This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

Jayne Mansfield

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jayne Mansfield
Jayne Mansfield (Kiss them for me-1957).jpg
Mansfield in Kiss Them for Me (1957)
Born Vera Jayne Palmer
(1933-04-19)April 19, 1933
Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Died June 29, 1967(1967-06-29) (aged 34)
Eastern New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
Cause of death Brain trauma sustained in automobile accident
Resting place Fairview Cemetery,
Pen Argyl, Pennsylvania
40°51′42″N 75°14′25″W / 40.861672°N 75.240244°W / 40.861672; -75.240244
Other names Vera Jayne Peers
Vera Palmer
Education Southern Methodist University
University of Texas at Austin
University of California, Los Angeles
Occupation
Years active 1954–1967
Spouse(s) Paul Mansfield
(m. 1950; div. 1958)

Miklós Hargitay
(m. 1958; div. 1964)

Matt Cimber
(m. 1964; div. 1966)
Children 5, including Jayne Marie Mansfield and Mariska Hargitay
Awards Theatre World Award for Promising Personality (1956)
Golden Globe for New Star Of The Year – Actress (1957)
Website www.jaynemansfield.com
Signature
JMsig Converted.svg

Jayne Mansfield (born Vera Jayne Palmer; April 19, 1933 – June 29, 1967) was an American film, theater, and television actress. She was also a nightclub entertainer, a singer, and one of the early Playboy Playmates. She was a major Hollywood sex symbol during the 1950s and early 1960s, and one of 20th Century Fox's main sex-symbol actresses. She was also known for her well-publicized personal life and publicity stunts, such as wardrobe malfunctions.

Although Mansfield's film career was short-lived, she had several box-office successes and won a Theatre World Award and a Golden Globe. She enjoyed success in the role of fictional actress Rita Marlowe, both in the 1955–1956 Broadway version and the 1957 Hollywood film version of Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter? Her other major movie performances were in The Girl Can't Help It (1956), The Wayward Bus (1957), and Too Hot to Handle (1960). In the sexploitation film Promises! Promises! (1963), she became the first major American actress to have a nude starring role in a Hollywood motion picture.

Mansfield took her professional name from her first husband, public relations professional Paul Mansfield. She was married and divorced three times and had five children. Mansfield was allegedly intimately involved with numerous men, including Robert and John Kennedy, her attorney Samuel S. Brody, and Las Vegas entertainer Nelson Sardelli. Her career ended when she died in a car accident in 1967 at the age of 34.

Early life and education

Jayne Mansfield was born Vera Jayne Palmer on April 19, 1933, in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. She was the only child of Herbert William Palmer (1904–1936), who was of German and English ancestry, and Vera (née Jeffrey) Palmer (1903–2000), of English origin.[1] She inherited more than $90,000 from her maternal grandfather Thomas ($747,000 in 2016 dollars)[2] and more than $36,000 from her maternal grandmother, Beatrice Mary Palmer, in 1958 ($299,000 in 2016 dollars).[3][4][Notes 1]

She spent her early childhood in Phillipsburg, New Jersey,[6] where her father was an attorney practicing with future New Jersey governor Robert B. Meyner. In 1936, her father died of a heart attack. In 1939 her mother married sales engineer Harry Lawrence Peers, and the family moved to Dallas, Texas,[7] where she was known as Vera Jayne Peers.[8][9]

As a child she wanted to be a Hollywood star like Shirley Temple.[10][11][12] At age 12, she took ballroom dance lessons.[13] She graduated from Highland Park High School in 1950.[14][15][16][17] While in high school, Palmer took violin, piano, and viola lessons. She also studied Spanish and German.[18][19] She consistently received grades in the high Bs including in mathematics.[20]

At age 17, she married Paul Mansfield on May 10, 1950. Their daughter, Jayne Marie Mansfield, was born six months later on November 8, 1950. Jayne and her husband enrolled in Southern Methodist University to study acting.[21][22][23] In 1951, she moved to Austin, Texas, with her husband, and studied dramatics at the University of Texas at Austin, until her junior year.[15][16][17][22] There she worked as a nude art model, sold books door-to-door, and worked as a receptionist at a dance studio.[24][25][26] She also joined the Curtain Club,[25] a popular campus theatrical society that included among its members lyricist Tom Jones, composer Harvey Schmidt, and actors Rip Torn and Pat Hingle.[25][27][28]

In 1952, she moved back to Dallas, and for several months was a student of actor Baruch Lumet, father of director Sidney Lumet and founder of the Dallas Institute of Performing Arts.[29][30][31] Lumet gave her private lessons and called Mansfield and Rip Torn his "kids".[15][32] She then spent a year at Camp Gordon, Georgia (a US Army training facility) when Paul Mansfield served in the United States Army Reserve in the Korean War.[26]

They moved to Los Angeles in 1954, where Mansfield studied Theater Arts at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) during the summer,[15][16] and returned to Texas to spend the fall quarter at Southern Methodist University.[33] She managed to maintain a B grade average while working at a variety of odd jobs including: selling popcorn at the Stanley Warner Theatre, teaching dance,[34] selling candy at a movie theater,[21] modeling part-time at the Blue Book Model Agency,[35] and working as a photographer at Esther Williams' Trails Restaurant.[33][22][29]

Early career

Jayne Mansfield
Playboy centerfold appearance
February 1955
Preceded by Bettie Page
Succeeded by Marilyn Waltz
Personal details
Measurements Bust: 40 in (102 cm)[36]
Waist: 21 in (53 cm)[36]
Hips: 35 in (89 cm)[36]
Height 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) (5 ft 8 in, according to her autopsy)

While attending The University of Texas at Austin, Mansfield won several beauty contests, including Miss Photoflash, Miss Magnesium Lamp, and Miss Fire Prevention Week. The only title she refused was Miss Roquefort Cheese, because she believed it "... just didn't sound right".[37] Mansfield accepted a bit part in a B-grade film titled Prehistoric Women (produced by Alliance Productions, alternatively titled The Virgin Goddess) in 1950.[26] In 1952, while in Dallas, she and Paul Mansfield participated in small local-theater productions of The Slaves of Demon Rum and Ten Nights in a Barroom, and Anything Goes in Camp Gordon, Georgia. After he left for military service, she made her first notable stage appearance in a production of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman on October 22, 1953, with the players of the Knox Street Theater, headed by Lumet.[33] While at UCLA, she entered the Miss California contest (hiding her marital status), and won the local round before withdrawing.[26]

Early in her career, some advertisers considered her prominent breasts problematic, which led to her losing her first professional assignment — an advertising campaign for General Electric that depicted young women in bathing suits relaxing around a pool.[38] Emmeline Snively, head of the Blue Book Model Agency, had sent her to photographer Gene Lester, which led to her short-lived assignment in the General Electric commercial.[29] In 1954, she auditioned at both Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros. for a part in The Seven Year Itch, but failed to impress.[33] She also auditioned unsuccessfully at Paramount for Joan of Arc, a project that was never completed.[39][40] She landed her first acting assignment in Lux Video Theatre, a series on CBS in the episode "An Angel Went AWOL", aired on October 21, 1954).[33] In it, she sat at a piano and delivered a few lines of dialogue for $300 ($3,000 in 2016 dollars)[2].[41]

In 1953, editor Hugh Hefner began publishing Playboy and the magazine became popular because of its early Playmates, such as Mansfield, Marilyn Monroe, Bettie Page, and Anita Ekberg.[42] In February 1955, Mansfield was the Playboy Playmate of the Month,[36] and appeared in the magazine more than 30 times.[43] Her February appearance increased the magazine's circulation and helped launch Mansfield's career.[44][45][46] Shortly afterward, she posed for the Playboy calendar, covering her breasts with her hands. Playboy featured Mansfield each February from 1955 to 1958, and again in 1960.[46]

In August 1956, Paul Mansfield sought custody of his daughter, alleging that Jayne was an unfit mother because she appeared nude in Playboy.[47] In 1964, the magazine repeated the 1955 pictorial.[46] Playboy reprinted photos from that pictorial issues, with titles such as December 1965's "The Playboy Portfolio of Sex Stars," and January 2000's "Centerfolds of the Century". [48]

Film career

Career beginnings (1954–1955)

Mansfield's first film part was a supporting role in Female Jungle, a low-budget drama completed in ten days while she was still a student at UCLA. Her part was filmed over a span of a few days, and she was paid $150 ($1,000 in 2016 dollars)[2].[40] It was released unofficially in early 1955. In February 1955, James Byron, her manager and publicist, negotiated a seven-year contract with Warner Brothers, who were intrigued by her publicity antics.[49] The contract initially paid her $250 a week ($2,000 in 2016 dollars) and landed her two films—one with an insignificant role, and another unreleased for two years. She filed for separation from Paul Mansfield that January.[48][49] Mansfield was given bit parts in Pete Kelly's Blues (1955), starring Jack Webb, and Hell on Frisco Bay (1955), starring Alan Ladd. She acted in one more movie for Warner Brothers—another small, but significant role opposite Edward G. Robinson in the courtroom-drama Illegal (1955).[50] Dissatisfied with her contract with Warner Bros., she hired attorney Greg Bautzer to get out of it.[49]

Then her agent, William Shiffrin, signed her to play fictional film star Rita Marlowe in the Broadway play Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter? with Orson Bean and Walter Matthau. After securing this part, she accepted producer Louis W. Kellman's offer to play a dramatic role in The Burglar (1957), director Paul Wendkos's film adaptation of David Goodis' novel.[51] Made in film noir style, Mansfield appeared alongside Dan Duryea and Martha Vickers. It was released two years later, when Mansfield's fame was at its peak. She was successful in this straight dramatic role, though most of her subsequent film appearances were either comedic or capitalized on her sex appeal.[52] It was Kellman's first major venture, and he claimed to have "discovered" Mansfield.[53]

Film stardom (1955–1958)

Mansfield returned to Hollywood on May 3, 1956, wearing a $20,000 mink coat ($176,000 in 2016 dollars)[2], but without any work.[23] Twentieth Century-Fox immediately signed her to a six-year contract to mold her as a successor to the increasingly difficult Marilyn Monroe,[54] their resident blonde bombshell, who was separated from the studio at the time. Mansfield was still under contract to Broadway and continued playing Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter? on stage.

She undertook her first starring film role as Jerri Jordan in Frank Tashlin's The Girl Can't Help It (1956).[55] Originally titled Do-Re-Mi, it featured a high-profile cast of contemporary Rock-n-Roll and R&B artists including Gene Vincent, Eddie Cochran, Fats Domino, The Platters, and Little Richard.[56] Released in December 1956, The Girl Can't Help It became one of the year's biggest successes, both critically and financially. Fox then bought Mansfield out of her Broadway contract for $100,000 ($881,000 in 2016 dollars)[2] and shut down the production of Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter? after 444 performances.[57][58] Soon afterwards, Fox started promoting Mansfield as "Marilyn Monroe king-sized," attempting to coerce Monroe to return to the studio and finish out her contract.[59] Mansfield had become one of 20th Century Fox's main sex symbol actresses.[60][61]

Mansfield next played a dramatic role in 1957's The Wayward Bus, an adaptation of John Steinbeck's novel of the same name. With this film, she attempted to move away from her "blonde bombshell" image and establish herself as a serious actress. The film enjoyed moderate box office success, and Mansfield won a Golden Globe in 1957 for New Star of the Year, beating Carroll Baker and Natalie Wood for her performance as a "wistful derelict". It was "generally conceded to have been her best acting," according to The New York Times, in a fitful career hampered by her flamboyant image, distinctive voice ("a soft-voiced coo punctuated with squeals"), voluptuous figure, and limited acting range.[62]

Tashlin cast Mansfield in the film version of the Broadway show Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?' in 1957'[21] reprising her role of Rita Marlowe alongside co-stars Tony Randall and Joan Blondell. Fox launched their new blonde bombshell with a forty-day, sixteen-country tour of Europe for the studio. She attended the premiere of the film (released as Oh! For a Man in the UK) in London, and met the Queen of England as part of the tour.[63][64][65]

Mansfield's fourth starring role in a Hollywood film was in Kiss Them for Me (1957), for which she received prominent billing alongside Cary Grant. However, in the film itself she is little more than comic relief; Grant's character prefers a sleek, demure redhead played by fashion model Suzy Parker. The film was described as "vapid" and "ill-advised," was a critical and box office flop, [66] and marked one of the last attempts by 20th Century-Fox to publicize Mansfield.[67]

The continuing publicity surrounding her physical appearance failed to sustain her career.[68] Fox gave her a leading role opposite Kenneth More in The Sheriff of Fractured Jaw (1958), a western comedy filmed on location in England. In the film Mansfield sang three songs, but the studio had her voice dubbed by singer Connie Francis. Fox released the film in the United States in 1959; it was Mansfield's last mainstream film success. Columbia Pictures offered her a part opposite James Stewart and Jack Lemmon in the romantic comedy Bell, Book and Candle (1958), but she had to turn it down because she was pregnant.[69][70] Thereafter, Fox attempted to cast Mansfield opposite Paul Newman in Rally 'Round the Flag, Boys! (1958), his ill-fated first attempt at comedy. However, after intense lobbying by Newman and Joanne Woodward, Mansfield's Wayward Bus co-star Joan Collins replaced her.[71]

Career decline (1959–1963)

Mansfield in Too Hot to Handle (1960)

With decreased demand for big-breasted, blonde bombshells, and an increasing negative backlash against her excessive publicity, Mansfield became a box-office has-been by the early 1960s,[33] but she remained a popular celebrity, continuing to attract large crowds outside the United States by way of lucrative and successful nightclub acts.

