Italian Radical Party

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Italian Radical Party

Partito Radicale Italiano
Leaders Ettore Sacchi
Francesco Saverio Nitti
Founded 27 May 1904; 114 years ago (1904-05-27)
Dissolved 26 April 1922; 96 years ago (1922-04-26)
Preceded by Historical Far Left
Merged into Italian Social Democratic Party
Headquarters Rome, Italy
Ideology Radicalism[1]
Republicanism
Secularism
Social liberalism
Decentralization
Anti-clericalism[2]
Anti-nationalism
Political position Left-wing
National affiliation Liberal-Radical lists
(1919–1921)
Colours      Dark green[3]

The Italian Radical Party (Italian: Partito Radicale Italiano), also known as the Historical Radical Party (Partito Radicale storico), was a radical, republican, secularist and social-liberal political party in Italy.

History

Since 1877, the Radical Party was active as a loose parliamentary group grown out from the Historical Far Left. The group was later organised as a full-fledged party in 1904, under the leadership of Ettore Sacchi. Leading Radicals included Ernesto Nathan (mayor of Rome with the support of the Italian Socialist Party and the Italian Republican Party from 1907 to 1913), Romolo Murri (a Catholic priest who was suspended from his ministry for having joined the party and who is widely considered in Italy the precursor of Christian democracy) and Francesco Saverio Nitti.

The Radicals were originally strong in Lombardy, notably in the northern Province of Sondrio and the south-eastern Province of Mantua, northern Veneto and Friuli, Emilia-Romagna and central Italy, especially around Rome. Later on, they lost votes to the Socialists in Emilia and to the Republicans in Romagna, but strengthened their position in Veneto, notably holding for almost twenty years the single-seat constituencies of Venice and Padua (which had also Radical mayors), and southern Italy, where they were previously virtually non-existent.[4] Thanks to these inroads, the Radicals obtained their best result in the 1913 general election: 10.4% of the vote and 62 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.

With Nitti, a southerner, the Radicals became part of the governing coalition dominated by the Liberals of Giovanni Giolitti, who had positioned his party in the centre-left and supported many Radical reforms, while the Radicals had moved toward the centre. Nitti himself was Minister of the Treasury from 1917 to 1919 and Prime Minister from 1919 to 1920.[5][6] In the 1919 general election, the Radicals filed joint candidates with the Liberals in 54% of the constituencies.[4] For the 1921 general election, they joined forces with several minor liberal parties in order to form the Democratic Liberal Party: the joint list gained 15.9% of the vote and 96 seats, doing particularly well in Piedmont and the South.[4]

After World War II, some former Radicals led by Nitti joined the National Democratic Union, along with the Italian Liberal Party and other elements of the political bloc that governed Italy from the years of Giolitti until the rise of Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime. The Radicals, who were once the far-left of the Italian political spectrum, were finally associated with the old Liberal establishment, which was replaced by Christian Democracy as the leading political force in the country. Some left-wing elements of the old Radicals took part to the foundation of the Action Party in 1942, while a new Radical Party was launched in 1955 by the left-wing of the Italian Liberal Party. These new Radicals, whose long-time leader was Marco Pannella, claimed to be the ideological successors of the Historical Far Left (Agostino Bertani, Felice Cavallotti, etc.) and the Radicals.[5][6]

Electoral results

Chamber of Deputies
Election year No. of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
No. of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
1904 128,002 (4th) 8.4
37 / 508
Ettore Sacchi
1909 181,242 (3rd) 9.9
48 / 508
Increase11
Ettore Sacchi
1913 522,522 (3rd) 10.4
62 / 508
Increase14
Ettore Sacchi
1919 110.697 (7th) 2.0
12 / 508
Decrease50
Francesco Saverio Nitti

References

  1. ^ Guerriero, Massimo (2015). Mondadori, ed. L'ideologia radicale: evoluzione tra gli schieramenti. Le ideologie dei partiti politici.
  2. ^ Orsina, Giovanni (2002). Rubbettino, ed. Anticlericalismo e democrazia: storia del Partito radicale in Italia e a Roma, 1901-1914. pp. 5–6.
  3. ^ "La campagna elettorale a Roma". La Stampa. 1 June 1914.
  4. ^ a b c Piergiorgio Corbetta; Maria Serena Piretti (2009). Atlante storico-elettorale d'Italia. Zanichelli: Bologna.
  5. ^ a b Massimo L. Salvadori (2000). Enciclopedia storica. Zanichelli: Bologna.
  6. ^ a b David Busato (1996). Il Partito Radicale in Italia da Mario Pannunzio a Marco Pannella.
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