January 1944

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1944
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The following events occurred in January 1944:

January 1, 1944 (Saturday)

January 2, 1944 (Sunday)

January 3, 1944 (Monday)

January 4, 1944 (Tuesday)

January 5, 1944 (Wednesday)

  • During the Zhitomir–Berdichev Offensive, the Soviets announced the capture of Berdychiv itself.[2]
  • With Red Army forces about to cross the Polish border, the Polish government-in-exile issued a declaration describing itself as "the only and legal steward and spokesman of the Polish Nation" and calling for the Soviet Union to respect the rights and interests of Poland. The statement also proposed the re-establishment of a liberated republic in Poland as quickly as possible as well as the negotiation of an agreement between the Polish government-in-exile and the Soviet Union that would permit the co-ordination of Polish resistance actions with the Red Army.[7][8][9]

January 6, 1944 (Thursday)

January 7, 1944 (Friday)

January 8, 1944 (Saturday)

January 9, 1944 (Sunday)

January 10, 1944 (Monday)

  • The Verona Trial ended with five death sentences. Tullio Cianetti was the only defendant spared from execution, in light of his having written a letter of apology to Mussolini. He was given a 30-year prison term instead.
  • The Russians took Lyudvipol, 12 miles inside the 1939 Polish border.[2]
  • British troops took Maungdaw in western Burma.[2]
  • Died: William Emerson Ritter, 87, American biologist

January 11, 1944 (Tuesday)

January 12, 1944 (Wednesday)

January 13, 1944 (Thursday)

  • The Soviet 1st Ukrainian Front captured Korets.[14]
  • German submarine U-231 was bombed and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean northeast of the Azores by a Vickers Wellington bomber of No. 172 Squadron RAF.
  • The director of the United States Typhus Commission warned that Naples faced a serious threat "and the menace can be expected to extend to Southern Italy. No cases have yet been reported among the military forces, but the growing typhus rate is a potential menace to the Allied military effort."[15]

January 14, 1944 (Friday)

  • In the northern sector of the Eastern Front, the Soviets began the Leningrad–Novgorod Offensive (the first of Stalin's ten blows) and the Krasnoye Selo–Ropsha Offensive
  • The Japanese destroyer Sazanami was torpedoed and sunk southeast of Yap by the submarine USS Albacore.
  • The Polish government-in-exile reiterated its refusal to accept unilateral decisions made about Polish territory, but said it was approaching the British and U.S. governments to intermediate "all outstanding questions, the settlement of which should lead to friendly and permanent co-operation between Poland and the Soviet Union. The Polish Government believes this to be desirable in the interest of the victory of the United Nations and harmonious relations in post-war Europe."[8][16]
  • The adventure film Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves starring Jon Hall and Maria Montez was released.

January 15, 1944 (Saturday)

  • The San Juan earthquake devastated the province of San Juan in Argentina. Some 10,000 people were killed and one-third of the province's population was left homeless.
  • The U.S. II Corps in Italy captured Monte Trecchio.[5]
  • German submarine U-377 made her last radio report before being lost in the Atlantic Ocean to an unknown cause, possibly sunk by the British destroyer Wanderer and frigate Glenarm on January 17.

January 16, 1944 (Sunday)

January 17, 1944 (Monday)

  • The Battle of Monte Cassino began in Italy.
  • Three divisions of the British X Corps launched an attack across the Garigliano. The river was crossed on the left flank but the Germans held fast on the right.[5]
  • German submarine U-305 sank in the Atlantic Ocean from an unknown cause.
  • The Soviet Union rejected Poland's proposal for negotiation over the Polish frontier.[3]
  • A diplomatic incident occurred when The Soviet newspaper Pravda published a report claiming that representatives of Britain and Germany had met somewhere on the Iberian Peninsula to discuss making a separate peace.[17] The British Foreign Office swiftly denied the rumor in an official message sent to the Soviet government.[18]
  • Meat rationing was introduced in Australia.[14]
  • Born: Jan Guillou, author and journalist, in Södertälje, Sweden; Françoise Hardy, singer and actress, in Paris, France

January 18, 1944 (Tuesday)

January 19, 1944 (Wednesday)

  • British bombers conducted their heaviest raid on Berlin yet, dropping 2,300 tons of bombs in just over half an hour.[3]
  • German submarine U-641 was depth charged and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean by the British corvette Violet.
  • Born: Shelley Fabares, actress and singer, in Santa Monica, California
  • Died: Harold Fraser-Simson, 71, English composer

January 20, 1944 (Thursday)

  • The Battle of Rapido River began on the Italian front.
  • German submarine U-263 struck a mine and sank in the Bay of Biscay.
  • Winston Churchill met with representatives of the Polish government-in-exile in an effort to break the diplomatic impasse with the Soviets. Churchill pressed the Poles to accept the Curzon Line as a basis for discussion, explaining that the Soviets' need for security as well as their enormous battlefield sacrifices to liberate Poland from the Germans entitled them to ask for revision of Polish frontiers. Churchill promised in return to challenge Moscow's demand for changes in the Polish government.[7]
  • Died: James McKeen Cattell, 83, American psychologist