Despite the publicity and her popularity, Mansfield had no quality film roles after 1959. She was also unable to fulfill a third of her contract with Fox because of repeated pregnancies. Fox stopped viewing her as major Hollywood star material, and started loaning her out to foreign productions until the end of her contract in 1962. She was first loaned out to English studios and then to Italian studios for a series of low-budget films, many of them obscure, and some considered lost.[72][73]

In 1959, Fox cast her in two independent gangster films shot in the United Kingdom: The Challenge and Too Hot to Handle. Both films were low-budget, and their American releases were delayed.[74] Too Hot to Handle was not released in the United States until 1961 as Playgirl After Dark. The Challenge was released in 1963 as It Takes a Thief. In the United States, censors objected to a scene in Too Hot to Handle where Mansfield, wearing silver netting with sequins painted over her nipples, appears nearly nude.[75]

Nude in Promises! Promises! (1963)

When she returned to Hollywood in mid-1960, 20th Century-Fox cast her in It Happened in Athens (1962). She received first billing above the title, but only appeared in a supporting role. It Happened in Athens starred Trax Colton, a handsome newcomer and an unknown Fox was trying to mold into a heartthrob. This Olympic Games-based film was shot in Greece in fall 1960, but was not released until June 1962. It was a box office failure, and 20th Century-Fox dropped Mansfield's contract.

In 1961, Mansfield signed on for an above-the-title billing, minor role in The George Raft Story. Starring Ray Danton as Raft, the film showcased Mansfield in a small part as a glamorous film star. Soon after the release of The George Raft Story, Mansfield returned to European films. Over the next few years she appeared primarily in low-budget foreign films such as Heimweh nach St. Pauli (1963, Germany), L'Amore Primitivo (1964, Italy), Panic Button (1964, Italy), and Einer frisst den anderen (1964, Germany).

In 1963, Tommy Noonan persuaded Mansfield to become the first mainstream American actress to appear nude in a starring role in the film Promises! Promises!. Playboy published nude photographs of Mansfield on the set in the June 1963 issue, which resulted in obscenity charges against Hugh Hefner in Chicago Municipal court.[76] Promises! Promises! was banned in Cleveland, Ohio, but enjoyed box-office success elsewhere. As a result of the film's success, Mansfield landed on the Top 10 list of box-office attractions for that year.[77]

Final years (1964–1967)

Soon after her success in Promises! Promises! Mansfield was chosen from many other actresses to replace the recently deceased Marilyn Monroe in Kiss Me, Stupid, a 1964 romantic comedy that would co-star Dean Martin. She turned down the role because of her pregnancy with daughter Mariska Hargitay, and was replaced by Kim Novak. That same year, Mansfield appeared in a salacious-for-its-time, pinup book called Jayne Mansfield for President: the White House or Bust, which was promoted on billboards; David Attie, a commercial and fine art photographer, took the photographs.[78] In 1966 Mansfield was cast in Single Room Furnished, directed by then-husband Matt Cimber. The film required Mansfield to portray three different characters, and was her first starring, dramatic role in several years. It was released briefly in 1966, but did not enjoy a full release until 1968, almost a year after her death.

After Single Room Furnished wrapped, Mansfield was cast opposite Mamie Van Doren and Ferlin Husky in The Las Vegas Hillbillys (1966), a low-budget comedy from Woolner Brothers. It was her first country and western film, and she promoted it through a 29-day tour of major U.S. cities, accompanied by Ferlin Husky, Don Bowman, and other country musicians. Before filming began, Mansfield said she would not "share any screen time with the drive-in's answer to Marilyn Monroe," meaning Van Doren. Though their characters do share one scene, Mansfield and Van Doren filmed their parts at different times; they were later edited together.[79]

Mansfield's wardrobe relied on the shapeless styles of the 1960s to hide her weight gain after the birth of her fifth child.[80] Despite career setbacks, she remained a highly visible celebrity during the early 1960s, through her publicity antics and stage performances. In early 1967, Mansfield filmed her last role: a cameo in A Guide for the Married Man, a comedy starring Walter Matthau, Robert Morse, and Inger Stevens. The opening credits list Mansfield as one of the technical advisers, along with other popular stars.[81]

Stage career

Between 1951 and 1953 she acted in The Slaves of Demon Rum, Ten Nights in a Barroom, and Anything Goes. Her performance in an October 1953 production of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman attracted Paramount Pictures to audition her.[82] Lumet trained her for the audition.[15] In 1955, she went to New York and appeared in the Broadway production of George Axelrod's comedy Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?, also featuring Orson Bean and Walter Matthau. It was her first major stage performance, garnering her critical attention—although not always positive—and public popularity.[83] She starred as Rita Marlowe (a wild, blonde Hollywood starlet à la Monroe) in the musical spoofing Hollywood in general and Marilyn Monroe in particular. Her wardrobe, namely a bath-towel, caused a sensation.[84][85][86] She received a Theatre World Award (Promising Personality) for her performance in 1956,[87] as well as a Golden Globe Award (New Star of the year, Actress) in 1957.[88][89]Brooks Atkinson of the New York Times described the "commendable abandon" of her scantily clad rendition of Rita Marlowe in the play as "a platinum-pated movie siren with the wavy contours of Marilyn Monroe".[90] She performed in about 450 shows between 1955 and 1956.[91] At the time, she was considered one of the biggest Broadway-to-Hollywood success stories.[22]

In 1964, she performed in stage productions of Gentlemen Prefer Blondes at Carousel Theater, and Bus Stop at Yonkers Playhouse. Both co-starred Mickey Hargitay and were well-reviewed.[92][93] Mansfield toured small U.S. towns alternating between the two plays.[94] In 1965, she performed in another pair of plays – Rabbit Habit at the Latin Quarter and Champagne Complex, directed by Matt Cimber, at the Pabst Theater; both received poor reviews.[94][95]

Nightclub

Poster for French Dressing

In February 1958, the Tropicana Las Vegas launched Mansfield's striptease revue The Tropicana Holiday (produced by Monte Proser, co-starring Mickey Hargitay) under a four-week contract that was extended to eight.[96][97][98] The opening night raised $20,000 for March of Dimes ($166,000 in 2016 dollars}[2]. She received $25,000 per week for her performance as Trixie Divoon in the show ($208,000 in 2016 dollars)[2], while her contract with 20th Century Fox was paying her $2,500 per week ($21,000 in 2016 dollars).[99][100][101] She had a million-dollar policy with Lloyd's of London in case Hargitay dropped her as he whirled her around for the show.[102][103] When her film offers disappeared, Mansfield turned to Las Vegas again. In December 1960, the Dunes hotel and casino launched Mansfield's revue The House of Love (produced by Jack Cole, co-starring Hargitay). She received a salary of $35,000 a week ($283,000 in 2016 dollars)— the highest in her career.[104][105]

Her wardrobe for the shows at Tropicana and Dunes featured a gold mesh dress with sequins to cover her nipples and pubic region.[91][96][106] That controversial sheer dress was referred to as "Jayne Mansfield and a few sequins".[99] In early 1963, she performed in her first club engagement outside Las Vegas, at the Plantation Supper Club in Greensboro, North Carolina, earning $23,000 in a week ($180,000 in 2016 dollars), and then at Iroquois Gardens in Louisville, Kentucky.[107] She returned to Las Vegas in 1966, but her show was staged on Fremont Street, away from the Strip where the Tropicana and Dunes were.[96] Her last nightclub act French Dressing was at the Latin Quarter in New York in 1966, also repeated at the Tropicana.[105] It was a modified version of the Tropicana show, and ran for six weeks with fair success.[108]

Her nightclub career became inspirations for films, documentaries, and a musical album. 20th Century Fox Records recorded "The House of Love" for an album entitled Jayne Mansfield Busts Up Las Vegas in 1962. She played the roles of burlesque entertainer Midnight Franklin in Too Hot to Handle (1960) and Las Vegas show girl Tawni Downs in The Las Vegas Hillbillys (1966).[74][80][109] In 1967, an independent documentary Spree (alternative title Las Vegas by Night) on the antics of Las Vegas entertainers was released. The film, narrated as a part of a travelogue of Vic Damone and Juliet Prowse, featured Mansfield, Hargitay, Constance Moore and Clara Ward as guest stars. Mansfield strips and sings "Promise Her Anything" from the film Promises! Promises!.[110][111][112] A court order prohibited using any of the guest stars to promote the film.[113][114]

In her later career she was busier on stage, performing and making appearances with her nightclub acts, club engagements, and performance tours. By 1960, she made personal appearances for everything from supermarket promotions to drug store openings, at $10,000 per appearance ($81,000 in 2016 dollars)[2].[115]

Television career

Mansfield and Barry Coe in Follow the Sun (1961)

Mansfield played her first leading role on television in 1956 on NBC's The Bachelor.[116] In her first appearance on British television in 1957 she recited from Shakespeare (including a line from Hamlet)[Notes 2] and played piano and violin.[117][118] Her notable performances in television dramas included episodes of Burke's Law, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, The Red Skelton Hour (three episodes), Kraft Mystery Theater and Follow the Sun. Mansfield's performance in her first series Follow the Sun ("The Dumbest Blonde"; Season 1, Episode 21; February 4, 1962; produced by 20th Century Fox Television) was hailed as the advent of "a new and dramatic Jayne Mansfield".[119] She appeared on a number of game shows including Talk it up, Down You Go (as a regular panelist),[120] The Match Game (one rare episode has her as a team captain), and What's My Line? (as a special mystery guest).

