Irish general election, 1932

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Irish general election, 1932
Republic of Ireland
← Sep 1927 16 February 1932 1933 →

152 of 153 seats in Dáil Éireann
77 seats needed for a majority
Turnout 76.5%
  First party Second party Third party
  Eamon de Valera c 1922-30.jpg William Thomas Cosgrave.jpg No image.svg
Leader Éamon de Valera W. T. Cosgrave Thomas O'Connell
Party Fianna Fáil Cumann na nGaedheal Labour Party
Leader since 26 March 1926 April 1923 1927
Leader's seat Clare Cork Borough Mayo South
(defeated)
Last election 57 seats, 35.2% 61 seats, 38.6% 13 seats, 9.1%
Seats before 57 65 12
Seats won 72 57 7
Seat change Increase15 Decrease8 Decrease5
Popular vote 566,498 449,506 98,286
Percentage 44.5% 35.2% 7.7%
Swing Increase9.3% Decrease3.4% Decrease1.4%

Irish general election 1932.png
Percentage of seats gained by each of the three biggest parties, and number of seats gained by smaller parties and independents.

President of the Executive Council before election

W. T. Cosgrave
Cumann na nGaedheal

Subsequent President of the Executive Council

Éamon de Valera
Fianna Fáil

The Irish general election of 1932 was held on 16 February 1932, just over two weeks after the dissolution of the Dáil on 29 January. It was the first election held since the Statute of Westminster granted full independence to the Irish Free State a year earlier.

The newly elected 153 members of the 7th Dáil assembled at Leinster House on 9 March 1932 when the new President of the Executive Council and Executive Council of the Irish Free State were appointed by Governor-General James McNeill on the nomination of Dáil Éireann.

The general election took place in 30 parliamentary constituencies throughout the Irish Free State for 153 seats in the lower house of parliament, Dáil Éireann. The 1932 general election was one of the most important general elections held in Ireland in the 20th Century, resulting in the Free State's first change of government. Cumann na nGaedheal, which had been the governing party since 1932, was defeated by Fianna Fáil, which became the largest party in the chamber and formed a government with the support of the Labour Party. Fianna Fáil would be the largest party in Dáil Éireann at every general election until 2011.

Cumann na nGaedheal

Cumann na nGaedheal fought the general election on its record of providing ten years of stable government. The party brought stability following the chaos of the Irish Civil War, and provided honest government. However, by 1932 this provision of solid government was wearing thin, particularly since the party had no solution to the collapse in trade which followed the depression of the early 1930s. Instead of offering new policies the party believed that its record in government would be enough to retain power. Cumann na nGaedheal also played the "red card" tactic, describing Fianna Fáil as communists and likening Éamon de Valera to Joseph Stalin.

Fianna Fáil

In comparison to Cumann na nGaedheal, Fianna Fáil had an elaborate election programme, designed to appeal to a wide section of the electorate. It played down its republicanism to avoid alarm, but provided very popular social and economic policies. The party promised to free IRA prisoners, abolish the Oath of allegiance and reduce the powers of the Governor-General and the Senate. It also promised the introduction of protectionist policies, industrial development, self-sufficiency and improvements in housing and social security benefits.[1][2]

Campaign

The election campaign between the two ideologically opposed parties was reasonably peaceful. However, during the campaign the government prosecuted de Valera's newly established newspaper, The Irish Press. The editor was also brought before a military tribunal. This was seen by many as a major blunder and a serious infringement on the belief of freedom of speech. The "red scare" tactics also seemed to backfire on the government, who seemed to have little else to offer the electorate.

Result

7th Irish general election – 16 February 1932[3][4][5]
Party Leader Seats ±  % of
seats
First Pref
votes
 % FPv ±%
Fianna Fáil Éamon de Valera 72 +15 47.1 566,498 44.5 +9.3
Cumann na nGaedheal W. T. Cosgrave 57 –4 37.3 449,506 35.3 –3.4
Labour Party Thomas J. O'Connell 7 –6 4.6 98,286 7.7 –1.4
Farmers' Party Michael Heffernan 3 –3 1.9 22,899 1.8 –4.6
Irish Worker League James Larkin 0 –1 0 3,860 0.3 –0.8
Revolutionary Workers' Groups 0 New 0 1,087 0.1
Independent N/A 14 +2 9.1 131,890 10.4 +2.5
Spoilt votes 20,804
Total 153 0 100 1,294,830 100
Electorate/Turnout 1,695,175 76.5%
  • Fianna Fáil minority government formed.

When the results were known Fianna Fáil was still five seats short of an overall majority, but it still looked like the only party capable of forming a government. Discussions got underway immediately after the election and an agreement was reached in which the Labour Party would support Fianna Fáil. The party now had the necessary votes to form a minority government.

Voting summary

First preference vote
Fianna Fáil
44.47%
Cumann na nGaedheal
35.28%
Labour
7.71%
Farmers'
1.80%
Others
0.40%
Independent
10.35%

Seats summary

Assembly seats
Fianna Fáil
47.06%
Cumann na nGaedheal
37.25%
Labour
7.71%
Farmers'
1.96%
Others
0.40%
Independent
9.15%

Transition of power

On 9 March 1932 the first change of government in the Irish Free State took place. Many in the country and abroad wondered if the true test of democracy would be passed, whether it would be possible for the men who won a civil war only ten years before to hand over power to their opponents. Similar to when the party first entered the Dáil in 1927, a number of Fianna Fáil TDs had guns in their pockets. However, the feared coup d'état did not take place. W. T. Cosgrave was determined to adhere to the principles of democracy that he had practised while in government. Likewise, the army, Garda Síochána and the civil service all accepted the change of government, despite the fact that they would now be taking orders from men who had been their enemies less than ten years previously. After a brief and uneventful meeting in the Dáil chamber, Éamon de Valera was appointed President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State by the Governor-General, James McNeill, who had come to Leinster House to make the appointment rather than require de Valera travel to the Viceregal Lodge, formerly a symbol of British rule. Fianna Fáil, a party led by many of the men most closely identified with opposing the existence of the state ten years earlier, were now the party of government. Not only that but the 1932 general election was the beginning of a sixteen-year period in government for Fianna Fáil.

First time TDs

Outgoing TDs

See also

References

  1. ^ Paul Bew, Ellen Hazelkorn, and Henry Patterson, The Dynamics of Irish Politics (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1989), p. 42
  2. ^ Peter Mair and Liam Weeks, "The Party System," in Politics in the Republic of Ireland, ed. John Coakley and Michael Gallagher, 4th ed. (New York: Routledge, 2004), p. 140
  3. ^ "7th Dáil 1932 General Election". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 8 April 2009. 
  4. ^ "Dáil elections since 1918". ARK Northern Ireland. Retrieved 13 April 2009. 
  5. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, pp1009-1017 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
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