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Special Capital Region of Jakarta
Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta
From top, left to right: Jakarta Old Town, Hotel Indonesia Roundabout, Jakarta Skyline, Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Monumen Nasional, Merdeka Palace, Istiqlal Mosque and Jakarta Cathedral
Flag of Jakarta
Coat of arms of Jakarta
Coat of arms
Jaya Raya (Sanskrit)
(meaning: Victorious and Great)
Location of Jakarta
Jakarta is located in Java
Location in Java and Indonesia
Jakarta is located in Indonesia
Jakarta (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 6°12′S 106°49′E / 6.200°S 106.817°E / -6.200; 106.817Coordinates: 6°12′S 106°49′E / 6.200°S 106.817°E / -6.200; 106.817
Country  Indonesia
Settled 22 June 1527[4]
City status 4 March 1621[4]
Province status 28 August 1961[4]
 • Type Special administrative area
 • Governor Anies Baswedan
 • Deputy Governor Vacant
 • Legislative Jakarta Regional People's Representative Council
 • Special Capital Region 661.5 km2 (255.4 sq mi)
 • Metro
6,392 km2 (2,468 sq mi)
Area rank 34th
8 m (26 ft)
 • Special Capital Region 10,075,310
 • Rank 6th
 • Density 14,464/km2 (37,460/sq mi)
 • Metro
(2015 estimate)[6]
 • Metro density 4,958/km2 (12,840/sq mi)
Demonyms Jakartan (Indonesian: warga Jakarta, orang Jakarta)
Time zone UTC+07:00 (Indonesia Western Time)
Postal Code
Area code (+62) 21
Vehicle registration B
HDI Increase 0.804 (Very High)
HDI rank 1st (2018)
GDP PPP (2016) Increase$483.4 billion[7]
Police Polda Metro Jaya
Website jakarta.go.id

Jakarta (/əˈkɑːrtə/; Indonesian pronunciation: [dʒaˈkarta]), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Situated on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island of Java, it is the centre of economy, culture and politics of Indonesia with a population of more than ten million as of 2014.[5][8] The Jakarta metropolitan area, which has an area of 6,392 square kilometres, is the world's second most populous urban area after Tokyo, with a population of about 30 million as of 2010.[9] Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, have attracted migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, making it a melting pot of numerous cultures.[10] Jakarta is nicknamed the "Big Durian", the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region,[1] as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York (Big Apple).[11]

Established in the fourth century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies when it was known as Batavia. Jakarta is officially a province with special capital region status, though it is commonly referred to as a city. Its provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency. Jakarta is an alpha world city[12] and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat,[13] making it an important city for international diplomacy.[14] Financial institutions such as the Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, and corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok and Beijing.[15] In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion.[16][17]

Jakarta's prime challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlocked traffic, congestion, and flooding.[18] Additionally, Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm (6.7 inches) per year, which, coupled with the rising of sea levels, has made the city more prone to flooding. It is also one of the fastest-sinking capitals in the world.[19] In August 2019, President Joko Widodo announced a move of the capital to the province of East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo.[20]


Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum

Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements.

  • Sunda Kelapa (397–1527)
  • Jayakarta (1527–1619)
  • Batavia (1619–1942)
  • Djakarta (1942–1972)
  • Jakarta (1972–present)

Its current name 'Jakarta' derives from the word Jayakarta (Devanagari: जयकृत) which is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit जय jaya (victorious)[21] and कृत krta (accomplished, acquired),[22] thus Jayakarta translates as 'victorious deed', 'complete act' or 'complete victory'. It was named after troops of Fatahillah successfully defeated and drove the Portuguese away from the city in 1527.[23] Before it was called Jayakarta, the city was known as 'Sunda Kelapa'. Tomé Pires, a Portuguese apothecary during his journey to East Indies, wrote the city name on his magnum opus as Jacatra or Jacarta.[24]

In the 17th century, the city was also known as Koningin van het Oosten (Queen of the Orient), for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals, mansions and ordered city layout.[25] After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs (e.g. Menteng and the area around Merdeka Square), with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas.[26] During the Japanese occupation, the city was renamed as Jakaruta Tokubetsu Shi (Jakarta Special Municipality).[27]


Pre-colonial era

The 5th-century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta

The north coast area of western Java including Jakarta was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD.[28] The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th-century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia.[29] The area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement in the early 5th century. The Tugu inscription (probably written around 417 AD) discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, Koja, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects; the irrigation and water drainage project of the Chandrabhaga river and the Gomati river near his capital.[30] Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century that Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java (Sunda).[citation needed] The source says the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture, and their houses were built on wooden piles.[31] The harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa, (Sundanese: ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮊᮨᮜᮕ) and by the 14th century, it was an important trading port for the Sunda kingdom.

The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 while looking for a route for spices.[32] The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java.[33] In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta[33] and became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asian trading centre.

Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the British East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of British trade in the Indonesian archipelago until 1682.[34] Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the British merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.[35]

Colonial era

Dutch Batavia built in what is now Jakarta, by Andries Beeckman c. 1656

When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, his soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. His army and the British, however, were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen. The Dutch burned the British fort and forced them to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power, and they renamed the city Batavia in 1619.

Commercial opportunities in the city attracted native and especially Chinese and Arab immigrants. This sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. Following a revolt, 5,000 Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October 1740, and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls.[36] At the beginning of the 19th century, around 400 Arabs and Moors lived in Batavia, a number that changed little during the following decades. Among the commodities traded are fabrics, mainly imported cotton, batik and clothing worn by Arab communities.[37]

The city began to expand further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 forced residents to move away from the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913,[38] and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area.[36] By 1930, Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants,[39] including 37,067 Europeans.[40]

On 5 March 1942, the Japanese wrested Batavia from Dutch control, and the city was named Jakarta (Jakarta Special City (ジャカルタ特別市, Jakaruta tokubetsu-shi), in accordance with the special status that was assigned to the city). After the war, the Dutch name Batavia was internationally recognised until full Indonesian independence on 27 December 1949. The city, now renamed Jakarta, was officially proclaimed the national capital of Indonesia.

Independence era

Monas, which stands in the centre of Merdeka square, commemorates the Indonesian struggle for independence.

Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from Allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. Indonesian nationalists declared independence on 17 August 1945,[41] and the government of Jakarta City was changed into the Jakarta National Administration in the following month.

In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta again became the national capital.[36] Sukarno, envisaging Jakarta as a great international city, instigated large government-funded projects with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture.[42][43] Projects included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, Hotel Indonesia, a shopping centre, and a new parliament building. In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which six top generals were killed, precipitating a violent anti-communist purge which killed at least 500,000 people, including some ethnic Chinese.[44] The event marked the beginning of Suharto's New Order. A monument stands where the generals' bodies were dumped. The first government was led by a mayor until the end of 1960 when the office was changed to that of a governor. The last mayor of Jakarta was Soediro until he was replaced by Soemarno Sosroatmodjo as governor. Based on UU No. 5/1974 relating to regional governments, Jakarta was confirmed as the capital of Indonesia and one of the country's then 26 provinces.[45]

The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.