She performed in a number of variety shows including The Jack Benny Program (on which she played violin), The Steve Allen Show and The Jackie Gleason Show (during the mid-1960s, when the show was the second-highest-rated program in the U.S.).[121] In November 1957, in a special episode of NBC's The Perry Como Show ("Holiday in Las Vegas"), one of her nightclub acts was featured which was quite scandalous for the audience according to the broadcaster.[122] She was a guest on three episodes of The Bob Hope Show touring team. In 1957, she toured United States Pacific Command areas in Hawaii, Okinawa, Guam, Tokyo and Korea with Bob Hope for the United Service Organizations for 13 days appearing as a comedian;[123] and in 1961, toured Newfoundland,[124] Labrador and Baffin Island in Canada for a Christmas special.[125] Her talk show career includes a large number of appearances which she appreciated for the publicity.[118] One of her more notable appearances on a variety show was on The Ed Sullivan Show (Season 10, Episode 35; May 26, 1957) right after her success with Rock Hunter, where she played violin with a six-person backup band band.[126] After the show she exclaimed, "Now I am really national. Momma and Dallas see the Ed Sullivan show!"[127]

By 1958, she earned $20,000 per episode for television performances ($166,000 in 2016 dollars)[2].[128] In 1964, Mansfield turned down the role of Ginger Grant on the up-and-coming television sitcom Gilligan's Island. Although her acting roles were becoming marginalized, Mansfield rejected the part as it epitomized the stereotype she wished to rid herself of.[129] The part eventually went to Tina Louise. A widespread rumor that Mansfield had a breast-flashing dress mishap at the 1957 Academy Awards was found baseless by Academy researchers.[130] Ten days before her death, she read To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time, a poem by Robert Herrick about early death on The Joey Bishop Show—her last television appearance.[131][Notes 3]

As late as the mid-1980s, Mansfield remained one of the biggest television draws.[132] In 1980, The Jayne Mansfield Story aired on CBS starring Loni Anderson in the title role and Arnold Schwarzenegger as Mickey Hargitay. It was nominated for three Emmy Awards. A+E Networks TV series Biography featured her in an episode titled Jayne Mansfield: Blonde Ambition.[133][134] The TV series won an Emmy Award in the outstanding non-fiction TV series category in 2001.[135] A&E again featured her life in another TV serial, Dangerous Curves, in 1999.[136] In 1988, her story and archival footage was a part of the TV documentary Hollywood Sex Symbols.[137]

Music career

Jayne Mansfield
Genres Country, pop
Occupation(s) Singer
Instruments Violin
Years active 1954–1967
Labels 20th Century Fox Records, MGM Records, London Records, Polydor Records,

Mansfield had classical training in piano and violin. She sang in film soundtracks, on stage for her theatrical and nightclub performances, and had singles and albums released. After her death, Mansfield became an inspiration for punk-rock musicians.[138]

Soundtracks

Mansfield sang in English and German for a number of her films, including The Girl Can't Help It ("Ev'rytime" and "Rock Around the Rock Pile"), Illegal ("Too Marvelous for Words"), The Las Vegas Hillbillys ("That Makes It"), Too Hot to Handle ("Too Hot To Handle", "You Were Made For Me", "Monsoon" and "Midnight"), Homesick for St. Pauli ("Wo Ist Der Man" and "Snicksnack Snuckelchen"), The Challenge ("The Challenge of Love"), The Sheriff of Fractured Jaw ("Strolling Down The Lane With Billy" and "If The San Francisco Hills Could Only Talk"), and Promises! Promises! ("I'm in Love", alternative title "Lullaby of Love").

Live performances

In 1958, an orchestra was recorded for the 31st Academy Awards ceremony with Jack Benny on first violin, Mansfield on violin, Dick Powell on trumpet, Robert Mitchum on woodwind, Fred Astaire on drums and Jerry Lewis as conductor; however, the performance was canceled.[139] She sang "Too Marvelous for Words" for The Jack Benny Program ("Jack Takes Boat to Hawaii"; Episode 9, Season 14; November 26, 1963). Her club performances regularly featured songs like Call Me, A Little Brains, A Little Talent ("This Queen has her aces in all the right places"), Plain Jane, Quando-Quando, Besame Mucho, and the song made famous by Marilyn Monroe — Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend.[140][141]

Albums

Jayne Mansfield discography
Studio albums 2
Singles 6

In 1962, 20th Century Fox Records released the album Jayne Mansfield Busts Up Las Vegas, a recording of her Las Vegas revue The House of Love. In 1964 MGM Records released a novelty album called Jayne Mansfield: Shakespeare, Tchaikovsky & Me, in which Mansfield recited Shakespeare's sonnets and poems by Marlowe, Browning, Wordsworth, and others against a background of Tchaikovsky's music. The album cover depicted a bouffant-coiffed Mansfield with lips pursed and breasts barely covered by a fur stole, posing between busts of Tchaikovsky and Shakespeare.[142] The New York Times described the album as a reading of "30-odd poems in a husky, urban, baby voice". The reviewer went on to remark that "Miss Mansfield is a lady with apparent charms, but reading poetry is not one of them."[143]

Singles

In 1965, Jimi Hendrix played bass and added lead in his session musician days for Mansfield on two songs—"As The Clouds Drift By" and "Suey"—released as a 45-rpm single by London Records in 1966.[144][145] Ed Chalpin, the record producer, claimed that Mansfield played all the instruments on the singles.[146] According to Hendrix historian Steven Roby (Black Gold: The Lost Archives Of Jimi Hendrix, Billboard Books), this collaboration occurred because they shared the same manager.[147][148] Wo ist der Mann sung in German and released by Polydor Records in Austria was much in demand immediately after its release in August 1963. The A-side featured Hans Last's Scnicksnack-Snuckelchen.[149] The Original Sound label released two original songs from the soundtrack of The Las Vegas HillbillysThat Makes It (an answer to The Big Bopper's "Chantilly Lace") on the A-side, and Little Things Mean a Lot on the B-side— in 1964.[150]

Personal life

In 1967, film critic and exploitation movie expert Whitney Williams wrote of Mansfield in Variety: "her personal life out-rivaled any of the roles she played".[151] She married and divorced three times and had five children. Mansfield was allegedly intimately involved with many men, including Claude Terrail (owner of the Paris restaurant Tour d'Argent),[152] Robert F. Kennedy,[153] John F. Kennedy,[154] Brazilian billionaire Jorge Guinle,[155] her attorney Samuel S. Brody, Las Vegas entertainer Nelson Sardelli, and producer Enrico Bomba. She met John F. Kennedy through his brother-in-law Peter Lawford in Palm Springs, California, in 1960, before he had his alleged affair with Marilyn Monroe, but their alleged affair did not last.[156][157][158] Mansfield and Sam Brody, her lawyer and alleged lover at the time, were both killed in a car crash.[159][160]

She had a daughter with her first husband, public relations professional Paul Mansfield. She was the mother of three children from her second marriage to actor/bodybuilder Mickey Hargitay. She also had a son with her third husband, film director Matt Cimber.

First marriage

Jayne met Paul Mansfield at a party on Christmas Eve in 1949; they were both popular students at Highland Park High School in Dallas.[161] On May 6, 1950, they married in Fort Worth, Texas. At the time of their marriage, Jayne was 17 and three months pregnant; Paul was 20.[162][163][164] While most major biographies put the date at May 6, some sources say the marriage was on May 10, 1950.[165][166][167] According to biographer Raymond Strait, she had an earlier "secret" marriage on January 28, after which she conceived her first child.[168] On November 8, 1950, Mansfield gave birth to her daughter, Jayne Marie Mansfield.[33] Some sources cite Paul Mansfield as the father of her child,[162][163] others allege that the pregnancy was the result of date rape.[165][169][170]

Paul Mansfield hoped the birth of their child would discourage her interest in acting. When it did not, he agreed to move to Los Angeles in late 1954 to help further her career.[171] In 1952, she juggled motherhood and classes at the University of Texas. Early in 1952, Paul was called to the United States Army Reserve for the Korean War.[172] While he served in the army, she spent a year at Camp Gordon, Georgia. Her life became easier with Paul's army allotment.[173] Returning from the Korean War in 1954, he took a job with a small newspaper in East Los Angeles, California, and lived in a small apartment in Van Nuys, Los Angeles, with Jayne and her pets — a Great Dane, three cats named Sabina, Romulus, and Ophelia, two chihuahuas, a poodle dyed pink, and a rabbit.[34][174][175][176] While in California, she left Jayne Marie with her maternal grandparents[26] and spent the summer semester at UCLA.[15][16]

After a series of marital rows around Jayne's ambitions, infidelity, and animals, they decided to dissolve the marriage.[174][175] It was a long process. In February 1955, Jayne filed for separate maintenance, and in August 1956, Paul filed for custody of their daughter, Jayne Marie.[177] Jayne filed for divorce in California in 1956, Paul filed for divorce in 1957 in Texas citing mental cruelty, and they received their divorce papers on January 8, 1958.[178] After the divorce, she decided to keep "Mansfield" as her professional name.[179] Paul Mansfield remarried, settled into the public relations business and moved to Chattanooga, Tennessee, but failed to win custody suits over Jayne Marie or restrain her from traveling abroad with her mother.[180][181]

Two weeks before her mother's death in 1967, 16-year-old Jayne Marie accused Sam Brody, her mother's boyfriend at that time, of beating her.[62] The girl's statement to officers of the Los Angeles Police Department the following morning implicated her mother in encouraging the abuse, and days later a juvenile court judge awarded temporary custody of Jayne Marie to Paul's uncle William W. Pigue and his wife Mary.[162][182][183] Following her 18th birthday, Jayne Marie complained that she had not received her inheritance from the Mansfield estate or heard from her father since her mother's death.[184][185]

Second marriage

Mansfield and husband Mickey Hargitay dancing at the Candy Stik Lounge, 1962

Mansfield met her second husband, Mickey Hargitay, at the Latin Quarter nightclub in New York City on May 13, 1956, where he was performing as a member of the chorus line in Mae West's show.[63] Hargitay was an actor and bodybuilder who had won the Mr. Universe competition in 1955.[186] Mansfield fell for him immediately, which resulted in a squabble with West.[23][187] In the ensuing row, Mr. California, Chuck Krauser, beat up Hargitay and was arrested and released on a $300 bond ($3,000 in 2016 dollars)[2].[188]

After Mansfield returned from her 40-day European tour, Hargitay proposed to her on November 6, 1957, with a $5,000 10-carat diamond ring ($213,000 in 2016 dollars)[2].[189][190] On January 13, 1958, (days after her divorce from Paul was finalized), Mansfield married Hargitay at the Wayfarers Chapel in Rancho Palos Verdes, California. The unique glass chapel made public and press viewing of the wedding easy. Mansfield wore a sensational pink, skintight wedding gown made of sequins with a 30 yd (27 m) flounceof pink tulle (designed by a 20th Century-Fox costume designer),[191] and at the reception she had Hargitay drink pink champagne.[192] [193][194]

Hargitay made his first film appearance with Mansfield in a bit part in Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?.[195] The couple became a popular publicity and performing team who toured widely in stage shows, where Mansfield's leopard-spot bikini became a topic of discussion and newspaper coverage.[73][196][197] As a highlight, Hargitay tossed her around his waist and spun her in wide circles as her shows made more headlines.[198][199] On screen, he was Mansfield's male lead in her Italian ventures—The Loves of Hercules and L'Amore Primitivo, and a major supporting character in Promises! Promises!. On stage, he was the male lead in The Tropicana Holiday, The House of Love, French Dressing, and other nightclub acts.

