January 1948

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The following events occurred in January 1948:

January 1, 1948 (Thursday)

January 2, 1948 (Friday)

January 3, 1948 (Saturday)

  • British Prime Minister Clement Attlee made his strongest and most specific attack on communism to date when he declared that "today in eastern Europe the Communist Party, while overthrowing the economic tyranny of landlordism and capitalism, has renounced the doctrines of individual freedom and political democracy and rejected the whole spiritual heritage of western Europe."[7]
  • A large TNT shipment bound for Palestine was seized at Jersey City, New Jersey after a box fraudulently marked as industrial machinery was accidentally dropped. Police said there was little doubt that the explosives were intended for use in the Jewish-Arab conflict in Palestine.[1][8]

January 4, 1948 (Sunday)

January 5, 1948 (Monday)

January 6, 1948 (Tuesday)

January 7, 1948 (Wednesday)

  • US President Harry S. Truman delivered the annual State of the Union address to Congress. Truman outlined five goals for the future: " to secure fully the essential human rights of our citizens," "to protect and develop our human resources," "to conserve and use our natural resources so that they can contribute most effectively to the welfare of our people," "to lift the standard of living for all our people by strengthening our economic system and sharing more broadly among our people the goods we produce," and "to achieve world peace based on principles of freedom and justice and the equality of all nations."[13]
  • An Irgun bomb attack at the Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem killed 25 Arabs.[9]
  • The Gongzhutun Campaign ended in Communist victory.
  • Mantell UFO incident: Kentucky Air National Guard pilot Thomas F. Mantell died in the crash of his F-51 Mustang fighter plane after being sent in pursuit of an unidentified flying object.
  • Born: Shobhaa De, columnist and novelist, in Satara, India; Kenny Loggins, singer-songwriter, in Everett, Washington; Ichirou Mizuki, musician and actor, in Tokyo

January 8, 1948 (Thursday)

  • German officials accepted a US-British offer to assume responsibility for a new economic government in the Bizone, to be called the Bizonal Economic Administration.[14]
  • US Secretary of State George Marshall appeared before the Senate to make the case for Truman's request for $6.8 billion to cover the first 15 months of the Marshall Plan, warning that US failure to help rebuild Europe's economy would turn the continent into "the dictatorship of police states."[15]
  • Died: Edward Stanley Kellogg, 77, United States Navy Captain and 16th Governor of American Samoa; Kurt Schwitters, 60, German artist

January 9, 1948 (Friday)

  • A record Chinese budget of 96 trillion yuan (about $427 million US) for the first six months of 1948 was announced in Nanjing.[1]
  • The US Navy Department announced the transfer of four large submarines and eleven other naval vessels to Turkey and six submarines to Greece.[16]

January 10, 1948 (Saturday)

January 11, 1948 (Sunday)

January 12, 1948 (Monday)

January 13, 1948 (Tuesday)

January 14, 1948 (Wednesday)

  • US Secretary of State Marshall rejected Yugoslavia's request for the return of its funds until all outstanding claims were settled, including the concern of the two American planes shot down over Yugoslavia in August 1946.[22]
  • The Battle of 3 Shevat was fought when Arab forces attacked Gush Etzion but were repulsed with heavy casualties.
  • The American Communist Party held two rallies in New York City to mark the twenty-fourth anniversary of Vladimir Lenin's death. National chairman William Z. Foster hailed the presidential candidacy of Henry A. Wallace, telling his followers that millions of Americans believe that "the Wallace movement is the one movement that has the possibility to put a halt to this drive to a new war." A combined total of about 5,000 people attended the two rallies.[23]
  • Born: T Bone Burnett, music producer and guitarist, as Joseph Burnett III in St. Louis, Missouri; Valeri Kharlamov, ice hockey player, in Moscow, USSR (d. 1981); Muhriz of Negeri Sembilan, eleventh Yamtuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan, in Kuala Pilah, Malayan Union; Carl Weathers, actor and football player, in New Orleans, Louisiana

January 15, 1948 (Thursday)

  • A spokesman for the Arab League in Cairo said that regular armies of the Arab countries would occupy all of Palestine as soon as the British withdrew, and that any intervention by an international police force or large contingent of foreign troops "will be considered an unfriendly act by the Arab states, and the Council of the League, which is always in session, will take steps to meet the emergency."[24]
  • Born: Ronnie Van Zant, singer and founding member of the rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd, in Jacksonville, Florida (d. 1977)
  • Died: Josephus Daniels, 85, American newspaper editor and publisher and United States Secretary of the Navy during World War I

January 16, 1948 (Friday)

January 17, 1948 (Saturday)

January 18, 1948 (Sunday)