In 1966, Jakarta was declared a 'special capital region' (Daerah Khusus Ibukota), with a status equivalent to that of a province.[46] Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as governor from 1966 to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built hospitals and a large number of schools. He cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects — some for the benefit of the Suharto family[47][48]— and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city to stem overcrowding and poverty.[49] Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom that transformed the face of Jakarta.[50]

The boom ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis, putting Jakarta at the centre of violence, protest and political manoeuvring. After three decades in power, support for President Suharto began to wane. Tensions peaked when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces. Four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings, forcing Suharto to resign.[51] Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians.[52] In the post-Suharto era, Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia.[53] Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings occurred almost annually in the city between 2000 and 2005,[36] with another in 2009.[54] In August 2007, Jakarta held its first-ever election to choose a governor as part of a nationwide decentralisation program that allows direct local elections in several areas.[55] Previously, governors were elected by the members of Jakarta Council (DPRD).

Government and politics

Jakarta is administratively equal to a province with special status. The executive branch is headed by an elected governor and a deputy governor, while the Jakarta Regional People's Representative Council (Indonesian: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Provinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta, abbreviated DPRD DKI (Jakarta)) is the legislative branch with 106 directly elected members. Jakarta City Hall at the south of Merdeka Square houses the office of the governor and the vice governor, and the main administrative office.

Executive governance consists of five administrative cities/Kota Administratif, each headed by a mayor—and one administrative regency/Kabupaten Administratif headed by a regent/Bupati. Unlike other cities and regencies in Indonesia where the mayor or regent are directly elected, Jakarta's mayors and regent are chosen by the governor of Jakarta. Each city and regency is divided into administrative districts.

Aside from representatives to the Regional Representative Council, Jakarta sends 21 members to the People's Representative Council. The representatives are elected from Jakarta's three national electoral districts, which also includes overseas voters.[56] The Jakarta Smart City (JSC) program was launched on 14 December 2014 with a goal for smart governance, smart people, smart mobility, smart economy, smart living and a smart environment in the city using the web and various smartphone-based apps.[57]

Polda Metro Jaya maintains the law, security and order of Jakarta. It is led by a Regional Chief of police Kapolda, who holds the rank of Inspector General of Police.

Municipal finances

The Jakarta provincial government relies on transfers from the central government for the bulk of its income. Local (non-central government) sources of revenue are incomes from various taxes such as vehicle ownership and vehicle transfer fees, among others.[58] The ability of the regional government to respond to Jakarta's many problems is constrained by limited finances.

The provincial government consistently runs a surplus of between 15–20% of planned spending, primarily because of delays in procurement and other inefficiencies.[59] Regular under-spending is a matter of public comment.[60] In 2013, the budget was around Rp 50 trillion ($US5.2 billion), equivalent to around $US380 per citizen. Spending priorities were on education, transport, flood control, environment and social spending (such as health and housing).[61] Jakarta's regional budget (APBD) was Rp 77.1 trillion ($US5.92 billion), Rp 83.2 trillion ($US6.2 billion), and Rp 89 trillion ($US6.35 billion) for the year of 2017, 2018 and 2019 respectively.[62][63][64]

Administrative divisions

Map of the municipalities (Kota administrasi) in Jakarta province. Each city is divided into districts (Kecamatan).

Jakarta consists of five Kota Administratif (Administrative cities/municipalities), each headed by a mayor, and one Kabupaten Administratif (Administrative regency). Each city and regency is divided into districts/Kecamatan. The administrative cities/municipalities of Jakarta are:

  • Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat) is Jakarta's smallest city and the administrative and political centre. It is divided into eight districts. It is characterised by large parks and Dutch colonial buildings. Landmarks include the National Monument (Monas), Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Cathedral and museums.[65]
  • West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat) has the city's highest concentration of small-scale industries. It has eight districts. The area includes Jakarta's Chinatown and Dutch colonial landmarks such as the Chinese Langgam building and Toko Merah. It contains part of Jakarta Old Town.[66]
  • South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan), originally planned as a satellite city, is now the location of upscale shopping centres and affluent residential areas. It has ten districts and functions as Jakarta's groundwater buffer,[67] but recently the green belt areas are threatened by new developments. Much of the central business district is concentrated in Setiabudi, South Jakarta, bordering the Tanah Abang/Sudirman area of Central Jakarta.
  • East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur) territory is characterised by several industrial sectors.[68] Also located in East Jakarta are Taman Mini Indonesia Indah and Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport. This city has ten districts.
  • North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) is bounded by the Java Sea. It is the location of Port of Tanjung Priok. Large- and medium-scale industries are concentrated there. It contains part of Jakarta Old Town and was the centre of VOC trade activity during the colonial era. Also located in North Jakarta is Ancol Dreamland (Taman Impian Jaya Ancol), the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia.[69] North Jakarta is divided into six districts.

The only administrative regency (kabupaten) of Jakarta is the Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu), formerly a district within North Jakarta. It is a collection of 105 small islands located on the Java Sea. It is of high conservation value because of its special ecosystems. Marine tourism, such as diving, water bicycling, and windsurfing, are the primary tourist activities in this territory. The main mode of transportation between the islands is speed boats or small ferries.[70]

Jakarta's cities/municipalities (Kota Administrasi/Kotamadya)
City/regency Area (km2) Total population (2010 Census) Total population (2014)[5] Population density
(per km2)
in 2010
Population density
(per km2)
in 2014
[71] 2015 estimates
South Jakarta 141.27 2,057,080 2,164,070 14,561 15,319 0.833 (Very High)
East Jakarta 188.03 2,687,027 2,817,994 14,290 14,987 0.807 (Very High)
Central Jakarta 48.13 898,883 910,381 18,676 18,915 0.796 (High)
West Jakarta 129.54 2,278,825 2,430,410 17,592 18,762 0.797 (High)
North Jakarta 146.66 1,645,312 1,729,444 11,219 11,792 0.796 (High)
Thousand Islands 8.7 21,071 23,011 2,422 2,645 0.688 (Medium)


Jakarta covers 699.5 square kilometres (270.1 sq mi), the smallest among Indonesian provinces. However Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometres, which extends into two of the bordering provinces of West Java and Banten.[72] The Greater Jakarta area includes three bordering regencies (Bekasi Regency, Tangerang Regency and Bogor Regency) and five adjacent cities (Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and South Tangerang).


Jakarta is situated on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, an inlet of the Java Sea. The northern part of Jakarta is plain land, some areas of which are below sea level[73] and subject to frequent flooding. The southern parts of the city are hilly. It is one of only two Asian capital cities located in the southern hemisphere (along with East Timor's Dili). Officially, the area of the Jakarta Special District is 662 km2 (256 sq mi) of land area and 6,977 km2 (2,694 sq mi) of sea area.[74] The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay, north of the city.

Aerial view of North Jakarta

Jakarta lies in a low and flat alluvial plain, ranging from −2 to 50 metres (−7 to 164 ft) with an average elevation of 8 metres (26 ft) above sea level with historically extensive swampy areas. Thirteen rivers flow through Jakarta. They are Ciliwung River, Kalibaru, Pesanggrahan, Cipinang, Angke River, Maja, Mookervart, Krukut, Buaran, West Tarum, Cakung, Petukangan, Sunter River and Grogol River.[75][76] They flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, then across the city northwards towards the Java Sea. The Ciliwung River divides the city into the western and eastern districts.