They were also popular for their personal appearances on television shows such as Bob Hope Christmas Specials.[73] Mansfield and Hargitay had a number of business holdings, including the Hargitay Exercise Equipment Company, Jayne Mansfield Productions, and Eastland Savings and Loan.[200] She co-wrote the autobiographical book Jayne Mansfield's Wild, Wild World with Hargitay. The book also contained 32 pages of black-and-white photographs from the film printed on glossy paper.[201]

On November 23, 1966, Mansfield's son Zoltan made news when a lion named Sammy attacked him and bit his neck while he and his mother were visiting the theme park Jungleland USA in Thousand Oaks, California. He suffered from severe head trauma, underwent three surgeries at Community Memorial Hospital in Ventura, California, including a six-hour brain surgery, and contracted meningitis. He recovered, and Mansfield's attorney Sam Brody sued the theme park on the family's behalf for $1,600,000 ($11,492,000 in 2016 dollars)[2].[63][202][203] The negative publicity led to closure of the theme park.[204]

In 1962, she had a well-publicized affair with Enrico Bomba, the Italian producer and production manager of her film Panic Button.[205][206][207] Hargitay accused Bomba of sabotaging their marriage.[208][209] In 1963, she had another well-publicized relationship with singer Nelson Sardelli, whom she said she planned to marry when her divorce from Mickey Hargitay was finalized.[210] The couple divorced in Juarez, Mexico, in May 1963, where Nelson Sardelli accompanied Mansfield in her legal preparations.[77] She had previously filed for divorce on May 4, 1962, but told reporters "I'm sure we will make it up."[211] During the acrimonious divorce proceedings, the actress attempted to force a more favorable financial settlement by accusing Hargitay of kidnapping one of her children.[212]

Between marriages

After their divorce, Mansfield discovered she was pregnant. Since being an unwed mother would have endangered her career, Mansfield and Hargitay announced they were still married. Mariska Hargitay was born January 23, 1964, after the actual divorce, but before California ruled it valid.[213] Mariska later became an actress, best known for her role as Olivia Benson in Law & Order: Special Victims Unit. After her birth, Mansfield sued to get the Juarez divorce declared legal and won. The divorce was recognized in the United States on August 26, 1964.[214] A court decree in June 1967 made Hargitay Mickey, Zoltan, and Mariska's guardian, though they continued to live with their mother.[215] He married airline stewardess Ellen Siano in 1968.[216] She accompanied him to New Orleans when he went to pick up his three children after Mansfield’s death.[217] Shortly after her funeral, Hargitay sued his former wife's estate for more than $275,000 ($1.98 million in 2016 dollars)[2] to support the children he and his third (and last) wife, Ellen Siano, would raise,[214] but lost the suit.[218] Towards the end of her life, and some time after her divorce from Hargitay, Mansfield told her ex-husband, on a television talk show that she was sorry for all the trouble she had given him.[219]

Third marriage

Mansfield with attorney and boyfriend Sam Brody, Germany, 1967

Mansfield became involved with Matt Cimber (a.k.a. Matteo Ottaviano, né Thomas Vitale Ottaviano), an Italian-born film director, when he directed her in a stage production of Bus Stop in Yonkers, New York, costarring Hargitay.[220][221] She married him on September 24, 1964, in Mulegé, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The couple separated on July 11, 1965, and filed for divorce on July 20, 1966.[222] Cimber took over managing her career during their marriage, and guided her through a series of increasingly tawdry projects like Promises, Promises and The Las Vegas Hillbillys.[21] Mansfield's marriage to Cimber began to collapse in the wake of her alcohol abuse, open infidelities, and her disclosure to Cimber that she had been happy only with her former lover, Nelson Sardelli. Work on Mansfield's film, Single Room Furnished directed by Cimber (1966), was suspended.[223]

At the time, Mansfield had degenerated into alcoholism, drunken brawls, and performing at cheap burlesque shows.[61][160][224] By July 1966, she started living with her attorney, Sam Brody, who had frequent drunken brawls with her and mistreated her eldest daughter, Jayne Marie. Sam's wife, Beverly Brody, filed a divorce suit naming Mansfield the "41st other woman" in Sam's life.[26][225][226]. The couple had one son, Antonio Raphael Ottaviano (a.k.a. Tony Cimber, born October 18, 1965). Cimber, and his third wife dress designer Christy Hilliard Hanak, whom he married on December 2, 1967, raised Tony, Mansfield's youngest child.[26][225][226] Cimber later worked as an announcer for Married... with Children and a producer for Gorgeous Ladies of Wrestling.

Image

Mansfield was a major Hollywood sex symbol of the 1950s and early 1960s and 20th Century Fox's alternative to Marilyn Monroe. She came to be known as the "Working Man's Monroe".[60][61] She was one of Hollywood's original blonde bombshells,[227] and, although many people have never seen her movies,[228] Mansfield remains one of the most recognizable icons of 1950s celebrity culture.[228]

According to Hollywood historian and biographer James Parish, Mansfield's hourglass figure (she claimed dimensions of 40–21–35), unique sashaying walk, breathy baby talk, and cleavage-revealing costumes made a lasting impact on popular culture.[26] Hollywood historian Andrew Nelson said that she was seen as Hollywood's gaudiest, boldest, D-cupped, B-grade actress from 1955 until the early 1960s.[61]

Frequent references have been made to Mansfield's very high IQ, which she claimed was 163.[229] In addition to English, she spoke four other languages. She learned French, Spanish, and German in high school, and in 1963 she studied Italian.[230] Reputed to be Hollywood's "smartest dumb blonde," she later complained that the public did not care about her brains saying: "They're more interested in 40–21–35."[61][23]

Blonde

A natural brunette, Mansfield had her hair bleached, and colored platinum blonde when she moved to Los Angeles,[231] and became one of the early "blonde bombshells," along with Marilyn Monroe, Betty Grable and Mamie Van Doren.[232][233][234][235] In 1958, she also had her eyebrows dyed platinum.[236] Following Jean Harlow (who started the trend with her film Bombshell),[237][238] Monroe, Mansfield, Van Doren and Diana Dors helped establish the stereotype typified by a combination of curvaceous physique, very light-colored hair, and a perceived lack of intelligence.[239] A review of English-language tabloids shows it to be one of the most persistent blonde stereotypes—along with busty blonde, and blonde babe.[240]

Mansfield, Monroe and Barbara Windsor have been described as representations of a historical juncture of sexuality in comedy and popular culture.[241] Academics also added Anita Ekberg and Bettie Page to the list of catalysts of the trend of exaggerated female sexuality, along with Mansfield and Monroe.[242][243] M. Thomas Inge describes Mansfield, Monroe and Jane Russell as personifications of the bad girl in popular culture.[244] Judy Holliday and Goldie Hawn are also identified to have established the stereotype of the "dumb blonde,"[245] typified by their combination of overt sexuality, and apparent inability to understand everyday life.[246] Instead of the asexualized and virginal "nice girls" of earlier films, the pneumatic blonde bombshells took over the screen in the 1950s to become a cult that has been consistently emulated from that era on.[247][248] Social historian Joan Jacobs Brumberg described the 1950s as "an era distinguished by its worship of full-breasted women" and attributes the paradigm shift to Mansfield and Monroe.[249] Patricia Vettel-Becker made that observation more specific by attributing the phenomenon to Playboy and Mansfield and Monroe's appearances in the magazine.[250]

Rivalry

Throughout her career, Mansfield was compared by the media to the reigning sex symbol of the period, Marilyn Monroe.[24] 20th Century Fox groomed her, as well as Sheree North, to substitute for Monroe, their resident "blonde bombshell," while Universal Pictures launched Van Doren as their substitute.[251] The studio launched Mansfield with a grand 40-day tour of England and Europe from September 25 to November 6, 1957.[252] She adopted Monroe's vocal mannerisms instead of her original husky voice and Texan speech,[253] performed in two plays that were based on Marilyn Monroe vehicles — Bus Stop and Gentlemen Prefer Blondes[254]— and her role in The Wayward Bus was strongly influenced by Monroe's character in Bus Stop.[94]

Other studios also tried to find their own version of Monroe. Columbia Pictures tried it with Cleo Moore, Warner Bros. with Carroll Baker, Paramount Pictures with Anita Ekberg, and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer with Barbara Lang,[255] while Diana Dors was dubbed as England's answer to Mansfield.[256] Jacqueline Susann wrote, "When one studio has a Marilyn Monroe, every other studio is hiring Jayne Mansfield and Mamie Van Doren."[257] The crowd of contenders also included Sheree North, Kim Novak, Joi Lansing, Beverly Michaels, Barbara Nichols and Greta Thyssen, and even two brunettes — Elizabeth Taylor and Jane Russell.[258][259][260] Mamie Van Doren, Diana Dors and Kim Novak also acted in various productions of Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.[261] Even when Mansfield's film roles were drying up she was widely considered Monroe's primary rival; Mansfield considered Mamie Van Doren her professional nemesis.[262] At one point, Monroe, Mansfield, and Mamie were known as The Three M's.[263][264]

Anatomy

Because of her striking figure, newspapers in the 1950s routinely published her body measurements, which once led evangelist Billy Graham to exclaim, "This country knows more about Jayne Mansfield's statistics than the Second Commandment."[228] Mansfield proclaimed a 41-inch bust line and a 22-inch waist when she made her Broadway debut in 1955, though some scholars dispute those figures.[253] She was known as "the Cleavage Queen" and "the Queen of Sex and Bosom".[265]

It was said her breasts fluctuated in size from her pregnancies and nursing her five children. Her smallest bust measurement was 40D (102 cm), which was constant throughout the 1950s, and her largest was 46DD (117 cm), measured by the press in 1967.[266] According to Playboy, her vital statistics were 40D-21-36 (102–53–91 cm) on her 5'6" (1.68 m) frame.[36]

It has been claimed that her bosom was a major force behind the development of 1950s brassieres, including the whirlpool bra, cuties, the shutter bra, the action bra, latex pads, cleavage-revealing designs, and uplifted outlines.[267][268] R. L. Rutsky[269] and Bill Osgerby[270] have claimed that it was Mansfield, along with Marilyn Monroe and Brigitte Bardot, who made the bikini popular. Drawing on the Freudian concept of fetishism, British science fiction writer, and socio-cultural commentator, J. G. Ballard commented that Mae West, Mansfield and Monroe's breasts "loomed across the horizon of popular consciousness".[271] According to Dave Kehr, as the 1960s approached, the anatomy that had made her a star turned her into a joke.[253] In this decade, the female body ideal shifted to appreciate the slim waif-like features popularized by supermodel Twiggy, actress Audrey Hepburn and others, demarcating the demise of the busty blonde bombshells.[248][272][273]

Publicity

Mansfield's drive for publicity was one of the strongest in Hollywood. She gave up all privacy, and her doors were always open to photographers.[115][274] In 1954, the day before Christmas, she walked into publicist James Byron's office with a gift and asked him to oversee her publicity,[115] which he did, for the most part, until the end of 1961.[104] Byron appointed most of the people on her team — William Shiffrin (press agent), Greg Bautzer (attorney) and Charles Goldring (business manager)[275]— and constantly planted publicity material in the media.[274] She appeared in about 2,500 newspaper photographs, and had about 122,000 lines of newspaper copy written about her between September 1956 and May 1957.[228]

Because of the successful media blitz, she quickly became a household name. In 1960, Mansfield topped press polls for more words in print than anyone else in the world, had made more personal appearances than a political candidate,[115] and was regarded as the world's most-photographed Hollywood celebrity.[91] She made news on a regular basis, for malfunctioning dresses and clothing that burst strategically at the seams, to wearing low cut dresses without a bra.[274][276] Things worsened when she took charge of her own publicity without advice. According to her agent William Shiffrin, "She became a freak."[277] James Bacon wrote in the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner in 1973, "Here was a girl with real comedy talent, spectacular figure and looks and yet ridiculed herself out of business by outlandish publicity."[278]

Mansfield received her first truly negative publicity after she and Hargitay pleaded poverty when his first wife Mary Hargitay, whom he divorced on September 6, 1956, requested additional child support for their nine-year-old, first child Tina in September 1958. Mansfield said she slept on the floor of her mansion, was unable to buy furniture, and spent only $71 on her daughter Jayne Marie ($1,000 in 2016 dollars)[2].[279][280][281] During this marriage she had three children, Miklós Jeffrey Palmer Hargitay (born December 21, 1958), Zoltán Anthony Hargitay (born August 1, 1960), and Mariska Hargitay (born January 23, 1964).

