Major General Comte Jean de Rochambeau in Lafayette Park, Washington, D.C.

Motto and coat of arms

Coat of arms Motto
Heraldique couronne comte français.svg
Blason fam fr Vimeur de Rochambeau (de).svg
VIVRE EN PREUX, Y MOURIR[7]
(To live and die as a gallant knight)

Notes

  1. ^ Kennett, Lee (1977). The French Forces in America, 1780–1783. Greenwood Press, Inc. Page 10
  2. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, Count de Rochambeau". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Lenore M. Rennenkampf (February 1973). "National Register of Historic Places Registration:Odell House". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  5. ^ Doniol, H. Histoire de la participation de la France en l'établissement des Etats Unis d'Amérique, Vol. V. [publisher unknown] Paris: 1892
  6. ^ Rochambeau Playground
  7. ^ Johannes Baptist Rietstap, Armorial général : contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe : précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason, G.B. van Goor, 1861, 1171 p

References

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Rochambeau, Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 425–426.  In turn, it cites as references:
    • Arthur Du Chêne, "Autour de Rochambeau" in Revue des facultés catholiques de l'ouest (1898–1900)
    • E. Gachot, "Rochambeau" in Nouvelle Revue (1902)
    • H. de Ganniers, "La Dernière Campagne du maréchal de Rochambeau" in Revue des questions historiques (1901)

External links

  • France and the American Revolution at the John Carter Brown Library
  • Jean-Baptiste-Donatien Count de Rochambeau at Find a Grave
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