Banjir Kanal Barat (west flood-control canal)

These rivers, combined with the wet season rains and insufficient drainage due to clogging, make Jakarta prone to flooding. Moreover, Jakarta is sinking about 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 inches) each year, and up to 20 centimetres (7.9 inches) in the northern coastal areas. After a feasibility study, a ring dyke is under construction around Jakarta Bay to help cope with the threat from the sea. The dyke will be equipped with a pumping system and retention areas to defend against seawater and function as a toll road. The project, known as Giant Sea Wall Jakarta, is expected to be completed by 2025.[77] In January 2014, the central government agreed to build two dams in Ciawi, Bogor and a 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile) tunnel from Ciliwung River to Cisadane River to ease flooding in the city.[78] Nowadays, a 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile), with capacity 60 cubic metres (2,100 cubic feet) per second, underground water tunnel between Ciliwung River and the East Flood Canal is being worked on to ease the Ciliwung River overflows.[79]


Jakarta has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system. The wet season in Jakarta covers the majority of the year, running from October through May. The remaining four months (June through September) constitute the city's drier season (each of these four months has an average monthly rainfall of fewer than 100 millimetres (3.9 in)). Located in the western part of Java, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peaks in January and February with average monthly rainfall of 299.7 millimetres (11.80 in), and its dry season's low point is in August with a monthly average of 43.2 mm (1.70 in).

Climate data for Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, Jakarta, Indonesia (temperature: 1924–1994, precipitation: 1931–1994)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.3
Average high °C (°F) 28.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
Average low °C (°F) 23.3
Record low °C (°F) 20.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 299.7
Average relative humidity (%) 85 85 83 82 82 81 78 76 75 77 81 82 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 189 182 239 255 260 255 282 295 288 279 231 220 2,975
Source #1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[80]
Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute (humidity and sun only)[81]
Climate data for Jakarta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 28.0
Mean daily daylight hours 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0
Average Ultraviolet index 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11 10 10 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 11+ 10.8
Source: Weather Atlas [82]


Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1950 1,452,000 —    
1960 2,678,740 +84.5%
1970 3,915,406 +46.2%
1980 5,984,256 +52.8%
1990 8,174,756 +36.6%
2000 8,389,759 +2.6%
2010 9,625,579 +14.7%
2019 10,638,689 +10.5%

Jakarta attracts people from across Indonesia, often in search of employment. The 1961 census showed that 51% of the city's population was born in Jakarta.[84] Inward immigration tended to negate the effect of family planning programs.[45]

Between 1961 and 1980, the population of Jakarta doubled, and during the period 1980–1990, the city's population grew annually by 3.7%.[85] The 2010 census counted some 9.58 million people, well above government estimates.[86] The population rose from 4.5 million in 1970 to 9.5 million in 2010, counting only legal residents, while the population of Greater Jakarta rose from 8.2 million in 1970 to 28.5 million in 2010. As per 2014, the population of Jakarta stood at ten million,[87] with a population density of 15,174 people/km2.[88][89] As per 2014, the population of Greater Jakarta was 30 million, accounting for 11% of Indonesia's overall population.[90] It is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity.[91] The gender ratio was 102.8 (males per 100 females) in 2010[92] and 101.3 in 2014.[93]


Ethnicities of Jakarta – 2010 Census[94]
Ethnic group Percentage

Jakarta is a pluralistic and religiously diverse city. As of the 2010 Census, 36.17% of the city's population were Javanese, 28.29% Betawi, 14.61% Sundanese, 6.62% Chinese, 3.42% Batak, 2.85% Minangkabau, 0.96% Malays, Indo and others 7.08%.

The 'Betawi' (Orang Betawi, or 'people of Batavia') are the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia and became recognised as an ethnic group around the 18th–19th century. They mostly descend from Southeast Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs.[95][96] Betawi people are a creole ethnic group who came from various parts of Indonesia and intermarried with Chinese, Arabs and Europeans.[97] Betawi form a minority in the city; most lived in the fringe areas of Jakarta with hardly any Betawi-dominated regions of central Jakarta.[98]

The Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New Year in Glodok, Jakarta

A significant Chinese community has lived in Jakarta for many centuries. They traditionally reside around old urban areas, such as Pinangsia, Pluit and Glodok (Jakarta Chinatown) areas. They also can be found in the old Chinatowns of Senen and Jatinegara. Officially, they make up 5.53% of the Jakarta population, although this number may be under-reported.[99]

The Sumatran residents are diverse. According to the 2010 Census, roughly 346,000 Batak, 305,000 Minangkabau and 155,000 Malays lived there. The Batak and Minangkabau are spread throughout the city. The Batak ethnic group has increased in ranking, from eighth in 1930 to fifth in 2000. Toba Batak is the largest sub-ethnic Batak group in Jakarta.[100] Minangkabau people generally work as merchants, peddlers, and artisans, with more in white-collar professions, such as doctors, teachers and journalists.[101][102]


Indonesian is the official and dominant language of Jakarta, while many elderly people speak Dutch or Chinese, depending on their upbringing. Also English is widely used for communication, especially for those living in Central and South Jakarta.[103] Each of the ethnic groups uses their mother language at home, such as Betawi, Javanese, and Sundanese. The Betawi language is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. It is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Dutch, Portuguese, Sundanese, Javanese, Minangkabau, Chinese, and Arabic.


Religion in Jakarta (2017)[104]
Religion Percentage
Roman Catholic

In 2017, Jakarta's religious composition was distributed over Islam (83.43%), Protestantism (8.63%), Catholicism (4.0%), Buddhism (3.74%), Hinduism (0.19%), and Confucianism (0.01%). About 231 people claimed to follow folk religions.[104]

Most pesantren (Islamic boarding schools) in Jakarta are affiliated with the traditionalist Nahdlatul Ulama,[105] modernist organisations mostly catering to a socioeconomic class of educated urban elites and merchant traders. They give priority to education, social welfare programs and religious propagation.[106] Many Islamic organisations have headquarters in Jakarta, including Nahdlatul Ulama, Indonesian Ulema Council, Muhammadiyah, Jaringan Islam Liberal, and Front Pembela Islam.

The Roman Catholic community has a Metropolis, the Archdiocese of Jakarta that includes West Java as part of the ecclesiastical province. There is also a Bahá'í community.[107]


As the capital of Indonesia, Jakarta is the melting point of cultures of all ethnic groups of the country. Though Betawi people are considered as an indigenous community of Jakarta, the culture of the city represents many languages and ethnic groups, support differences in regard to religion, traditions and linguistics, rather than any single and dominant culture.

Arts and festivals

The Betawi culture is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming a language island in the surrounding area. Betawi arts have a low profile in Jakarta, and most Betawi people have moved to the suburbs, displaced by new migrants. It is easier to find Java or Minang-based wedding ceremonies rather than Betawi weddings in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan instead of Tanjidor (a mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music), Marawis (a mixture between Betawi and Yemeni music) or Gambang Kromong (a mixture between Betawi and Chinese music). The Chinese influenced Betawi culture, reflected in the popularity of Chinese cakes and sweets, firecrackers and Betawi wedding attire that demonstrates Chinese and Arab influences.

Some festivals such as the Jalan Jaksa Festival, Kemang Festival, Festival Condet and Lebaran Betawi include efforts to preserve Betawi arts by inviting artists to display performances.[108][109][110] Jakarta has several performing art centres, such as the classical concert hall Aula Simfonia Jakarta in Kemayoran, Taman Ismail Marzuki (TIM) art centre in Cikini, Gedung Kesenian Jakarta near Pasar Baru, Balai Sarbini in the Plaza Semanggi area, Bentara Budaya Jakarta in the Palmerah area, Pasar Seni (Art Market) in Ancol, and traditional Indonesian art performances at the pavilions of some provinces in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including Wayang and Gamelan performances. Javanese Wayang Orang performances can be found at Wayang Orang Bharata theatre.