Publicity stunts

In January 1955, Mansfield appeared at a Silver Springs, Florida, press junket promoting the film Underwater!, starring Jane Russell. She purposefully wore a too-small red bikini, lent to her by photographer friend Peter Gowland. When she dove into the pool for photographers, her top came off, creating a burst of media attention. The ensuing publicity led to Warner Bros. and Playboy approaching her with offers.[162][228][282][283] On June 8 of the same year, her dress fell down to her waist twice in a single evening —once at a movie party, and later at a nightclub.[284] In February 1958, she was topless at a Mardi Gras party in Rio de Janeiro.[23][285][286] She shimmied out of her polka-dot dress in a Rome nightclub in June 1962.[287][288] In the three years since making her Broadway debut in Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?, Mansfield had become the most controversial star of the decade.[276]

In April 1957, her breasts were the focus of a notorious publicity stunt intended to deflect media attention from Sophia Loren during a dinner party in the Italian star's honor. Photographs of them were published around the world. The best-known photo showed Loren's gaze falling on actress's cleavage (she was seated between Loren and her dinner companion, Clifton Webb) when Mansfield leaned over the table, allowing her breasts to spill over her low neckline exposing one nipple.[289] The Jayne Mansfield-Sophia Loren photograph was a UPI sensation, appearing in newspapers and magazines with the word "censored" hiding the actress's exposed bosom.[290]

At the same time, the world's media were quick to condemn Mansfield's stunts. One editorial columnist wrote, "We are amused when Miss Mansfield strains to pull in her stomach to fill out her bikini better; but we get angry when career-seeking women, shady ladies, and certain starlets and actresses ... use every opportunity to display their anatomy unasked."[38] By the late 1950s, Mansfield began to generate a great deal of negative publicity because of repeated exposure of her breasts in carefully staged public "wardrobe accidents".[291][292] Richard Blackwell, her wardrobe designer (who also designed for Jane Russell, Dorothy Lamour, Peggy Lee and Nancy Reagan), dropped her from his client list because of this.[293] In April 1967, the Los Angeles Times wrote, "She confuses publicity and notoriety with stardom and celebrity and the result is very distasteful to the public."[294]

Signature color

Front of the Pink Palace in 1997

Mansfield adopted pink as her color in 1954, and was associated with it for the rest of her career.[33][295] Her original choice was purple, but she thought it too close to lavender, Kim Novak's signature color.[33] "It must have been the right decision," she said, "because I got more column space from pink than Kim Novak ever did from lavender."[295] In November 1957, shortly before their marriage, using money from an inheritance, Mansfield bought the 40-room Mediterranean-style mansion (formerly owned by Rudy Vallée) at 10100 Sunset Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California. [73][296] Mansfield had the house painted pink, with cupids surrounded by pink fluorescent lights, pink fur in the bathrooms, a pink heart-shaped bathtub, and a fountain spurting pink champagne; she then dubbed it the "Pink Palace". Hargitay (a plumber and carpenter before taking up bodybuilding) built the pink heart-shaped swimming pool. The year after reconstructing the "Pink Palace" as a "pink landmark," she began riding a pink Cadillac Eldorado Biarritz convertible with tailfins, then the only pink Cadillac in Hollywood.[297][298][299]

Religion

In August 1963, Mansfield decided to convert to Catholicism.[95][300] Although she never converted, she did attend Catholic services when she was in Europe,[301] and followed Catholic practices when she was involved with a Catholic partner (including Hargitay, Sardelli and Cimber).[302][303] In May 1967, her performance at the Mount Brandon Hotel in Tralee, Ireland, was canceled because Catholic clergy condemned it.[304] She wanted to marry Cimber in a Catholic ceremony, but was unable to find a priest who would perform it.[305] While involved with Brody, she also showed interest in Judaism.[95]

In San Francisco for the 1966 Film Festival, Mansfield visited the Church of Satan with Sam Brody (her lawyer and boyfriend) to meet Anton LaVey, the church's founder. He awarded Mansfield a medallion and the title "High Priestess of San Francisco's Church of Satan". The media enthusiastically covered the meeting and the events surrounding it, identifying her as a Satanist and romantically involved with LaVey.[306][307][308] That meeting remained a much-publicized and oft-quoted event both of her life, and the history of the Church of Satan.[309][310] Karla LaVey confirmed in a 1992 interview with Joan Rivers that Mansfield was indeed a practicing Satanist and that she had a romantic relationship with Anton LaVey.[311] A Methodist minister conducted her funeral ceremony.[95]

Death

Gravestone at Fairview Cemetery (Pen Argyl, Pennsylvania)
Mansfield's cenotaph (with incorrect birth year) at Hollywood Forever Cemetery, Hollywood

In 1967, Mansfield was in Biloxi, Mississippi, for an engagement at the Gus Stevens Supper Club. After two appearances the evening of June 28, Mansfield, Sam Brody (her attorney and companion), their driver Ronnie Harrison (age 20), and three of her children— Miklós, Zoltán and Mariska—left Biloxi after midnight in a 1966 Buick Electra 225. Their destination was New Orleans, where Mansfield was to appear on WDSU's Midday Show the next day. At about 2:25 a.m., on U.S. Highway 90 west of the Rigolets Bridge, the Buick crashed at high speed into the rear of a tractor-trailer that had slowed behind a truck spraying mosquito fogger shrouded in an insecticide fog. The three adults in the front seat died instantly. The children, asleep in the rear seat, survived with minor injuries.[312]

Reports that Mansfield was decapitated are untrue, although she suffered severe head trauma.[313] This urban legend started with the appearance in police photographs of a crashed car with its top virtually sheared off, and what resembled a blonde-haired head tangled in the car's smashed windshield. However, this was a wig Mansfield was wearing and possibly parts of her real hair and scalp.[314] Her death certificate stated that the immediate cause of death was a "crushed skull with avulsion of cranium and brain".[315] After her death, the NHTSA recommended requiring an underride guard (a strong bar made of steel tubing) on all tractor-trailers; the trucking industry was slow to adopt this change. This bar is known as a "Mansfield bar," or an "ICC bumper".[316][317]

The death car was saved by a private collector in Florida where it became a roadside attraction in the 70s. As of 2017, the car is owned by Scott Michaels and is housed and shown at his Dearly Departed Tours & Artifact Museum in Los Angeles across from Hollywood Forever Cemetery.[318][319]

Funeral

Mansfield's funeral took place on July 3 in Pen Argyl, Pennsylvania. The service was conducted by Charles Montgomery, a pastor of the Zion Methodist Church.[320] A private funeral service was held at the chapel of the Pullis Funeral Home.[321] Mickey Hargitay was the only ex-husband present at the funeral.[322] She was interred in Fairview Cemetery, southeast of Pen Argyl, beside her father Herbert Palmer.[323] Her heart-shaped gravestone reads, "We Live to Love You More Each Day." A cenotaph was placed in the Hollywood Forever Cemetery in Hollywood by the Jayne Mansfield Fan Club, but incorrectly cites her year of birth as 1938 (Mansfield tended to provide incorrect information about her age). In 1968, two wrongful-death lawsuits[324] were filed on behalf of Jayne Marie Mansfield and Matt Cimber, the former for $4.8 million ($40.9 million in 2016 dollars)[2] and the latter for $2.7 million ($23 million in 2016 dollars)[2], though the outcome is not known.

Other recognition

Jayne Mansfield's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Mansfield's star on Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6328 Hollywood Boulevard.[325] Her daughter Mariska Hargitay's star was placed next to hers in 2013.[326]
  • She received a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 8, 1960 for her contribution to motion pictures.[327]
  • On Mother's Day of 1960, the Mildred Strauss Child Care Chapter of Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City declared her family as the "Family of the Year".[328]
  • Italian film, radio and television journalists awarded her the Silver Mask award in 1962.[329]
  • Mansfield received the Oscar of the Two World award in Italy.[330][331]
  • In 1963, Mansfield was voted one of the top-10 box-office attractions by an organization of American theater owners for her performance in Promises! Promises! (a film banned in parts of the U.S.).[72][77]
  • In 1968, Hollywood Publicists Guild declared a "Jayne Mansfield Award" would be given to the actress who received the most exposure and publicity in a year.[236] Raquel Welch was the first winner of the award in 1969.[332]

Legacy

Mansfield left behind five children, a crumbling estate[333][334][335] including the Pink Palace, a large number of followers, and a lasting impact on popular culture. The US top 40 single "Kiss Them For Me" by the group Siouxsie and the Banshees and the L.A. Guns song "The Ballad Of Jayne," are about Mansfield and her untimely death.

Estate

After Mansfield's death, Hargitay, Cimbers, Vera Peers (Mansfield's mother), William Pigue (Jayne Marie's legal guardian), and Charles Goldring (Mansfield's business manager), as well as Bernard B. Cohen and Jerome Webber (both administrators of the estate) filed unsuccessful suits to gain control of her estate.[336][337][338] Mansfield's estate was appraised initially at $600,000 ($3,548,000 in 2016 dollars)[2], including the Pink Palace estimated at $100,000 ($591,000 in 2016 dollars), a sports car sold for $7,000 ($41,000 in 2016 dollars), her jewelry, and Sam Brody's $185,000 estate left to her in his last will ($1,094,000 in 2016 dollars).[339][340] In 1971, Beverly Brody sued the Mansfield estate for $325,000 ($1,922,000 in 2016 dollars) worth of presents and jewelry given to Mansfield by Sam Brody; the suit was settled out of court.[341][342][343] However, four of her elder children (Jayne Marie, Mickey, Zoltan, and Mariska) went to court in 1977 to find that approximately $500,000 in debt that Mansfield had incurred ($2,957,000 in 2016 dollars), including $11,000 for lingerie ($65,000 in 2016 dollars), $11,600 for plumbing of the heart-shaped swimming pool ($69,000 in 2016 dollars), and litigation had left the estate insolvent.[344]

The Pink Palace was sold. Its subsequent owners included Ringo Starr, Cass Elliot, and Engelbert Humperdinck.[345] In 2002 Humperdinck sold it to developers, and the house was demolished in November of that year.[346] What remained of her estate was subsequently managed by CMG Worldwide, an intellectual property-management company.[347]

Following

Several entertainers have been dubbed the "new Jayne Mansfield," including Italian actress Marisa Allasio and professional wrestler Missy Hyatt.[348][349][350] Actress, model, and 1993 Playmate of the Year Anna Nicole Smith was called "a Jayne Mansfield for the '90s"[351][352] because of her physical resemblance, similar desperation, and the mix of glamour and tragedy in her life.[353][354][355][356] Drag queen and actor Divine was selected by film maker John Waters to parody Mansfield in Mondo Trasho.[357] According to The Hollywood Reporter "if it weren't for Mansfield then, there would likely be no Kardashians today".[358]

By the mid-1950s, there were many Jayne Mansfield fan clubs in the United States and abroad.[359] The Los Angeles Daily News cited the Jayne Mansfield Fan Club, headed by Sabin Gray and very active in the 1980s, as one of the major fan clubs for a Hollywood star.[360] In 1992, Mike DiGiacomo founded a second fan club named Simply Davoon. He lent his picture collection to Jocelyn Faris to illustrate Jayne Mansfield: A Bio Bibliography.[33] Frank Ferruccio, lent his collection of Mansfield memorabilia to Slate Belt Heritage Center in Bangor, Pennsylvania. He wrote two books about her and organized a large fan gathering at Fairview Cemetery on what would have been her 75th birthday.[292][361] Since the mid-1990s, Farruccio, and fans have visited her grave in Pen Argyl to commemorate anniversaries of her birth and death.[362] The Jayne Mansfield Online fan club was created by Kim (Kimmie) Rosenthal in the 1990s. Kimmie later added Frank Ferruccio and Damien Santroni to help her with the website which still stands at www.jaynemansfield.net.[363]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Vera Jeffrey's father, Thomas H. Palmer, was from the largely Cornish area of Pen Argyl, Pennsylvania,[5] where he was involved with the slate industry.[3]
  2. ^ Original text from Hamlet (Act I, Scene II):
    "O, that this too too solid flesh would melt,
    Thaw, and resolve itself into a dew."
  3. ^ Original text of To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time by Robert Herrick:
    "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,
    Old Time is still a-flying;
    And this same flower that smiles today,
    Tomorrow will be dying."