January 21, 1944 (Friday)

January 22, 1944 (Saturday)

January 23, 1944 (Sunday)

January 24, 1944 (Monday)

January 25, 1944 (Tuesday)

January 26, 1944 (Wednesday)

  • Argentina bowed to pressure from the United States and severed diplomatic relations with the Axis powers.[24]
  • Soviet forces captured Krasnogvardeisk near Leningrad. Two days later the city's pre-1923 name of Gatchina would be restored.[22]
  • The U.S. II Corps in Italy established a bridgehead over the Rapido.[22]
  • Born: Angela Davis, political activist, scholar and author, in Birmingham, Alabama;

January 27, 1944 (Thursday)

January 28, 1944 (Friday)

  • German submarines U-271 and U-571 were both sunk in the Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland by Allied aircraft.
  • A British telegram to Joseph Stalin warned that "the creation in Warsaw of another government other than that now recognized, as well as disturbances in Poland, would confront Great Britain and the United States with a problem, which would preclude agreement among the great powers."[9]
  • Omar Bradley took command of the First United States Army.[26]
  • Born: Susan Howard, actress, writer and political activist, in Marshall, Texas; John Tavener, composer, in Wembley, London, England (d. 2013)

January 29, 1944 (Saturday)

January 30, 1944 (Sunday)

January 31, 1944 (Monday)

References

  1. ^ "War Diary for Saturday, 1 January 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Chronology and Index of the Second World War, 1938–1945. Research Publications. 1990. pp. 232–233. ISBN 978-0-88736-568-3. 
  3. ^ a b c Mercer, Derrik, ed. (1989). Chronicle of the 20th Century. London: Chronicle Communications Ltd. p. 594. ISBN 978-0-582-03919-3. 
  4. ^ "War Diary for Tuesday, 4 January 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Davidson, Edward; Manning, Dale (1999). Chronology of World War Two. London: Cassell & Co. pp. 178–180. ISBN 0-304-35309-4. 
  6. ^ "Chronology 1944". indiana.edu. 2002. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Dallek, Robert (1995). Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945. Oxford University Press. p. 451. ISBN 978-0-19-982666-7. 
  8. ^ a b Scholz, Albert August (1964). Silesia: Yesterday and Today. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 40–41. 
  9. ^ a b c Kersten, Krystyna (1991). The Establishment of Communist Rule in Poland, 1943–1948. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-520-06219-1. 
  10. ^ a b c "1944". MusicAndHistory. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  11. ^ "Soviet Declaration on Polish Frontier". The Argus. Melbourne: p. 16. January 24, 1944. 
  12. ^ "War Diary for Wednesday, 12 January 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  13. ^ "Events occurring on Wednesday, January 12, 1944". WW2 Timelines. 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c "Conflict Timeline, January 8 - 17 1944". OnWar.com. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  15. ^ "Typhus Epidemic Rages in Naples". The Morning Bulletin. Rockhampton: p. 4. January 15, 1944. 
  16. ^ "From the archive, 15 January 1944: The Red Army invasion of Poland". The Guardian. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  17. ^ Erickson, John (1983). The Road to Berlin: Stalin's War with Germany, Volume Two. Yale University Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-300-07813-8. 
  18. ^ "Soviets Acknowledge London Repudiation Of Peace Move Claim". Pittsburgh-Post Gazette: p. 1. January 19, 1944. 
  19. ^ a b "War Diary for Tuesday, 18 January 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  20. ^ a b "War Diary for Friday, 21 January 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  21. ^ "1944: Key Dates". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  22. ^ a b c d "Conflict Timeline, January 18 - 27 1944". OnWar.com. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  23. ^ Bak, Richard (January 22, 2016). "Red Wings' historic 15-0 blowout remains NHL record". Detroit Athletic. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  24. ^ Sicker, Martin (2002). The Geopolitics of Security in the Americas: Hemispheric Denial from Monroe to Clinton. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-275-97255-4. 
  25. ^ "Events occurring on Thursday, January 27, 1944". WW2 Timelines. 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  26. ^ "War Diary for Friday, 28 January 1944". Stone & Stone Second World War Books. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  27. ^ "Conflict Timeline, January 28 - February 6 1944". OnWar.com. Retrieved March 1, 2016. 
  28. ^ "Nazis or Reds Will Conquer Europe: Hitler". Chicago Daily Tribune. Chicago: Chicago Daily Tribune: p. 1. January 31, 1944. 
  29. ^ Belmessous, Saliha (2013). Assimilation and Empire: Uniformity in French and British Colonies, 1541–1954. Oxford University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-19-165102-1. 
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