Arts and culture festivals and exhibitions include the annual Jakarta International Film Festival (JiFFest), Djakarta Warehouse Project, Jakarta Fashion Week, Jakarta Fashion & Food Festival (JFFF), Jakarnaval, Jakarta Night Festival, Kota Tua Creative Festival, Indonesia International Book Fair (IIBF), Indonesia Creative Products and Jakarta Arts and Crafts exhibition. Art Jakarta is a contemporary art fair, which is held annually. Flona Jakarta is a flora-and-fauna exhibition, held annually in August at Lapangan Banteng Park, featuring flowers, plant nurseries, and pets. Jakarta Fair is held annually from mid-June to mid-July to celebrate the anniversary of the city and is mostly centred around a trade fair. However, this month-long fair also features entertainment, including arts and music performances by local musicians. Jakarta International Java Jazz Festival (JJF) is one of the largest jazz festivals in the world and arguably the biggest in the Southern hemisphere, and is held annually in March.

Several foreign art and culture centres are established in Jakarta and mainly serve to promote culture and language through learning centres, libraries and art galleries. These include the Chinese Confucius Institute, the Dutch Erasmus Huis, the British Council, the French Alliance Française, the German Goethe-Institut, the Japan Foundation, and the Jawaharlal Nehru Indian Cultural Center.


Gado-gado is a popular Indonesian salad dish.

All varieties of Indonesian cuisine have a presence in Jakarta. The local cuisine is Betawi cuisine, which reflects various foreign culinary traditions. Betawi cuisine is heavily influenced by Malay-Chinese Peranakan cuisine, Sundanese and Javanese cuisine, which is also influenced by Indian, Arabic and European cuisines. One of the most popular local dishes of Betawi cuisine is Soto Betawi which is prepared from chunks of beef and offal in rich and spicy cow's milk or coconut milk broth. Other popular Betawi dishes include soto kaki, nasi uduk, kerak telor (spicy omelette), nasi ulam, asinan, ketoprak, rujak and gado-gado Betawi (salad in peanut sauce).

Jakarta cuisine can be found in modest street-side warung food stalls and kaki lima (five legs) travelling vendors to high-end fine dining restaurants.[111] Live music venues and exclusive restaurants are abundant.[112] Many traditional foods from far-flung regions in Indonesia can be found in Jakarta. For example, traditional Padang restaurants and low-budget Warteg (Warung Tegal) food-stalls are ubiquitous in the capital. Other popular street foods include nasi goreng (fried rice), sate (skewered meats), pecel lele (fried catfish), bakso (meatballs), bakpau (Chinese bun) and siomay (fish dumplings).

Jalan Sabang,[113][114] Jalan Sidoarjo, Jalan Kendal at Menteng area, Kota Tua, Blok S, Blok M,[115] Jalan Tebet[116] are all popular destinations for street-food lovers. Trendy restaurants, cafe and bars can be found at Menteng, Kemang,[117] Jalan Senopati,[118] Kuningan, Senayan, Pantai Indah Kapuk,[119] and Kelapa Gading. Chinese street-food is plentiful at Jalan Pangeran, Manga Besar and Petak Sembilan in the old Jakarta area, while the Little Tokyo area of Blok M has many Japanese style restaurants and bars.[120] Lenggang Jakarta is a food court, accommodating small traders and street vendors,[121] where Indonesian foods are available within a single compound. At present, there are two such food courts, located at Monas and Kemayoran.[122]

Global fast-food chains like McDonald's, KFC, Burger King, Carl's Jr., Wendy's, A&W, Fatburger, Johnny Rockets, Starbucks, Dunkin' Donuts are present, along with local brands like J'CO, Es Teler 77, Kebab Turki, CFC, and Japanese HokBen.[123] Foreign cuisines such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Indian, American, French, Mediterranean cuisine's like Turkish, Italian, Middle-Eastern cuisine, and modern fusion food restaurants can all be found in Jakarta.


Jakarta hosts 142 museums,[124] clustered around the Central Jakarta's Merdeka Square area, Jakarta Old Town and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. The Old Town contains museums in former institutional buildings of colonial Batavia, including Jakarta History Museum (former City Hall of Batavia), Wayang Museum (Puppet Museum) (former Church of Batavia), the Fine Art and Ceramic Museum (former Court House of Justice of Batavia), the Maritime Museum (former Sunda Kelapa warehouse), Bank Indonesia Museum (former Javasche Bank) and Bank Mandiri Museum (former Nederlandsche Handels Maatschappij).

Museums clustered in central Jakarta around the Merdeka Square area include National Museum of Indonesia which also known as Gedung Gajah (the Elephant Building), National Gallery of Indonesia, National History Museum at National Monument, Istiqlal Islamic Museum in Istiqlal Mosque and Jakarta Cathedral Museum on the second floor of Jakarta Cathedral. Also in central is the Taman Prasasti Museum (former cemetery of Batavia), and Textile Museum in Tanah Abang area. Museum MACAN is an art museum of modern and contemporary Indonesian and international art located at West Jakarta.[125]

The recreational area of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in East Jakarta contains fourteen museums, such as Indonesia Museum, Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum, Asmat Museum, Bayt al-Qur'an Islamic Museum, Pusaka (heirloom) Museum, and other science-based museum such as Research & Technology Information Center, Komodo Indonesian Fauna Museum, Insect Museum, Petrol and Gas Museum, plus the Transportation Museum. Other museums include Satria Mandala Military Museum, Museum Sumpah Pemuda, and Lubang Buaya (Crocodile Well).


Jakarta has numerous newspapers, television and radio stations. Daily newspapers include Kompas, Koran Tempo, Media Indonesia, and Republika. English-language newspapers are also published daily, for example, The Jakarta Post and The Jakarta Globe. Chinese language newspapers also circulate, such as Indonesia Shang Bao (印尼商报), Harian Indonesia (印尼星洲日报), and Guo Ji Ri Bao (国际日报). The only Japanese language newspaper is The Daily Jakarta Shimbun (じゃかるた新聞). Jakarta also has the daily newspapers segment such as Pos Kota, Warta Kota, Koran Jakarta, Berita Kota for local readers; Bisnis Indonesia, Investor Daily, Kontan, Harian Neraca (business news) as well as Top Skor and Soccer (sports news).

Jakarta is the headquarters for Indonesia's state media, TVRI as well as private national television networks, such as Metro TV, tvOne, Kompas TV, Trans TV, Trans 7, RCTI, MNC, SCTV, GTV, Indosiar, ANTV, RTV and NET. Jakarta has local television channels such as Jak TV, O Channel, Elshinta TV, and DAAI TV Indonesia. The city is home to the country's leading pay television service. Cable channels available includes First Media and TelkomVision. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance in Jakarta. Prominent DTH entertainment services are Indovision, Okevision, Yes TV, Transvision, and Aora TV. Many TV stations are analogue PAL, but some are now converting to digital signals using DVB-T2 following a government plan to digital television migration.[126]

A Metro TV news van parked in Merdeka Square, Jakarta
The TVRI Tower in Senayan, South Jakarta
Channel Name Type Language Country of region
22 UHF INTV Local Indonesian  Indonesia
23 UHF RTV National
25 UHF Kompas TV
26 UHF CTV Banten Local
27 UHF NET. National
28 UHF KTV Local
29 UHF Trans TV National
30 UHF iNews TV
31 UHF TVRI Jakarta & Banten Local
33 UHF O Channel
35 UHF Elshinta TV
37 UHF MNCTV National
39 UHF TVRI Nasional
41 UHF Indosiar
47 UHF antv
49 UHF Trans7
53 UHF tvOne
55 UHF JakTV Local
57 UHF Metro TV National
59 UHF DAAI TV Local
60 UHF Jawa Pos TV

75 radio stations broadcast in Jakarta, 52 on the FM band, and 23 on the AM band.