Citations

  1. ^ Strait 1992, p. 10
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "Jayne Mansfield, Mickey Pause in Dallas for Party". Star-News. January 15, 1958. p. 4. 
  4. ^ "Jayne Mansfield to get $90,000". The Beaver County Times. January 23, 1957. p. 15. 
  5. ^ Kent, Alan M (2004). Travels in Cornish America: Cousin Jack's Mouth-organ,. 
  6. ^ "Jayne Mansfield is Killed in Early Morning Smash Up on Narrow Louisiana Road". St. Petersburg Times. June 30, 1967. Born Vera Jayne Palmer in Bryn Mawr, Pa., April 19, 1933, Miss Mansfield grew up in Phillipsburg, N.J., 
  7. ^ "Vera Peers Buried in Pen Argyl Near Daughter Jayne Mansfield". Los Angeles Times. November 19, 2000. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. 
  8. ^ Highland Park High School: The Highlander. 1949. 
  9. ^ "Names in Yearbook" (PDF). Dallas Public Library. 
  10. ^ Saxton 1975, pp. 6–7
  11. ^ Strait 1992, p. 19
  12. ^ David, Lester; David, Irene (1983). The Shirley Temple story. Putnam. p. 21. ISBN 9780399127984. 
  13. ^ Strait 1992, p. 37
  14. ^ Miller, Bobbi (September 25, 1988). "Highland Park High Alumni Have Gone on to Greatness". The Dallas Morning News. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f Commire, Anne; Klezmer, Deborah (2001). Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. 10. Yorkin. pp. 185–186. ISBN 9780787640699. 
  16. ^ a b c d Garraty, John Arthur; Carnes, Mark Christopher (1999). American National Biography. Oxford University. p. 450. ISBN 9780195127935. 
  17. ^ a b "Jayne Mansfield Killed". The Deseret News. AP. June 29, 1967. p. 1. 
  18. ^ Hopper, Hedda (November 25, 1956). "Jayne Shapes Up Her Career". Los Angeles Times. p. 2. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. (subscription required)
  19. ^ Strait 1992, p. 217
  20. ^ Havemann, Ernst (April 23, 1956). "Star's Legend". Life: 186. 
  21. ^ a b c d Erickson, Hal (May 22, 2012). "Jayne Mansfield". The New York Times. 
  22. ^ a b c d Johnson, Erskine (January 10, 1957). "Jayne Mansfield: Darling of Bust". Sarasota Journal: 7. 
  23. ^ a b c d e "Jayne Mansfield Dead". Windsor Star. UPI. June 29, 1967. p. 6,. 
  24. ^ a b Mann 1974, p. 112
  25. ^ a b c Partheymuller, Peter (March 2000). "Jayne Manfield". The Alcalde: 25. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h Parish, James Robert (2007). The Hollywood Book of Extravagance. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0-470-05205-1. 
  27. ^ Crosby, Joan (August 14, 1965). "Fantastics a Runaway Success". Ottawa Citizen. p. 3. 
  28. ^ Parker, Fess (July 6, 1970). "Guest Star of the 1970 Emerald Empire Roundup". The Register-Guard. Eugene, Oregon. p. 3. 
  29. ^ a b c "Films in Review". 27. National Board of Review of Motion Pictures. 1976: 321–323. 
  30. ^ Pearce-Moses, Richard (1987). Photographic Collections in Texas: A Union Guide. Texas A&M University. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-89096-351-7. 
  31. ^ Saxton 1975, pp. 38–39
  32. ^ Muir, Helen (February 2, 1963). "Barush Lumet Taught Stars How to Act". The Miami News. p. 9. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Faris 1994, p. 3
  34. ^ a b Saxton 1975, p. 43
  35. ^ Tibbetts, John; Welsh, James (2010). American Classic Screen Features. Scarecrow. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8108-7679-8. 
  36. ^ a b c d e "Playboy Data Sheet: Jayne Mansfield, Miss February 1955". Playboy. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2008. 
  37. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 48
  38. ^ a b Strait 1992, p. 116
  39. ^ Faris 1994, p. 15
  40. ^ a b Du Brow, Rick (May 24, 1959). "Has Jayne been hiding talent?". The Milwaukee Journal. p. 4. 
  41. ^ Parsons, Louella (January 1, 1956). "Outlook for Young Star is Bright". The Sunday News-Press. p. 4. 
  42. ^ Edison, Mike (2011). Dirty! Dirty! Dirty!. Soft Skull Press. p. 24. ISBN 9781593764678. 
  43. ^ "The Playboy Index – M". Archived from the original on April 1, 2016. 
  44. ^ Biography News. 1. Gale Research. 1974. p. 173. 
  45. ^ Brady, Frank (1975). Hefner. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-297-76943-9. 
  46. ^ a b c Saxton 1975, p. 175
  47. ^ Faris 1994, p. 147
  48. ^ a b Faris 1994, p. 4
  49. ^ a b c Strait 1992, pp. 69–70
  50. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 16, 65
  51. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 71–72
  52. ^ Saxton 1975, pp. 57
  53. ^ Staff Correspondent (December 23, 1988). "Louis W. Kellman: Filmmaker in Philadelphia for More Than 40 Years". Philadelphia Inquirer. p. 3. 
  54. ^ Saxton 1975, pp. 81, 82
  55. ^ Reid, John (2005). Cinemascope Two: 20th Century Fox. Lulu.com. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-4116-2248-7. 
  56. ^ Cochran, Bobby; VanHecke, Susan (2003). Three Steps to Heaven: The Eddie Cochran Story. Hal Leonard. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-634-03252-3. 
  57. ^ Mann 1974, p. 47
  58. ^ Strait 1992, p. 80
  59. ^ Faris 1994, p. 5
  60. ^ a b Davies, Jennifer (2012). Fatal Car Accidents of the Rich and Famous. RW Press. p. 33. ISBN 9781909284043. 
  61. ^ a b c d e Nelson, Andrew (August 6, 2001). "Jayne Mansfield: The Brand Called Two". Salon.com. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. 
  62. ^ a b "Jayne Mansfield Dies in New Orleans Car Crash". The New York Times. June 30, 1967. p. 33. (subscription required)
  63. ^ a b c Faris 1994, p. 6
  64. ^ Saxton 1975, pp. 91
  65. ^ Mann 1974, pp. 58–59
  66. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 13
  67. ^ Shipman, David (1980). The Great Movie Stars, The International Years. Angus & Robertson. p. 349. 
  68. ^ Donnelly, Paul (2003). Fade to Black: a Book of Movie Obituaries. Omnibus. p. 452. ISBN 978-0-7119-9512-3. 
  69. ^ Haggiag, Michael (1983). Phil Hardy, ed. The Western: Film Encyclopedia. 1. W. Morrow. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-688-00946-5. 
  70. ^ Parish, James Robert; Pitts, Michael R. (2003). Hollywood Songsters. Routledge. p. 321. ISBN 9780415943321. 
  71. ^ Rovin, Jeff (1984). Joan Collins: The Unauthorized Biography. Bantam. p. 89. ISBN 9780553249392. 
  72. ^ a b Debolt, Abbe A.; Baugess, James S. (2011). Encyclopedia of the Sixties: A Decade of Culture and Counterculture. ABC-CLIO. p. 391. ISBN 978-1-4408-0102-0. 
  73. ^ a b c d Faris 1994, pp. 7–8
  74. ^ a b Saxton 1975, p. 122
  75. ^ Jordan 2009, p. 167.
  76. ^ Klockars, Karl (April 10, 2009). "Friday Flashback: Hef's Obscenity Battle". Chicagoist.com. Archived from the original on April 14, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2011. 
  77. ^ a b c Faris 1994, p. 10
  78. ^ "Jayne Mansfield for President". Archived from the original on October 18, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015. 
  79. ^ "J. Mansfield to Promote C&W Movie". Billboard. October 22, 1966. p. 56. 
  80. ^ a b Faris 1994, p. 105
  81. ^ Burchill, Julie (April 12, 2003). "Desperately Seeking Attention". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. 
  82. ^ Sullivan, Steve (1995). Va Va Voom. General Publishing Group. p. 50. ISBN 9781881649601. 
  83. ^ Strait 1992, pp. 71–77
  84. ^ Bacon, James (January 8, 1962). "Actress Made Herself Famous". The Miami News. p. 3A. 
  85. ^ Mann 1974, p. 36
  86. ^ Ruuth, Marianne (1991). Cruel City: The Dark Side of Hollywood's Rich and Famous. Roundtable Publishing. p. 157. ISBN 978-0915677481. 
  87. ^ "Awards". Theatre World Awards Website. Archived from the original on March 10, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2008. 
  88. ^ "Jayne Mansfield". The Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. 
  89. ^ O'Neil, Thomas (2003). Movie Awards: The Ultimate, Unofficial Guide to the Oscars, Golden Globes, Critics, Guild and Indie Honor. Penguin USA. p. 839. ISBN 978-0-399-52922-1. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2012. 
  90. ^ Atkinson, Brooks (October 14, 1955). "Theatre: Axelrod's Second Comedy". The New York Times. p. 22. 
  91. ^ a b c Burbank, Jeff (2007). Las Vegas Babylon. Franz Steiner Verlag. pp. 113–114. ISBN 9781861059666. 
  92. ^ "The Voice of Kevin Kelly". The Boston Globe. November 30, 1994. p. 65. 
  93. ^ "Row Over Screen Censorship Goes On". The New York Times. June 1, 1958. 
  94. ^ a b c Faris 1994, pp. 74
  95. ^ a b c d Strait 1992, p. 11
  96. ^ a b c Weatherford, Mike (2001). Cult Vegas: The Weirdest! The Wildest! The Swingin'est Town on Earth!. Huntington Press. pp. 230–232. ISBN 9780929712710. 
  97. ^ Strait 1992, p. 107
  98. ^ Powers, Ashley (March 22, 2009). "Putting a Top on Iconic Topless Show". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. 
  99. ^ a b Strait 1992, p. 94
  100. ^ Carrol, Harrison (January 2, 1958). "Behind Scenes in Hollywood". The Billings County Pioneer. p. 2. 
  101. ^ "Jayne, Mickey Appears in Las Vegas Revue". Oxnard Press-Courier. February 11, 1958. p. 10. 
  102. ^ "Swings His Bride". The Tuscaloosa News. April 10, 1958. p. 26. 
  103. ^ Faris 1994, p. 45
  104. ^ a b Strait 1992, p. 110
  105. ^ a b Faris 1994, p. 24
  106. ^ Faris 1994, p. 46
  107. ^ Strait 1992, pp. 161–163
  108. ^ Faris 1994, p. 56
  109. ^ Ross, Becki (2009). Burlesque West. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9781442697225. 
  110. ^ Saxton 1975, pp. 160
  111. ^ Faris 1994, p. 108
  112. ^ Strait 1992, p. 161
  113. ^ Thomas, Kevin (June 3, 1967). "Spree Features Visit to Las Vegas". Los Angeles Times. p. 1. 
  114. ^ Parish, James Robert; Pitts, Michael R. (2003). Hollywood Songsters. Routledge. p. 212. ISBN 9780415943321. 
  115. ^ a b c d Bacon, James (February 8, 1962). "Jayne Shapes Own Publicity". The Miami News. pp. 1, 8. 
  116. ^ Parsons, Louella O (June 7, 1956). "Jayne Mansfield's Billing Now Above That of Play". St. Petersburg Times. p. 9. 
  117. ^ "Fat for Britains". Titusville Herald. September 30, 1957. p. 1. 
  118. ^ a b Faris 1994, p. 113
  119. ^ Strait 1992, p. 118
  120. ^ Chance, Norman (2010). Who Was Who on TV. 1. Xlibris. p. 388. ISBN 9781456821272. 
  121. ^ Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle (2007). The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows 1946–Present. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-49773-4. 
  122. ^ Pondillo, Robert (2010). America's First Network TV Censor: The Work of NBC's Stockton Helffrich. SIU Press. p. 166. ISBN 9780809329182. 
  123. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 118, 153
  124. ^ "Dinan 'Undecided' On His Next Move". Sunday Herald. Dec 31, 1961. p. 39. 
  125. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 25, 49, 123
  126. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 87
  127. ^ Mann 1974, p. 212
  128. ^ Winchell, Walter (June 23, 1958). "Jayne Asks $20,000 Per TV Performance". Star-News. p. 6. 
  129. ^ Logan, Anika. "Jayne Mansfield – The Poor Man's Marilyn Monroe". Rewind the Fifties. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. 
  130. ^ Molloy, Tim (April 27, 2009). "Shattered TV Taboos: How Bea Arthur and Others Broke Barriers". TV Guide. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. 
  131. ^ Faris 1994, p. 126
  132. ^ Gitlin, Todd (1994). Inside Prime Time. Routledge. p. 196. 
  133. ^ "Jayne Mansfield Set/Some Like It Hot". Hollywood Reporter. August 18, 2006. 
