January

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January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere (where it is the second month of winter) and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere (where it is the second month of summer). In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.

Ancient Roman observances during this month include Cervula, and Juvenalia; celebrated January 1, as well as one of three Agonalia, celebrated January 9, and Carmentalia, celebrated January 11. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

History

January (in Latin, Ianuarius) is named after the Latin word for door (ianua), since January is the door to the year and an opening to new beginnings. The month is conventionally thought of as being named after Janus, the god of beginnings and transitions in Roman mythology, but according to ancient Roman farmers' almanacs Juno was the tutelary deity of the month.[1]

Traditionally, the original Roman calendar consisted of 10 months totaling 304 days, winter being considered a month-less period. Around 713 BC, the semi-mythical successor of Romulus, King Numa Pompilius, is supposed to have added the months of January and February, so that the calendar covered a standard lunar year (354 days). Although March was originally the first month in the old Roman calendar, January became the first month of the calendar year either under Numa or under the Decemvirs about 450 BC (Roman writers differ). In contrast, each specific calendar year was identified by the names of the two consuls, who entered office on May 1[citation needed] or March 15 until 153 BC, from when they entered office on January 1.

Various Christian feast dates were used for the New Year in Europe during the Middle Ages, including March 25 (Feast of the Annunciation) and December 25. However, medieval calendars were still displayed in the Roman fashion with twelve columns from January to December. Beginning in the 16th century, European countries began officially making January 1 the start of the New Year once again—sometimes called Circumcision Style because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, being the seventh day after December 25.

Historical names for January include its original Roman designation, Ianuarius, the Saxon term Wulf-monath (meaning "wolf month") and Charlemagne's designation Wintarmanoth ("winter / cold month"). In Slovene, it is traditionally called prosinec. The name, associated with millet bread and the act of asking for something, was first written in 1466 in the Škofja Loka manuscript.[2]

According to Theodor Mommsen,[3] 1 January became the first day of the year in 600 AUC of the Roman calendar (153 BC), due to disasters in the Lusitanian War. A Lusitanian chief called Punicus invaded the Roman territory, defeated two Roman governors, and killed their troops. The Romans resolved to send a consul to Hispania, and in order to accelerate the dispatch of aid, "they even made the new consuls enter into office two months and a half before the legal time" (March 15).

January symbols

Snow in the Northern Hemisphere in the month of January
  • January's birthstone is the garnet, which represents constancy.
  • Its birth flower is the cottage pink Dianthus caryophyllus or galanthus.[4]
  • The Chinese floral emblem of January is the Prunus mume.[citation needed]
  • The Japanese floral emblem of January is the camellia (Camellia sinensis).[citation needed]
  • In Finnish, the month of tammikuu means the heart of the winter and because the name literally means "oak moon", it can be inferred that the oak tree is the heart of the grand forest with many valuable trees as opposed to the typical Arctic forests, which are typically pine and spruce. The photograph of a large tree covered with ice against a blue sky is a familiar scene during Finland's winter.
  • The zodiac signs for the month of January are Capricorn (until January 19) and Aquarius (January 20 onwards).

January observances

This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.

Month-long observances

January, painting by Leandro Bassano

Food months in the United States

This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.

Non-Gregorian observances, 2018

All Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown on the date in question.

Moveable observances, 2018 dates

This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.

First Monday: January 1

First Sunday of the year, unless the Sunday falls on January 1, 6, or 7, then January 2: January 2

January 2 unless that day is a Sunday, in which case January 3: January 2)

First Friday: January 5

Sunday following January 6: January 7

Monday after January 6: January 8

Second Monday: January 8

Friday before third Monday: January 12

Second Saturday: January 13

Third full week of January: January 15–19

Third Monday: January 15

Wednesday of the third full week of January: January 17

Friday between January 19–25: January 19

Third Friday: January 19

Third Sunday: January 21

11th Sunday before Pascha (Eastern Christianity): January 21

Sunday closest to January 22: January 21

Last week of January: January 22–26

Fourth Monday: January 22

63 days before Pascha (Eastern Christianity): January 27[18]

Last Saturday: January 27

9th Sunday before Easter in Western Christianity: January 28

10th Sunday before Pascha in Eastern Christianity: January 28[19]

Last Sunday: January 28

January 30 or the nearest Sunday: January 28

Monday Closest to January 29: January 29

Last Monday in January: January 29

Second Monday before Clean Monday in Eastern Christianity: January 29–31

Fixed observances

References

  1. ^ H.H. Scullard, Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (Cornell University Press, 1981), p. 51.
  2. ^ Stabej, Jože (1966). "Ob petstoletnici škofjeloškega zapisa slovenskih imen za mesece" [On the 500th Anniversary of the Škofja Loka Recording of Slovene Month Names]. Loški razgledi (in Slovenian). Muzejsko društvo Škofja Loka [Museum Society of Škofja Loka]. 13. ISSN 0459-8210. Archived from the original on 2014-01-08. 
  3. ^ The History of Rome, volume 4, The Revolution, ISBN 1-4353-4597-5, page 4
  4. ^ "January Birth Flower : Flower Meaning". birthflowersguide.com. Archived from the original on 2008-10-06. 
  5. ^ "January National Codependency Awareness Month". Diane Jellen. Archived from the original on 2015-01-05. 
  6. ^ "January is National Healthy Weight Awareness Month : Importance of Physical Fitness". usphs.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-02-15. 
  7. ^ "Presidential Proclamation—Stalking Awareness Month". whitehouse.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-02-24. 
  8. ^ a b Chase's Calendar of Events 2013. The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2013. ISBN 9780071813334. 
  9. ^ "JANUARY 2009, AS "CALIFORNIA DRIED PLUM DIGESTIVE HEALTH MONTH"". Office of the Governor, State of California. November 20, 2008. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. 
  10. ^ Hirsch, J. M. (August 18, 2004). "Food turns eating into stream of holidays". Associated Press via Kentucky New Era. 
  11. ^ Rem, Kathryn (March 9, 2010). "Yesterday was National Crabmeat Day and you missed it". The State Journal-Register. Archived from the original on March 4, 2013. 
  12. ^ Gavilan, Jessica (February 7, 2006). "Mark your calendar". The Gainesville Sun. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. 
  13. ^ a b "Sri Lanka Public Holidays 2018 - PublicHolidays.lk". publicholidays.lk. Archived from the original on 2018-01-02. 
  14. ^ "About Thiruvathirai (Arudra Darshan) - Thiruvathira 2018 To 2025 Dates". sakalam.org. 9 February 2017. Archived from the original on 7 January 2018. 
  15. ^ "Baha'i (Badi) Calendar – Bahai Arts, Stories, Media & Bahai Religion". Archived from the original on 2016-08-13. 
  16. ^ a b c "2018Calendar – Hellenion". www.hellenion.org. Archived from the original on 2018-01-02. 
  17. ^ "Lenten and Paschal Cycle". oca.org. Archived from the original on 2016-12-05. 
  18. ^ AnydayGuide. "Feast of Saint Sarkis in Armenia / January 27, 2018". anydayguide.com. Archived from the original on January 10, 2018. 
  19. ^ "Lenten and Paschal Cycle". oca.org. Archived from the original on 2016-12-05. 
  20. ^ "The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared unconstitutional the day of RS". b92.net. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2016. 
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