Indonesia is the largest economy of ASEAN, and Jakarta is the economic nerve centre of the Indonesian archipelago. Jakarta's nominal GDP was US$483.8 billion in 2016, which is about 17.5% of Indonesia's.[127] According to Japan Center for Economic Research, GRP per capita of Jakarta will rank 28th among the 77 cities in 2030 from 41st in 2015, the largest in Southeast Asia.[128] Savills Resilient Cities Index has predicted Jakarta to be within the top 20 cities in the world by 2028.[129][130]

Jakarta's economy depends highly on manufacturing and service sectors such as banking, trading and financial. Industries include electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences. The head office of Bank Indonesia and Indonesia Stock Exchange are located in the city. Most of the SOE include Pertamina, PLN, PGN, Angkasa Pura, BULOG, Telkomsel, and Waskita operate head offices in the city, as do major Indonesian conglomerates, such as Salim Group, Sinar Mas Group, Astra International, Lippo Group, Gudang Garam, Kompas-Gramedia, and MNC Group. Headquarter of Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Indonesian Employers Association are also located in the city. As of 2017, the city is home to six Forbes Global 2000, two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies.[131][132][133]

Jakarta skyline at night: Business District area at Jalan Rasuna Said, South Jakarta, as seen from Kuningan District, South Jakarta

As of 2018, Jakarta contributes about 17% of Indonesia's GRDP (Gross Regional Domestic Product).[134] In 2017, the economic growth was 6.22%.[135] Throughout the same year, the total value of investment was Rp 108.6 trillion (US$8 billion), an increase of 84.7% from the previous year.[136] In 2015, GDP per capita was estimated at Rp 194.87 million (US$14,570).[137] The most significant contributions to GRDP were by finance, ownership and business services (29%); trade, hotel and restaurant sector (20%), and manufacturing industry sector (16%).[45] In 2007, the increase in per capita GRDP of Jakarta inhabitants was 11.6% compared to the previous year[45] Both GRDP by at current market price and GRDP by at 2000 constant price in 2007 for the Municipality of Central Jakarta, which was Rp 146 million and Rp 81 million, was higher than other municipalities in Jakarta.[45]

The Wealth Report 2015 by Knight Frank reported that 24 individuals in Indonesia in 2014 had wealth at least US$1 billion and 18 live in Jakarta.[138] The cost of living continues to rise. Both land price and rents have become expensive. Mercer's 2017 Cost of Living Survey ranked Jakarta as 88th costliest city in the world for expatriates.[139] Industrial development and the construction of new housing thrive on the outskirts, while commerce and banking remain concentrated in the city centre.[140] Jakarta has a bustling luxury property market. Knight Frank, a global real estate consultancy based in London, reported in 2014 that Jakarta offered the highest return on high-end property investment in the world in 2013, citing a supply shortage and a sharply depreciated currency as reasons.[141]


Grand Indonesia Shopping Town in Central Jakarta

Jakarta has numerous shopping malls and markets. With a total of 550 hectares, the city has the world's largest shopping mall floor area within a single city.[142][143] The annual Jakarta Great Sale Festival is held every year in June and July to celebrate Jakarta's anniversary, with about 83 participating shopping malls in 2018.[144] Malls include Plaza Indonesia, Grand Indonesia, Plaza Senayan, Senayan City and Pacific Place, Mall Taman Anggrek, and Pondok Indah Mall.[145]

Most of the world-renowned fashion retail brands have a presence in Jakarta. Department stores in Senayan City and Lippo Mall Kemang Village use the Debenhams brand under licence,[146] while the Japanese Sogo department store has about seven stores.[147] Seibu flagship store is located in Grand Indonesia Shopping Town, and French luxury department store, Galeries Lafayette opened its doors for the first time in Southeast Asia at the Pacific Place. The Satrio-Casablanca corridor, 3.5-kilometre street is a new shopping belt in Jakarta.[148] Many multistorey shopping centres are located there, such as Kuningan City, Mal Ambassador, Kota Kasablanka, and Lotte Shopping Avenue.

Traditional markets include Blok M, Tanah Abang, Senen, Pasar Baru, Glodok, Mangga Dua, Cempaka Mas, and Jatinegara. Special markets sell antique goods at Surabaya Street and gemstones in Rawabening Market.[149]


Sepa Island beach in Kepulauan Seribu

Jakarta has been named the most popular location as per tag stories[150] and ranked eighth most-posted among the cities in the world in 2017 on image-sharing site Instagram.[151] It is not a top international tourist destination, although it ranked as the fifth fastest-growing destination among 132 cities according to MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index published in September 2017. 59.1% of visitors came for business, while the other 40.9% were visiting for leisure.[152] According to Euromonitor International's latest Top 100 City Destinations Ranking, Jakarta ranked at 83 with more than 3.5 million international tourists visited in a year, 48.5% higher in comparison to the previous year.[153] In 2017, World Travel and Tourism Council listed Jakarta as among the top ten fastest-growing tourism cities in the world[154] and categorised it as an emerging performer, which will see a significant increase in tourist arrivals in less than ten years.[155]

Most of the visitors attracted to Jakarta are domestic tourists. As the gateway of Indonesia, Jakarta often serves as a stop-over for foreign visitors on their way to other Indonesian tourist destinations such as Bali, Lombok, Komodo Island and Yogyakarta. Jakarta is trying to attract more international tourist by MICE tourism, by arranging increasing numbers of conventions.[156][157] In 2012, the tourism sector contributed Rp. 2.6 trillion (US$268.5 million) to the city's total direct income of Rp. 17.83 trillion (US$1.45 billion), a 17.9% increase from the previous year 2011.

Jakarta Old City Post Office at Fatahillah Square, Central Jakarta

The popular heritage tourism attractions are in Kota[158] and around Merdeka square. Kota is the centre of old Jakarta, with its Maritime Museum, Kota Intan Bridge, Gereja Sion, Wayang Museum, Stadhuis Batavia, Fine Art and Ceramic Museum, Toko Merah, Bank Indonesia Museum, Bank Mandiri Museum, Jakarta Kota Station, and Glodok (Chinatown).[159] Kota Tua was named the most-visited destination in Indonesia in 2017 by Instagram.[160] In the old ports of Sunda Kelapa, the tall-masted pinisi ships are still anchored.

Other tourist attractions include the Thousand Islands, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Setu Babakan, Ragunan Zoo, Sunda Kelapa old port and the Ancol Dreamland complex on Jakarta Bay, which houses Dunia Fantasi (Fantasy World) theme park, Sea World, Atlantis Water Adventure, and Gelanggang Samudra. Thousand Islands, which is north to the coast of the city and in the Java Sea is also a popular tourist destination.

Most international hotel chains have a presence in the city. Jalan Jaksa and surrounding areas are popular among backpackers for cheaper accommodation, travel agencies, second-hand bookstores, money changers, laundries and pubs.[161] PIK is a relatively new suburb for hangout,[162] while Kemang is a popular suburb for expats.


Water supply

A private hospital in Jakarta

Two private companies, PALYJA and Aetra, provide piped water in the western and eastern half of Jakarta respectively under 25-year concession contracts signed in 1998. A public asset holding company called PAM Jaya owns the infrastructure. 80% of the water distributed in Jakarta comes through the West Tarum Canal system from Jatiluhur reservoir on the Citarum River, 70 km (43 mi) southeast of the city. The water supply was privatised by President Suharto in 1998 to the French company Suez Environnement and the British company Thames Water International. Both companies subsequently sold their concessions to Indonesian companies. Customer growth in the first seven years of the concessions had been lower than before, possibly because of substantial inflation-adjusted tariff increases during this period. In 2005, tariffs were frozen, leading the private water companies to cut down on investments.

According to PALYJA in its western half of the concession, the service coverage ratio increased substantially from 34% in 1998 to 59% in 2007 and 65% in 2010.[163] According to data by the Jakarta Water Supply Regulatory Body, access in the eastern half of the city served by PTJ increased from about 57% in 1998 to about 67% in 2004 but stagnated afterwards.[164] However, other sources cite much lower access figures for piped water supply to houses, excluding access provided through public hydrants: one study estimated access as low as 25% in 2005,[165] while another source estimates it to be as low as 18.5% in 2011.[166] Those without access to piped water get water mostly from wells that are often salty and unsanitary. As of 2017, according to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Jakarta had a crisis over clean water.[167]


Jakarta has many of the country's best-equipped private and public facilities in healthcare. In January 2014, the Indonesian government launched a universal health care called the Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN). It is the world's most extensive insurance system today that covers around 250 million people.[168] It is expected that the entire population will be covered in 2019.[169][170][171]

Hospitals are of a good standard; however, they are often overcrowded. Government-run specialised hospitals include Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital as well as community hospitals Puskesmas. Private hospitals and clinics are the other options for healthcare services. The private healthcare sector has seen significant changes, as the government began allowing foreign investment in the private sector in 2010. While some private facilities are run by nonprofit or religious organizations, most are for-profit. Hospital chains such as Siloam, Mayapada, Mitra Keluarga, Medika, Medistra, Ciputra, Hermina operate in the city.[172][173]


Despite a variety of transport systems,[174] Jakarta faces traffic congestion during rush hours.[175] The city prioritised development of road networks, which were designed to accommodate private vehicles.[176] According to the National Development Planning Agency, or Bappenas, traffic congestion in Greater Jakarta wastes about $7.4 billion each year due to congestion.[177] As of 2018, there are over 13 million motorcycles and 4.4 million cars run on the roads of Jakarta.[178] About 3.6 million commuters commute from the outskirts.[179] 58% of these commuters use motorcycles, 12.8% use cars and only 27% use public transportation.[180] The city's 9.5% average annual growth rate of motorised vehicles far exceeds the 0.01% increase in road length between 2005 and 2010.

As of 2010, public transportation in Jakarta serves only 56% of commuter trips.[181] The first public transport system in the city was Jakarta Tramline, which opened in 1869 and ceased operation in 1962.[182][183][184] At present, public transit consists of BRT TransJakarta, rail transit KRL Commuterline, Jakarta MRT, Jakarta LRT and Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link. Another transit system under construction is the Greater Jakarta LRT, which is expected to be operational by 2021.[185] There are several transit oriented development now under construction like Dukuh Atas TOD to facilitate commuters to transfer between different mode of public transportation. The city administration is also implementing a one-fare integrated payment public transportation system by for all public transportation using Jak Lingko card.[186]


Part of Jakarta Inner Ring Road or Jalan Tol Lingkar Dalam Jakarta in Grogol Petamburan, West Jakarta

A structured road network was developed in the early 19th century as a part of the Java Great Post Road by former Governor-General Daendels. It connects most cities throughout Java. During the following decades, the expanding road network could not keep up with the increasing numbers of motorised vehicles. A toll road network composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards provides inner as well as outer city connections. Jakarta Outer Ring Road 2 is a toll road encircling greater Jakarta area, parallel with Jakarta Outer Ring Road. Jakarta Elevated Toll Road with a dedicated public transportation lane, connecting Jakarta Inner Ring Toll Road which is 69.77 kilometres in length is under construction.[187]

Many attempts have been made to reduce traffic congestion, including a 'three-in-one' rush-hour law, during which cars with fewer than three passengers were prohibited, a ban on trucks passing main avenues during the day,[188] and an 'odd-even' policy that permitted cars with either odd or even-numbered registration plates to drive on alternate days.[189] Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) is expected to be operational by 2019 along with the opening of the Jakarta MRT.[190][191]

A TransJakarta bus at a station on Thamrin Avenue during Car-Free Day

Many bus routes connect neighbourhoods within the city limit to other areas of Greater Jakarta area and to cities across the island. The biggest bus terminal in the city, and arguably in Southeast Asia as well, is the Pulo Gebang Bus Terminal.[192]

In 1971, cycle rickshaws (becak) were banned from major roads. Shortly thereafter, the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers.[193] From the early 1940s to 1991, Bajaj auto-rickshaws were common, later allowed only in the back streets of some parts of the city. Bicycle-sharing company Gowes, which means "to paddle," in Indonesian, started operation in limited areas of Jakarta in 2018.[194]As of November 2019, Jakarta has 63 kilometres of separate bicycle lane, which will be extended to 200 kilometres by 2020.[195]

Jakarta doubledecker tourists bus passing in front of Sarinah Thamrin building, Central Jakarta

Although ojek (motorcycle taxis) are not an official form of public transport, they can be found throughout. Recently, most ojeks are operated by transportation network companies such as Go-Jek and Grab. Angkot micro-buses play a major role in connecting neighbourhoods of the city. There are plenty of taxicabs along with Go-Jek and Grab.

TransJakarta serves as the bus rapid transit service, including the world's longest bus rapid transit routes (210 kilometres (130 miles) in length). TransJakarta had a total of 128 routes as of April 2018 (corridor, cross route & feeder route) – a significant increase from 41 in 2015. TransJakarta targeted to serve one million passengers per day by the end of 2018.[196][197] Other private owned bus systems like Kopaja, MetroMini, Mayasari Bakti and etc.

Jakarta city government provides free double-decker City tour bus service that offers sightseeing. Tourists can catch the double-decker bus—free of charge, in several designated bus stops in front of the city's points of interest. Several routes cover tourist attractions such as Monas, Istiqlal Mosque, the Cathedral, National Museum, Sarinah, Hotel Indonesia crossing, Kota Tua and Kalijodo Park.[198][199] The service includes Kota Tua in the north, Kalijodo Park in the west and Gelora Bung Karno Stadium in Senayan area in the south, via Sudirman avenue.[200][201] TransJakarta operates free tour buses every Saturday from 5 PM to 11 PM to popular culinary destinations in Central Jakarta.[202] TransJakarta has special bus service to move shoppers from one mall to another, including Grand Indonesia, Plaza Indonesia, Plaza Senayan, Senayan City and fX Sudirman.[203]


Electric Tram in Djatinegara, Batavia (present Jakarta). The Batavia tramway served the city for almost a century until its closure in 1962. Picture circa 1947.[182]

Long-distance railways and local tram services were introduced during the colonial era. The first station was built in 1887 by a private railway company, which later became Jakarta Kota station.[204] The trams were replaced with buses in the post-colonial era, while long-distance railways continued to connect the city to its neighbouring regions as well as cities throughout Java. The main terminals for long-distance train services are Gambir and Pasar Senen. High-speed railways are under construction connecting Jakarta to Bandung,[205] while a line between Jakarta and Surabaya is in planning.[206]

Various rail-based transports in Jakarta, from top left to right: Commuter rail, Mass Rapid Transit, Light Rail Transit, and Airport Railink

KRL Commuterline is a commuter rail system that reaches Rangkasbitung in Banten and Cikarang in Bekasi Regency. The rail system uses rolling stock of rapid transit standard and operates at high frequency with a minimum headway. Daily ridership average was about 1 million,[207] totalling 336.7 million passengers in 2018.[208]

Jakarta MRT is constructing a north–south line metro between Kota and Lebak Bulus, and an east–west line that will connect to the north–south line at Sawah Besar station. The first, 15.2 km-long line between Hotel Indonesia and Lebak Bulus is opened at March 2019 with 13 stations (seven elevated and six underground). When complete, the network will stretch approximately 110.8 kilometres (68.8 miles).[209][210] The MRT operates 285 trips daily from 5 AM until midnight, with 5 minutes headway.[211]

Greater Jakarta LRT was aimed to tackle Jakarta's high road traffic congestion. The northern section of the LRT project partly replaces the Jakarta Monorail project that has been cancelled.[212] The system is planned to connect Jakarta city centre with suburbs such as Bekasi, Bogor and Depok.[213] The first phase will connect east Bekasi and Cibubur with Dukuh, passing through Cawang intersection. This phase will be 42.1 kilometres (26.2 miles) long, with 18 stations.[214] Another Jakarta LRT line connecting Kelapa Gading district and Jakarta International Velodrome opened for public trial in June 2019 and is not yet fully operational.[215]

Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link is a commuter train service connecting the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport to the city centre. Another express train service is now in planning to connect Soekarno-Hatta International Airport with Halim Perdanakusuma Airport. Completion of this line is expected to be in 2019.[216]


Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (CGK) is the main airport, located in Tangerang, Banten. The airport was ranked 18th busiest by Airports Council International, with about 63 million passengers in 2017.[217] The Soekarno–Hatta Airport Rail Link connects the airport to Sudirman Baru railway station, Central Jakarta.[218] A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma Airport (HLP) serves domestic low-cost airlines, private and VIP flights. Other airports include Pondok Cabe Airport and an airfield on Pulau Panjang, part of the Thousand Island archipelago (Kepulauan Seribu).

Water transport

Jakarta's main seaport Tanjung Priok offers ferry connections. Tanjung Priok is Indonesia's busiest port, and the 21st busiest port in the world in 2013, handling over 6.59 million TEUs.[219] To boost port capacity, the two-phase 'New Tanjung Priok' extension project was undertaken. When fully operational in 2023, it will triple the existing capacity. Muara Angke port is used as a public port, while Ancol marina port is used as a tourist port to connect to the Thousand Islands.[220]

On 6 June 2007, the city administration introduced the Waterway (officially Angkutan Sungai), a riverboat service along the Ciliwung River.[175][221] However, because of varying water levels during the dry and wet seasons plastic garbage that came from upstream during heavy rain, this service was discontinued.



Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia in Kota Tua

Jakarta has architecturally significant buildings spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect Malay, Javanese, Arabic, Chinese and Dutch influences.[222] External influences inform the architecture of the Betawi house. The houses were built of nangka wood (Artocarpus integrifolia) and comprise three rooms. The shape of the roof is reminiscent of the traditional Javanese joglo.[37] Additionally, a number of registered cultural heritage buildings has increased.[223]

Colonial buildings and structures include those that were constructed during the colonial period. The dominant colonial styles can be divided into three periods: the Dutch Golden Age (17th to late 18th century), the transitional style period (late 18th century – 19th century), and Dutch modernism (20th century). Colonial architecture is apparent in houses and villas, churches, civic buildings and offices, mostly concentrated in the Jakarta Old Town and Central Jakarta. Architects such as J.C. Schultze and Eduard Cuypers designed some of the significant buildings. Schultze's works include Jakarta Art Building, the Indonesia Supreme Court Building and Ministry of Finance Building, while Cuypers designed Bank Indonesia Museum and Bank Mandiri Museum.

Wisma 46 in post-modernist architecture, currently the fourth tallest building in Jakarta

In the early 20th century, most buildings were built in Neo-Renaissance style. By the 1920s, the architectural taste had begun to shift in favour of rationalism and modernism, particularly art deco architecture. The elite suburb Menteng, developed during the 1910s, was the city's first attempt at creating an ideal and healthy housing for the middle class. The original houses had a longitudinal organisation, with overhanging eaves, large windows and open ventilation, all practical features for a tropical climate.[224] These houses were developed by N.V. de Bouwploeg, and established by P.A.J. Moojen.

After independence, the process of nation-building in Indonesia and demolishing the memory of colonialism was as important as the symbolic building of arterial roads, monuments, and government buildings. The National Monument in Jakarta, designed by Sukarno, is Indonesia's beacon of nationalism. In the early 1960s, Jakarta provided highways and super-scale cultural monuments as well as Senayan Sports Stadium. The parliament building features a hyperbolic roof reminiscent of German rationalist and Corbusian design concepts.[225] The office tower Wisma 46 soars to a height of 262 metres (860 feet) with 48 stories and its nib-shaped top celebrates technology and symbolises stereoscopy.

The urban construction booms continued in the 21st century. The Golden Triangle of Jakarta is one of the fastest evolving CBD's in the Asia-Pacific region.[226] According to CTBUH and Emporis, there are 88 skyscrapers that reach or exceed 150 metres (490 feet), which puts the city in the top 10 of world rankings.[227] It has more buildings taller than 150 metres than any other Southeast Asian or Southern Hemisphere cities.


Night view of Monas, the Jakarta landmark

Most landmarks, monuments and statues in Jakarta were begun in the 1960s during the Sukarno era, then completed in the Suharto era, while some date from the colonial period. Although many of the projects were completed after his presidency, Sukarno, who was an architect, is credited for planning Jakarta's monuments and landmarks, as he desired the city to be the beacon of a powerful new nation. Among the monumental projects were built, initiated, and planned during his administration are the National Monument, Istiqlal mosque, the Legislature Building, and the Gelora Bung Karno stadium. Sukarno also built many nationalistic monuments and statues in the capital city.[228]

The most famous landmark, which became the symbol of the city, is the 132-metre-tall (433-foot) obelisk of the National Monument (Monumen Nasional or Monas) in the centre of Merdeka Square. On its southwest corner stands a Mahabharata-themed Arjuna Wijaya chariot statue and fountain. Further south through Jalan M.H. Thamrin, one of the main avenues, the Selamat Datang monument stands on the fountain in the centre of the Hotel Indonesia roundabout. Other landmarks include the Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Cathedral and the Immanuel Church. The former Batavia Stadhuis, Sunda Kelapa port in Jakarta Old Town is another landmark. The Gama Tower building in South Jakarta is currently, at 310 metres, the tallest building in Indonesia.

Some of statues and monuments are nationalist, such as the West Irian Liberation Monument, the Tugu Tani, the Youth statue and the Dirgantara statue. Some statues commemorate Indonesian national heroes, such as the Diponegoro and Kartini statues in Merdeka Square. The Sudirman and Thamrin statues are located on the streets bearing their names. There is also a statue of Sukarno and Hatta at the Proclamation Monument at the entrance to Soekarno–Hatta International Airport.

Parks and lakes

Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah

In June 2011, Jakarta had only 10.5% green open spaces (Ruang Terbuka Hijau) although this grew to 13.94%. Public parks are included in public green open spaces.[229] There are about 300 integrated child-friendly public spaces (RPTRA) in the city in 2019.[230] As of 2014, 183 water reservoirs and lakes supported the greater Jakarta area.[231]

  • Merdeka Square (Medan Merdeka) is an almost 1 km2 field housing the symbol of Jakarta, Monas or Monumen Nasional (National Monument). Until 2000, it was the world's largest city square. The square was created by Dutch Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels (1810) and was originally named Koningsplein (King's Square). On 10 January 1993, President Soeharto started the beautification of the square. Features including a deer park and 33 trees that represent the 33 provinces of Indonesia.[232]
  • Lapangan Banteng (Buffalo Field) is located in Central Jakarta near Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Cathedral, and Jakarta Central Post Office. It covers about 4.5 hectares. Initially, it was called Waterlooplein and functioned as the ceremonial square during the colonial period. Colonial monuments and memorials erected on the square during the colonial period were demolished during the Sukarno era. The most notable monument in the square is the Monumen Pembebasan Irian Barat (Monument of the Liberation of West Irian). During the 1970s and 1980s, the park was used as a bus terminal. In 1993, the park was again turned into a public space. It became a recreation place for people and now serves as an exhibition place or for other events.[233] 'Jakarta Flona' (Flora dan Fauna), a flower and decoration plants and pet exhibition, is held in this park around August annually.
Ancol Gondola


Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium

Jakarta hosted the 1962 Asian Games[242] and the 2018 Asian Games, co-hosted by Palembang.[243] Jakarta also hosted the Southeast Asian Games in 1979, 1987, 1997 and 2011 (supporting Palembang). Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, the biggest in the city with a capacity of 77,193 seats,[244] hosted the group stage, quarterfinal and final of the 2007 AFC Asian Cup along with Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam.[245][246]

The Senayan sports complex has several sports venues, including the Bung Karno football stadium, Madya Stadium, Istora Senayan, aquatic arena, baseball field, basketball hall, a shooting range, several indoor and outdoor tennis courts. The Senayan complex was built in 1960 to accommodate the 1962 Asian Games. For basketball, the Kelapa Gading Sport Mall in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta, with a capacity of 7,000 seats, is the home arena of the Indonesian national basketball team. The BritAma Arena serves as a playground for Satria Muda Pertamina Jakarta, the 2017 runner-up of the Indonesian Basketball League. Jakarta International Velodrome is a sporting facility located at Rawamangun, which was used as a venue for the 2018 Asian Games. It has a seating capacity of 3,500 for track cycling, and up to 8,500 for shows and concerts,[247] which can also be used for various sports activities such as volleyball, badminton and futsal. Jakarta International Equestrian Park is an equestrian sports venue located at Pulomas, which was also used as a venue for 2018 Asian Games.[248]

Asian Para Games closing ceremony in Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, 2018

Jakarta Car-Free Days are held weekly on Sunday on the main avenues of the city, Jalan Sudirman, and Jalan Thamrin, from 6 AM to 11 AM. The briefer Car-Free Day, which lasts from 6 AM to 9 AM, is held on every other Sunday. The event invites local pedestrians to do sports and exercise and have their activities on the streets that are usually full of cars and traffic. Along the road from the Senayan traffic circle on Jalan Sudirman, South Jakarta, to the "Selamat Datang" Monument at the Hotel Indonesia traffic circle on Jalan Thamrin, north to the National Monument in Central Jakarta, cars are blocked from entering. During the event, morning gymnastics, callisthenics and aerobic exercises, futsal games, jogging, bicycling, skateboarding, badminton, karate, on-street library and musical performances take over the roads and the main parks.[249]

Jakarta's most popular home football club is Persija, which plays in Indonesia Super League and uses Bung Karno Stadium as a home venue. Another football team in Jakarta is Persitara who compete in 2nd Division Football League and play in Kamal Muara Stadium and Soemantri Brodjonegoro Stadium.

Jakarta Marathon is said to be the "biggest running event of Indonesia". It is recognised by AIMS and IAAF. It was established in 2013 to promote Jakarta sports tourism. In the 2015 edition, more than 15,000 runners from 53 countries participated.[250][251][252][253][254]


Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia

Jakarta is home to colleges and universities. The University of Indonesia (UI) is the largest and oldest tertiary-level educational institution in Indonesia. It is a public institution with campuses in Salemba (Central Jakarta) and in Depok.[255] The three other public universities in Jakarta are Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, the State University of Jakarta (UNJ)[256] and the University of Pembangunan Nasional 'Veteran' Jakarta (UPN "Veteran" Jakarta).[257] Some major private universities in Jakarta are Trisakti University, The Christian University of Indonesia, Mercu Buana University, Tarumanagara University, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Pelita Harapan University, Bina Nusantara University,[258] Jayabaya University,[259] and Pancasila University.[260]

STOVIA (School tot Opleiding van Indische Artsen) was the first high school in Jakarta, established in 1851.[261] Jakarta houses many students from around Indonesia, many of whom reside in dormitories or home-stay residences. For basic education, a variety of primary and secondary schools are available, tagged with the public (national), private (national and bi-lingual national plus) and international labels. Four of the major international schools are the Gandhi Memorial International School, IPEKA International Christian School[262] Jakarta Intercultural School and the British School Jakarta. Other international schools include the Jakarta International Korean School, Bina Bangsa School, Jakarta International Multicultural School,[263] Australian International School,[264] New Zealand International School,[265] Singapore International School and Sekolah Pelita Harapan.[266]

International relations

The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jalan Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia

Jakarta hosts foreign embassies. Jakarta serves as the seat of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat and is ASEAN's diplomatic capital.[267]

Jakarta is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21, C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and ASEAN Smart Cities Network.

Sister cities

Jakarta signed sister city agreements with other cities, including Casablanca. To promote friendship between two cities, the main avenue famous for its shopping and business centres was named after Jakarta's Moroccan sister city. No street in Casablanca is named after Jakarta. However, the Moroccan capital city of Rabat has an avenue named after Sukarno, Indonesia's first president, to commemorate his visit in 1960 and as a token of friendship.[268]

Jakarta has established a partnership with Rotterdam, especially on integrated urban water management, including capacity-building and knowledge exchange.[269] This cooperation is mainly because both cities are dealing with similar problems; they lie in low-lying flat plains and are prone to flooding. Additionally, for below sea-level areas, they have both implemented drainage systems involving canals, dams, and pumps vital for both cities.

  1. Japan Tokyo, Japan[270]
  2. China Beijing, China[271][272]
  3. China Shanghai, China[273]
  4. South Korea Seoul, South Korea[272][274][275][276]
  5. North Korea Pyongyang, North Korea[277]
  6. Philippines Manila, Philippines[278]
  7. Thailand Bangkok, Thailand[277]
  8. Vietnam Hanoi, Vietnam[277]
  9. Pakistan Islamabad, Pakistan[273][277]
  10. Iran Yazd, Iran[273]
  11. Saudi Arabia Jeddah, Saudi Arabia[273][277]
  12. Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India [279]
  1. Netherlands Rotterdam, Netherlands[269][277][280]
  2. Germany Berlin, Germany[281][282]
  3. Russia Moscow, Russia[273]
  4. Hungary Budapest, Hungary[273][283]
  5. Turkey Istanbul, Turkey[277]
  1. Egypt Cairo, Egypt[273][277][284]
  2. Morocco Casablanca, Morocco[268][273][285]
America and Oceania
  1. United States Los Angeles, United States[286][287]
  2. Australia Sydney, Australia[273]

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External links

  • Official website
  • Jakarta Official Travel Website
  • Jakarta at Curlie
  • Geographic data related to Jakarta at OpenStreetMap
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