  134. ^ "Jayne Mansfield". Biography. A+E Networks. Archived from the original on September 9, 2011. Retrieved July 14, 2008. 
  135. ^ "2001–2002 Emmy Awards". Infoplease. Pearson PLC. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2008. 
  136. ^ Zad, Martie (May 18, 1999). "Hollywood's Dangerous Curves". Washington Post. 
  137. ^ Bowker Staff (1993). Bowker's Complete Video Directory. 1. Bowker. p. 465. ASIN B000ZGSGPK. 
  138. ^ Wes Hurley, Don’t Miss “Mansfield 66/67”!, Huffington Post, Oct 20, 2017
  139. ^ "Jack and Jayne got Ax on Oscar night". Billboard: 8. April 7, 1958. 
  140. ^ Faris 1994, p. 52
  141. ^ Clayton, Emma (May 23, 2012). "Hollywood glamour caused a stir when Jayne Mansfield arrived in Yorkshire". Bradford Telegraph and Argus. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. 
  142. ^ Welcome to Raymondo's Dance-o-rama. triad.rr.com Retrieved December 13, 2006. Archived March 29, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  143. ^ Lask, Thomas (August 30, 1964). "Poetry: Revised Editions". The New York Times. p. X21. 
  144. ^ Henderson, David (2009). Scuse Me While I Kiss the Sky. Simon and Schuster. p. 85. ISBN 9780743274012. 
  145. ^ González, Ray (2008). Renaming the Earth. University of Arizona. p. 43. ISBN 9780816524105. 
  146. ^ Geldeart, Gary; Rodham, Steve (2008). The Complete Guide to the Recorded Work of Jimi Hendrix. 1. Jimpress. p. 32. ISBN 9780952768654. 
  147. ^ "The Girl Can't Help It". Dreamtime. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved December 11, 2007. 
  148. ^ "Jimi Hendrix And Jayne Mansfield: The Untold Story". Retrieved December 11, 2007. 
  149. ^ "Austria". Billboard: 38. August 10, 1963. 
  150. ^ Faris 1994, p. 130
  151. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 7, 235
  152. ^ Strait 1992, p. 198
  153. ^ Strait 1992, pp. 153–157, 177–190
  154. ^ Kroth, Jerome A. (2003). Conspiracy in Camelot. Algora. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-87586-246-0. 
  155. ^ Strait 1992, p. 156
  156. ^ Hagood, Wesley O. (1998). Presidential Sex: From the Founding Fathers to Bill Clinton. Citadel Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-806-52007-0. 
  157. ^ Boertlein, John (2010). Presidential Confidential: Sex, Scandal, Murder and Mayhem in the Oval Office. Clerisy Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-1-578-60361-9. 
  158. ^ Sullivan, Michael John (1994). Presidential Passions: The Love Affairs of America's Presidents. SP Books. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-561-71093-5. 
  159. ^ Strait 1992, p. 185
  160. ^ a b Jordan 2009, p. 222
  161. ^ Strait 1992, pp. 50–55
  162. ^ a b c d Faris 1994, pp. 3, 197
  163. ^ a b Saxton 1975, p. 29
  164. ^ "Jayne Mansfield's Husband Asks for Divorce". TimesDaily. AP. January 4, 1957. p. 11. 
  165. ^ a b Mann 1974, pp. 10–12
  166. ^ Pendergast, Tom; Pendergast, Sara (2000). St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. St. James Press. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-55862-401-6. 
  167. ^ Parish, James Robert (2006). The Hollywood Book of Breakups. John Wiley & Sons. p. XX. ISBN 978-0-471-75268-4. 
  168. ^ Strait 1992, p. 304
  169. ^ Jordan 2009, p. 221
  170. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 27
  171. ^ Parish, James Robert (2006). The Hollywood Book of Breakups. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-75268-4. 
  172. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 36
  173. ^ Mann 1974, p. 12
  174. ^ a b Hopper, Hedda (November 25, 1956). "Jayne Mansfield: Girl Strategist". Hartford Courant. p. 1. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. 
  175. ^ a b Strait 1992, pp. 62–63
  176. ^ "People". Time. 16 (14). October 3, 1955. 
  177. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 148, 205
  178. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 183, 189
  179. ^ "Obituary". Variety. July 5, 1967. p. 63. 
  180. ^ "Jayne Mansfield in Divorce Action". Sarasota Journal. March 21, 1956. p. 15. 
  181. ^ "Jayne Can Take Daughter Abroad". Tri-City Herald. April 17, 1958. p. 2. 
  182. ^ Strait 1992, pp. 288–89
  183. ^ Mann 1974, p. 236
  184. ^ "Chrissy isn't Worried About Ex-Miss World". The Miami News. June 3, 1976. p. 9. 
  185. ^ Wilson, Earl (June 9, 1976). "It Happened Last Night". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. 20. 
  186. ^ Mozee, Gene (February 2007). "Mickey Hargitay (In Memoriam)". Ironman Magazine. Archived from the original on May 23, 2011. Retrieved April 10, 2011. 
  187. ^ Strait 1992, pp. 74–76
  188. ^ "Mr. Universe Bopped, Switches Blondes". Oxnard Press-Courier. June 8, 1956. p. 1. 
  189. ^ Bacon, James (December 1, 1957). "Jayne Mansfield Shies at Photog's Flashbulb". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. p. 44. 
  190. ^ "Jayne Mansfield Hargitay Engaged". St. Joseph Gazette. November 7, 1957. p. 2. 
  191. ^ Faris 1994, p. 212
  192. ^ Mann 1974, p. 76
  193. ^ Smith, Liz (February 15, 1977). "Gossip". Ottawa Citizen. p. 58. 
  194. ^ "Quiet Wedding Attracts 1,500". The Sydney Morning Herald. January 15, 1958. p. 3. 
  195. ^ Crowther, Bosley (September 12, 1957). "Screen: Farce From Fox; 'Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?' Here". The New York Times. p. 37. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. (subscription required)
  196. ^ "The Bare Facts at Last, All Those Hours at the Gym Will Pay off with Spring's Slightly Skimpy Fashions". Miami Herald. March 12, 1986. p. D1. 
  197. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy (July 22, 1964). "Jayne's Touring Strawhats in Bikinis". The Washington Post. p. B11. 
  198. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 44–45
  199. ^ Mann 1974, p. 78
  200. ^ Faris 1994, p. 9
  201. ^ Mansfield, Jayne; Hargitay, Mickey (1963). Jayne Mansfield's Wild, Wild World. Los Angeles: Holloway House. OCLC 9922763. 
  202. ^ Maulhardt, Jeffrey Wayne (2011). Jungleland. Arcadia. p. 119. ISBN 9780738574448. 
  203. ^ "Jayne Mansfield is Seeking 1.6 Million in Lion Attack". The Tuscaloosa News. January 18, 1967. p. 18. 
  204. ^ Maulhardt, Jeffrey Wayne (2011). Jungleland. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 9780738574448. 
  205. ^ Faris 1994, p. 190
  206. ^ Strait 1992, p. 139
  207. ^ Sealy, Shirley (1982). The Celebrity Sex Register. Simon & Schuster. p. 134. ISBN 9780671442965. 
  208. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 144
  209. ^ Faris 1994, p. 209
  210. ^ Strait 1992, pp. 167–68, 170, 173–74, 195, 197, 202, 203, 207, 208, 224–25
  211. ^ "Miss Mansfield Asks Divorce". The New York Times. May 4, 1962. p. 25. 
  212. ^ Strait 1992, p. 224
  213. ^ Faris 1994, p. 226
  214. ^ a b Faris 1994, p. 164
  215. ^ "Mickey Hargitay Named Guardian". Daytona Beach Sunday News-Journal. June 8, 1967. p. 10. 
  216. ^ Carrol, Harrison (April 18, 1968). "Behind the Scenes in Hollywood". The Rochester Sentinel. p. 2. 
  217. ^ "Jayne Mansfield's Children Released from Hospital". The Register-Guard. Eugene, Oregon. June 5, 1967. p. 3. 
  218. ^ "Hargitay Loses Claim to Funds". Evening Independent. January 17, 1969. p. 18. 
  219. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 196
  220. ^ Faris 1994, p. 29
  221. ^ Strait 1992, p. 235
  222. ^ "Jayne Mansfield Asks Divorce". The New York Times. July 21, 1966. p. 20. 
  223. ^ Wallace, David; Miller, Ann (April 2003). Hollywoodland. Thorndike. ISBN 978-0-7862-5203-9. Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. 
  224. ^ Sheilah Graham (June 9, 1967). "Jayne Mansfield in Brawl". The Pittsburgh Press. p. 29. 
  225. ^ a b Faris 1994, pp. 12, 37
  226. ^ a b Jordan 2009, p. 222
  227. ^ Rudnick, Paul (June 14, 1999). "Heroes and Icons: Marilyn Monroe". Time. Archived from the original on June 24, 2012. 
  228. ^ a b c d e Russell, Dennis (2000). "Jayne Mansfield". In Tom Pendergast; Sara Pendergast. St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. 3. Farmington Hills, Michigan: St. James Press, Gale. pp. 250–261. ISBN 1-55862-405-8. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. 
  229. ^ Jordan 2009, p. 221.
  230. ^ Saxton 1975, pp. 10, 17, 148, 155
  231. ^ Mann 1974, p. 18
  232. ^ Jordan 2009, p. 213
  233. ^ Pitkin, Roy Macbeth (2008). Whom the Gods Love Die Young. Dorrance. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4349-9199-7. 
  234. ^ Kroker, Arthur; Kroker, Marilouise (1991). The Hysterical Male: New Feminist Theory. New World Perspectives. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-920393-69-7. 
  235. ^ Benshoff, Harry M.; Griffin, Sean (2011). America on Film: Representing Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality at the Movies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 213. ISBN 978-1-4443-5759-2. 
  236. ^ a b Faris 1994, pp. 135, 271
  237. ^ Sherrow, Victoria (2006). Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-313-33145-9. 
  238. ^ Jordan 2009, p. 213
  239. ^ Sikov, Ed (2009). Film Studies: An Introduction. Columbia University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-231-14293-9. 
  240. ^ Conboy, Martin (2006). Tabloid Britain: Constructing a Community Through Language. Routledge. p. 127. ISBN 9780415355537. 
  241. ^ Wagg, Stephen (1998). Because I Tell a Joke or Two: Comedy, Politics, and Social Difference. Routledge. p. 73. 
  242. ^ Bailey, Beth L. (1988). From Front Porch to Back Seat: Courtship in Twentieth-Century America. Johns Hopkins University. p. 73. 
  243. ^ Halliwell, Martin (2007). American Culture in the 1950s. Edinburgh University. p. 42. 
  244. ^ Inge, M. Thomas (1989). Handbook of American Popular Culture. Greenwood. p. 1432. 
  245. ^ Sherrow, Victoria (2006). Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History. Greenwood. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-313-33145-9. 
  246. ^ Kuhn, Annette (1994). The Women's Companion to International Film. University of California. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-520-08879-5. 
  247. ^ Hallam, Julia (2000). Nursing the Image: Media, Culture, and Professional Identity. Routledge. p. 57. ISBN 9780415184540. 
  248. ^ a b Ryecroft, Christina; Moxon, David (2001). Human Relationships. Heinemann. p. 29. ISBN 9780435806545. 
  249. ^ Parkin, Katherine J. (2007). Food Is Love: Advertising and Gender Roles in Modern America. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 1973. 
  250. ^ Vettel-Becker, Patricia (2005). Shooting from the Hip: Photography, Masculinity, and Postwar America. University of Minnesota Press. p. 107. 
  251. ^ Denisoff, Serge; Romanowski, William D. (1991). Risky Business: Rock in Film. Transaction Publishers. p. 64. ISBN 9780887388439. 
  252. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 5–6
  253. ^ a b c Kehr, Dave (August 8, 2006). "New DVD's: The Jayne Mansfield Collection". New York Times. Archived from the original on January 6, 2016. 
  254. ^ Strait 1992, p. 212
  255. ^ Kobal, John (1981). Hollywood Color Portraits. William Morrow & Company. p. 150. ISBN 978-0688007539. 
  256. ^ Landy, Marcia (2000). The Historical Film: History and Memory in Media. Rutgers University Press. p. 143. ISBN 9780813528564. 
