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Julang-2 (JL-2)
Julang-2 SLBM.jpg
A JL-2 launch.
Place of origin People's Republic of China
Service history
In service Active as of 2015[1]
Used by People's Liberation Army Navy
Mass 42,000 kilograms (93,000 lb)[2]
Length 13 metres (43 ft)[2]
Warhead 1 nuclear warhead[3]
Blast yield 250-1000kt[4]

Propellant Solid-fuel rocket[3]
7,200 km (4,500 mi)[5]
Astro-inertial[4] with Beidou[2]
Type 094 submarine[6]

The JL-2 (Chinese: 巨浪-2; pinyin: Jù Làng Èr; literally: 'Giant Wave 2', NATO reporting name CSS-N-14) is a Chinese second-generation intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) deployed on the People's Liberation Army Navy's (PLAN) Type 094 submarines. It succeeds the JL-1 SLBM deployed on the Type 092 submarine.[6]

The JL-2 is the first Chinese SLBM that allows PLAN ballistic missile submarines to strike portions of the United States from the Chinese coast,[7] and provide China with a viable sea-based nuclear deterrent.[6]


The JL-2 is a naval variant of the land-based DF-31.[8][9] Their common 2-metre diameter solid fuel rocket motor was successfully tested in late 1983,[8] and research and development efforts were reorganized starting in 1985 to produce both missiles.[9]

The first JL-2 at-sea launch occurred in 2001 from a Type 031 submarine.[8][9] The program was delayed after a failed test in 2004.[8] Successful launches occurred in 2005 and 2008. The missile was successfully fired from a Type 094 submarine, the intended operational platform, for the first time in 2009.[8] A series of test launches occurred in 2012.[10][11] Another test launch occurred in January 2015.[12]

During the development of the missile, it was reported that China was considering modifying the missile to accommodate an anti-satellite warhead to give it a sea-based anti-satellite capability.[13]

Type 094 deterrence patrols with JL-2 missiles began in December 2015.[1]

As of 2017, 48 JL-2 launchers are deployed on submarines.[3]


The JL-2 is a three-stage, solid-fuelled missile,[3] with a maximum range of 7,200 km (4,500 mi).[5] Payload is a single[3] 250–1000 kt warhead.[4]

See also



  1. ^ a b Fisher, Richard D., Jr. (16 December 2015). "China advances sea- and land-based nuclear deterrent capabilities". Jane's Defence Weekly. Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group. 53 (6). ISSN 0265-3818.
  2. ^ a b c http://missilethreat.csis.org/missile/ju-lang-2-jl-2/ CSIS Missile Threat - JL-2
  3. ^ a b c d e National Air and Space Intelligence Center (2017: 33)
  4. ^ a b c Rahmat, Ridzwan (25 March 2014). "PACOM chief says China will deploy long-range nuclear missiles on subs this year". janes.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  5. ^ a b United States Department of Defense (2018: 38)
  6. ^ a b c United States Department of Defense (2018: 29)
  7. ^ National Air and Space Intelligence Center (2017: 30)
  8. ^ a b c d e "JL-2 (CSS-NX-14)". Globalsecurity.org. 20 April 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  9. ^ a b c Lewis, Jeffrey (25 June 2005). "JL-2 SLBM Flight Test". armscontrolwonk.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  10. ^ United States Department of Defense (May 2013). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2013 (PDF) (Report). p. 31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  11. ^ Gertz, Bill (21 August 2012). "Ready To Launch: China conducts rare flight test of new submarine-launched missile". The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  12. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 February 2015). "China conducts JL-2 sub missile test". The Washington Times. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  13. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 January 2008). "Submarine ASAT". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 May 2015 – via Questia Online Library. (Subscription required (help)).


External links

  • CSIS Missile Threat - Ju Lang-2
  • JL-2 from Mark Wade's Encyclopedia Astronautica

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