  • Mahatma Gandhi ended his five-day fast after leaders of the Hindu, Sikh and Muslim communities presented a pledge signed by 200,000 persons promising peace. "If today's solemn pledge is fulfilled," Gandhi said, "it will revive with doubled force my intense wish to live a full span of life doing service to humanity." Gandhi said that by a full span he meant "at least 125 years, or as some say 133 years."[29]
  • Born: M. C. Gainey, actor, in Jackson, Mississippi

January 19, 1948 (Monday)

January 20, 1948 (Tuesday)

  • The UN Security Council voted 9-0 to establish a three-member commission to mediate the Indo-Pakistani dipute over Kashmir.[32]
  • Republican politician John Foster Dulles accused the Soviet Union of trying "by every art short of war" to ruin Europe. Dulles urged Congress to set up a European aid plan that would bind western Europe into a mutual defense pact to contain the Soviets.[33]
  • William Lyon Mackenzie King announced that he would retire as Prime Minister of Canada after the Liberal Party held a national convention in the summer to select a new leader.[34]

January 21, 1948 (Wednesday)

January 22, 1948 (Thursday)

January 23, 1948 (Friday)

January 24, 1948 (Saturday)

January 25, 1948 (Sunday)

  • The Lady Caycay earthquake struck Panay Island in the Philippines, causing an estimated 50 casualties.
  • The French government announced that it would devalue the franc, revising the exchange rate from 119 francs to the US dollar to 214.392, and allow free market trading in gold. The announcement came over the formal objection of the International Monetary Fund whose statutes forbade any member country to "engage in multiple-currency practices" without the authorization of the Fund.[40]

January 26, 1948 (Monday)

  • An international manpower conference opened in Rome with representatives of sixteen countries participating in the Marshall Plan. The main issue under consideration was that of redistributing manpower from countries that had an excess of workers to countries that had a shortage.[41]
  • At a branch of Imperial Bank in Tokyo, a man masquerading as a doctor fatally poisoned 12 bank employees and then robbed the bank of all the money he could find. Tempera painter Sadamichi Hirasawa was later arrested and charged with the crime, but was never executed because of doubts about his guilt.
  • Poland and the Soviet Union signed a trade agreement worth more than $1 billion US.[42]
  • Died: Georg Bruchmüller, 84, German artillery officer

January 27, 1948 (Tuesday)

  • The cabinet of Iraqi Prime Minister Salih Jabr resigned after 24 hours of rioting over a British-Iraqi treaty of friendship and mutual military aid that had yet to be ratified. 70 people were reported killed and 300 wounded in the rioting.[43]
  • Born: Mikhail Baryshnikov, dancer, choreographer and actor, in Riga, Latvian SSR

January 28, 1948 (Wednesday)

January 29, 1948 (Thursday)

January 30, 1948 (Friday)

January 31, 1948 (Saturday)

  • Gandhi's body was carried in a five-hour procession through the streets of Delhi to the bank of the Jumna River where it was cremated on a funeral pyre of sandalwood logs strewn with flowers. An estimated one million Indians witnessed the procession and cremation ceremony.[45]
  • Soviet finance minister Arseny Zverev presented a record budget to a joint session of the Supreme Soviet, estimating revenue at 428 billion rubles and expenditure at 387.9 billion rubles in 1948.[46]
  • Born: Paul Jabara, actor, singer and songwriter, in Brooklyn, New York (d. 1992); Muneo Suzuki, politician, in Ashoro, Hokkaido, Japan
  • Died: John T. Daniels, 74, American amateur photographer who took the photograph of the Wright brothers' first flight

References

  1. ^ a b c d Yust, Walter, ed. (1949). 1949 Britannica Book of the Year. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. p. 1. 
  2. ^ Myers, Marc (December 26, 2012). "The Silence That Sparked New Sounds". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 20, 2018. 
  3. ^ Mars, Harvey. "The Silence Was Deafening". Associated Musicians of Greater New York. Retrieved May 20, 2018. 
  4. ^ "1948". coldwar.hu. Retrieved May 20, 2018. 
  5. ^ Brands, H. W. (1989). The Specter of Neutralism: The United States and the Emergence of the Third World, 1947-1960. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 144. ISBN 9780231071680. 
  6. ^ Klara, Robert (2013). The Hidden White House: Harry Truman and the Reconstruction of America’s Most Famous Residence. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. p. 40. ISBN 9781250000279. 
  7. ^ "Attlee Attacks Imperialism of Soviet Policies". Brooklyn Eagle. Brooklyn: p. 1. January 4, 1948. 
  8. ^ "Police seize TNT for Palestine". The Argus. Melbourne: p. 3. January 5, 1948. 
  9. ^ a b Bose, Sumantra (2007). Contested Land. Harvard University Press. p. 230. ISBN 9780674028562. 
  10. ^ Hamilton, Thomas J. (January 6, 1948). "Little Assembly Delays Veto Issue in a Bid to Soviet". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  11. ^ Suresha, Ron J. "'Properly Placed Before the Public': Publication and Translation of the Kinsey Reports." Bisexual Perspectives on the Life and Work of Alfred C. Kinsey. Ed. Ron J. Suresha. New York: Routledge, 2014. 28. ISBN 9781317995012.
  12. ^ "Books Published Today". The New York Times: p. 17. January 5, 1948. 
  13. ^ Woolley, John; Peters, Gerhard. "Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved May 20, 2018. 
  14. ^ Raymond, Jack (January 9, 1948). "Germans Approve Government Plan". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  15. ^ Belair, Jr., Felix (January 9, 1948). "Secretary Grave". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  16. ^ Hurd, Charles (January 10, 1948). "U. S. to Give 4 Submarines, 11 Other Ships to Turkey". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  17. ^ "Radar Equipment Exports Halted On Complaint Some Went to Soviet". The New York Times: p. 1. January 11, 1948. 
  18. ^ "New Cholera Serum Is Developed By American University In Beirut". The New York Times: p. 21. January 12, 1948. 
  19. ^ Morris, John D. (January 13, 1948). "'Hard-Boiled' Plan". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  20. ^ "Chamber Uproar Paralyzes French Law Machinery". The Cornell Daily Sun. Ithaca, New York: p. 1. January 14, 1948. 
  21. ^ Trumbull, Robert (January 14, 1948). "Gandhi Commences a Fast For Unity". The New York Times: p. 10. 
  22. ^ D. Hulen, Bertram (January 15, 1948). "Marshall Rebuffs Yugoslav Demand". The New York Times: p. 1, 8. 
  23. ^ "Wallace Is Hailed at 2 Red Rallies". The New York Times: p. 15. January 15, 1948. 
  24. ^ Currivan, Gene (January 16, 1948). "Arabs Aim to Hold All of Palestine". The New York Times: p. 4. 
  25. ^ Lawrence, W. H. (January 17, 1948). "U. S., Britain Fan War, Bulgar Says". The New York Times: p. 7. 
  26. ^ Mercer, Derrik, ed. (1989). Chronicle of the 20th Century. London: Chronicle Communications Ltd. p. 667. ISBN 9-780582-039193. 
  27. ^ Dales, Douglas (January 17, 1948). "Dewey Announces He Is Ready to Run if Party Picks Him". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  28. ^ "Dutch Sign Truce With Indonesia, Keep Interim Rule of Rich Areas". The New York Times: p. 1. January 18, 1948. 
  29. ^ Trumbull, Robert (January 19, 1948). "Fast Held to Achieve Aim —Detailed Amity Plan to be Drawn Today". The New York Times: p. 1, 10. 
  30. ^ "Nehuentúe Rinde Homenaje A Las Víctimas Del Terrible Naufragio Del Cautín". Clave9.cl. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2018. 
  31. ^ "Books Published Today". The New York Times: p. 21. January 19, 1948. 
  32. ^ Hamilton, Thomas J. (January 21, 1948). "Mediation in India Authorized by U.N.". The New York Times: p. 4. 
  33. ^ "Dulles Urges Defense Pact". Brooklyn Eagle. Brooklyn: p. 1. January 20, 1948. 
  34. ^ Philip, P. J. (January 21, 1948). "Mackenzie King Retiring; Calls Communism Tyranny". The New York Times: p. 1, 12. 
  35. ^ Middleton, Drew (January 22, 1948). "Britain Will Scrap Five Capital Ships". The New York Times: p. 21. 
  36. ^ Stark, Lewis (January 23, 1948). "CIO's Board Votes Against 3d Party, For Aid Plan, 33-11". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  37. ^ Knowles, Clayton (January 24, 1948). "Refusal 'Positive'". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  38. ^ Hamilton, Thomas J. (January 24, 1948). "Austin for Regime in South of Korea". The New York Times: p. 7. 
  39. ^ "Rumania, Hungary Sign 20-Year Military Pact". The New York Times: p. 32. January 25, 1948. 
  40. ^ Callender, Harold (January 26, 1948). "2 Values Created". The New York Times: p. 1. 
  41. ^ Cortesi, Arnaldo (January 27, 1948). "16 Countries Open Manpower Parley". The New York Times: p. 12. 
  42. ^ "Poland, Russia Sign Pact". The New York Times: p. 18. January 27, 1948. 
  43. ^ "Iraqi Cabinet Out in Riots Over Pact". The New York Times: p. 1. January 28, 1948. 
  44. ^ "Believe 316 Lost Lives in sinking of Japanese Frater". Chicago Daily Tribune. Chicago: p. 4. January 29, 1948. 
  45. ^ Trumbull, Robert (February 1, 1948). "Gandhi Cremated as Million Watch; Disorders Spread". The New York Times: p. 1, 43. 
  46. ^ "Soviet '48 Budget Highest in History". The New York Times: p. 1. February 1, 1948. 
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