  257. ^ White, David Manning (1975). Popular Culture. Ayer Publishing. p. 67. ISBN 9780405066498. 
  258. ^ Halliwell, Martin (2007). American Culture in The 1950s. Edinburgh University. p. 170. ISBN 9780748618859. 
  259. ^ Lisanti, Tom (2008). Glamour Girls of Sixties Hollywood: Seventy-five Profiles. McFarland. pp. 12, 41, 62, 88, 103, 109, 111, 112, 173, 203, 205, 228, 236. ISBN 978-0-7864-3172-4. 
  260. ^ Lane, Laura (1957). "Eeny, Meeny, Miny, Mo: Who will be the first?". Photoplay (March): 38–41. 
  261. ^ Magill, Frank N. (1998). Chronology of Twentieth-century History: Arts and Culture. Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 1106. ISBN 9781884964664. 
  262. ^ Betrock, Alan (1993). Jayne Mansfield vs. Mamie Van Doren: Battle of the Blondes. Shake Books. ISBN 978-0-9626833-4-3. 
  263. ^ "Mamie Van Doren has Few Regrets in Life". The Miami News. November 7, 1988. p. 7. 
  264. ^ "Mother of Actress Mamie Van Doren Dies of Cancer". Los Angeles Times. August 29, 1995. p. 6. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. 
  265. ^ Jordan 2009, p. 149
  266. ^ "Star-Tistics". Celebrity Sleuth. 11 (1): 55. 1997. 
  267. ^ Massey, Anne (2000). Hollywood Beyond the Screen: Design and Material Culture. Oxford: Berg. p. 156. 
  268. ^ Farrell-Beck, Jane; Gau, Colleen (2002). Uplift: The Bra in America. University of Pennsylvania. pp. 116–118. 
  269. ^ Rutsky, R. L. (1999). High Techne: Art and Technology from the Machine Aesthetic to the Posthuman. University of Minnesota Press. p. 19. 
  270. ^ Osgerby, Bill (2001). Playboys in Paradise: Masculinity, Youth and Leisure-Style in Modern America. Berg Publishers. p. 109. 
  271. ^ Kauffman, Linda S. (1998). Bad Girls and Sick Boys: Fantasies in Contemporary Art and Culture. University of California. p. 72. 
  272. ^ Müller, Jürgen (2004). Movies of the 60s. Taschen. p. 5. ISBN 9783822827994. 
  273. ^ "Twiggy, in Her 'One and Only' Phase". New York Times. May 10, 1983. 
  274. ^ a b c Wilson, Earl (April 13, 1972). "Jayne Mansfield's Promotional Campaign". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. p. 9. 
  275. ^ Strait 1992, p. 74
  276. ^ a b Mann 1974, p. 26
  277. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 54
  278. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 7, 149
  279. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 18, 148
  280. ^ Strait 1992, pp. 97
  281. ^ "Glamorous Jayne Mansfield Sleeps on Floor in Mansion". The Herald. Rock Hill, North Carolina. September 6, 1958. p. 18. 
  282. ^ Strait 1992, pp. 67–68
  283. ^ "Jayne Mansfield Biography". jaynemansfield.com. Archived from the original on June 18, 2012. 
  284. ^ Faris 1994, p. 118
  285. ^ Faris 1994, p. 186
  286. ^ "Jayne Mansfield Loses Her Shirt". Oxnard Press-Courier. UPI. February 9, 1959. p. 8. 
  287. ^ Cagle, Jess (January 15, 1993). "Jayne Weds Tarzan". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. 
  288. ^ "No Striptease Just an Accident Claims Mansfield in Rome". Star-Banner. Ocala, Florida. AP. June 8, 1962. 
  289. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 95
  290. ^ Strait 1992, pp. 115
  291. ^ Luciani, Jene (2004). The Bra Book. BenBella Books. p. 127. ISBN 1933771941. 
  292. ^ a b Komar, Susan (April 4, 2008). "Fans Honor Hollywood Star Jayne Mansfield in Small-town Cemetery". Pocono Record. Archived from the original on February 21, 2016. 
  293. ^ "Stylist Rejects Jayne Mansfield". The News and Courier. August 19, 1962. 
  294. ^ Faris 1994, p. 157
  295. ^ a b Strait 1992, p. 92
  296. ^ Mundy, Michael (1998). Limit: The Game is Back with Warring Realtors. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. 
  297. ^ Strait 1992, p. 93
  298. ^ Strait 1992, p. 105
  299. ^ Van Bogart, Angelo; Earnest, Brian (2003). Cadillac: 100 Years of Innovation. Krause Publications. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-87349-690-2. 
  300. ^ Faris 1994, p. 150
  301. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 160
  302. ^ Mann 1974, pp. 115, 117, 133
  303. ^ Strait 1992, pp. 50, 174
  304. ^ Faris 1994, p. 152
  305. ^ Strait 1992, p. 229
  306. ^ Strait 1992, p. 282
  307. ^ Faris 1994, p. 33
  308. ^ Mann 1974, p. 263
  309. ^ Lewis, James R. (2003). Legitimating New Religions. Rutgers University. p. 108. 
  310. ^ Lewis, James R. (2001). Satanism Today: An Encyclopedia of Religion, Folklore, and Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 146. 
  311. ^ "Karla LaVey {joan rivers show}". YouTube. March 18, 2013. Archived from the original on June 25, 2014. Retrieved September 7, 2013. 
  312. ^ "The Night Jayne Mansfield Died, June 29, 1967". Bob Walker's New Orleans Radio Site. Archived from the original on February 17, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2006. 
  313. ^ "Jayne Mansfield's Head". New York Times. May 4, 1997. Archived from the original on May 20, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2015. 
  314. ^ "Jayne Mansfield". Snopes.com. January 3, 2001. Retrieved December 13, 2006. 
  315. ^ "Mansfield Death Certificate". Findadeath. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. 
  316. ^ "Underride Guard". Everything2. Archived from the original on March 15, 2008. Retrieved November 29, 2007. 
  317. ^ United States Congressional Committee on Commerce (1997). Reauthorization of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. p. 39. 
  318. ^ Martha Ross, Los Angeles: The truly essential Hollywood tour, Mercury News, November 24, 2017
  319. ^ James Bartlett, A New, Improved Hollywood Death Tours and Museum Is Opening Across From Hollywood Forever, LA Times, APRIL 20, 2017
  320. ^ "Community Report". The Morning Call. August 9, 1990. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016. 
  321. ^ "Jayne Mansfield Rites will be Held Monday". The Bonham Daily Favorite. June 2, 1967. p. 3. 
  322. ^ "Circus Like Aura Surrounds Funeral for Jayne Mansfield". St. Joseph Gazette. July 4, 1967. p. 1. 
  323. ^ "Jayne Mansfield to be buried tomorrow in small town home". Tri-City Herald. AP. July 2, 1967. p. 6. 
  324. ^ "Jayne Mansfield Suit Filed". The New York Times. June 23, 1968. p. 22. 
  325. ^ "Hollywood Walk of Fame". Hollywood – Movie Capital of the World. 
  326. ^ SJean-Philippe Darquenne, Mariska Hargitay : son étoile sur la Walk Of Fame !, Ciné Télé Revue
  327. ^ Jayne Mansfield – Awards Archived January 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  328. ^ Faris 1994, pp. 24, 163
  329. ^ Faris 1994, p. 140
  330. ^ "Filming in Italy Rough on Star". The News and Courier. July 27, 1962. 
  331. ^ Faris 1994, p. 26
  332. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 153
  333. ^ Claudia Luther, "Jayne Mansfield Estate Depleted of Funds for Heirs", Saratosa Herald-Tribune, page 3E, 09-30-1977
  334. ^ UPI, "Jayne Mansfield left a penniless estate", Lodi News Sentinel, page 12, 09-30-1977
  335. ^ AP, "Mansfield's Children Find Estate Empty", The Daily Courier, page 8A, 09-30-1977
  336. ^ Faris 1994, p. 163
  337. ^ Muir, Floralbel (August 17, 1967). "Mansfield Estate Causes Problems". The News and Courier. p. 3. 
  338. ^ "Mansfield's Death Brings Suit". The Morning Journal. Daytona Beach, Florida. June 23, 1968. p. 6. 
  339. ^ "Actresses' Estate Settled". The Tuscaloosa News. February 3, 1971. p. 22. 
  340. ^ "Jayne Mansfield Named Heir to Lawyer's Estate". Reading Eagle. August 1, 1967. p. 24. 
  341. ^ Faris 1994, p. 38
  342. ^ Saxton 1975, p. 218
  343. ^ Strait 1992, p. 302
  344. ^ Luther, Claudia (September 30, 1977). "Jayne Mansfield Estate Depleted of Funds for Heirs". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. p. 3. 
  345. ^ Wallace, David (2003). Hollywoodland. Thorndike. p. 284. ISBN 9780786252039. 
  346. ^ Byles, Jeff (2005). Rubble: Unearthing the History of Demolition. Harmony. p. 7. ISBN 0-9534787-0-X. 
  347. ^ "List of Clients". CMG Worldwide. Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. 
  348. ^ Canales, Luis (1990). Imperial Gina: The Strictly Unauthorized Biography of Gina Lollobrigida. Branden Books. p. 91. ISBN 0-8283-1932-4. 
  349. ^ Liehm, Mira (1984). Passion and Defiance: Film in Italy from 1942 to the Present. University of California. p. 143. 
  350. ^ Hyatt, Missy; Salzberg, Charles; Goldblatt, Mark. Missy Hyatt: First Lady of Wrestling. p. 78. 
  351. ^ "Coleman has Shorter Temper". Philadelphia Daily News. August 9, 1998. 
  352. ^ Robbins, Cynthia (August 6, 1998). "Anna Nicole Slims Down, Perks Up". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 
  353. ^ Willinstein, Paul (March 26, 1994). "Anna Nicole Goes from Guess? to Gun". The Morning Call. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. 
  354. ^ "How Did a Poor Mom Become a Famous Model?". San Jose Mercury News. March 27, 1993. 
  355. ^ Reid, Tony (January 8, 2007). "Anna Nicole Follows Line of Succession". Cinema Blend. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. 
  356. ^ O'Dell, Cary (August 19, 2002). "The Anna Nicole Show". PopMatters. 
  357. ^ Fischer, Lucy; Landy, Marcia (2004). Stars: The Film Reader. Routledge. p. 157. ISBN 9780415278935. 
  358. ^ Liberman, Erik (June 29, 2017). "Jayne Mansfield: The First Reality Star?". The Hollywood Reporter. 
  359. ^ "Jayne Mansfield Revamps Career". The Sunday News Journal. July 7, 1956. p. 6. 
  360. ^ "Stars That Keep Shining". Los Angeles Daily News. November 3, 1989. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. 
  361. ^ Coombe, Tom (June 24, 2007). "Jayne Mansfield's Short Time in Pen Argyl Created a Lasting Presence". The Morning Call. p. 1. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. 
  362. ^ Coombe, Tom (April 20, 2005). "Birthday Gathering Honors Late Actress". The Morning Call. p. 3. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. 
  363. ^ Frank Ferruccio, Damien Santroni, Did Success Spoil Jayne Mansfield?, page 11, Frank Ferruccio, 2010, ISBN 1432761234

Biographies

Internet

  • "Official Biography". CMG Worldwide. Retrieved July 2, 2012. 
  • "Biography". Biography.com. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012. 
  • "Biography". St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2012. 
  • "Biography". Salon.com. Retrieved July 2, 2012. 
  • "Biography". The New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2012. 
  • "Timeline". Philadelphia Weekly. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2012. 
  • "Timeline". Twoop.com. Retrieved July 2, 2012. 

Books

Video

External links

  • Jayne Mansfield on Flickr
  • Jayne Mansfield's channel on YouTube
  • Jayne Mansfield on IMDb
  • 76013 Jayne Mansfield at the Internet Broadway Database
  • Jayne Mansfield at the TCM Movie Database
  • Jayne Mansfield at AllMovie
  • "Jayne Mansfield (Vera Jayne Peers) Marriage Certificate". Archives.com. Houston: Texas State Department of Health Services. 1950. Retrieved March 9, 2012. (subscription required)
  • "Jayne Mansfield Death Certificate". Findadeath.com. 1967. Retrieved March 9, 2012. 
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jayne_Mansfield&oldid=814551951"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jayne_Mansfield
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Jayne Mansfield"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA