Iris hoogiana

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Iris hoogiana
Iris hoogiana - Fleur.jpg
Seen in Jardin des Plantes in Paris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Iris
Section: Regelia
Species: Iris hoogiana
Binomial name
Iris hoogiana
Dykes
Synonyms
  • Iris splendens O.Fedtsch.[1][2]

Iris hoogiana is a species in the genus Iris, it is also in the subgenus Iris and in the Regelia section. It is a rhizomatous perennial, from the grassy mountainsides of Turkestan. It has long green leaves, which are slightly purple at the base, and a long slender flowering stem. The flowers are blue, ranging from sky-blue to lavender blue and blue purple. It has orange or yellow beards. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions.

Description

Iris hoogiana has a stout,[2][3][4] or thick rhizome[5] that produces many long, slender, fleshy secondary stolons,[6] which travel through the ground searching for minerals to feed the plant.[7][8] They can be between 40–80 cm (16–31 in) long.[4][9] It also uses the stolons to form colonies of plants and spread over an area.[2][10] When the plant is dormant (in autumn and winter), it is very similar in form to Iris stolonifera.[4]

It has glaucous green,[4][6] or mid green,[11] or bright green leaves.[10] That have a slight tinge of (or are stained,[8]) purple at the base of the leaf.[4][5][12] They are sword-shaped,[12][13] or ensate,[6] and slightly curved.[5][6] They can grow up to between 35–50 cm (14–20 in) long,[5][6][11] and between 1–2 cm wide.[4][5][6] The leaves begin to fade and die after, the plant has flowered.[13]

It has stems that can grow up to between 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tall.[14][15][16] They are normally taller than the foliage,[7] and can also have a slight purple tinge.[15]

The stem has green spathes or bracts (leaves of the flower bud),[6][12] that are 4.5–8.9 cm (2–4 in) long and 2 cm wide.[4] They have a membranous margin, which is tinged with purple,[6] or red.[2]

The unbranched,[11] stems hold 2 or 3 terminal (top of stem) flowers,[2][6][9] blooming late spring,[5][10][17] or early summer,[3][12] between April and May,[7] or between May and June.[4][8][18] In the United States, it flowers in mid to southern states between early April to early May and it also flowers in mid to northern states between late April to early June.[19]

The scented flowers,[13][14] are 7–10 cm (3–4 in) in diameter.[5][14][15] They come in shades of blue,[14][20][21] from sky-blue,[13] mid-blue,[12] grey-blue,[9][17][22] lilac-blue,[3][5][15] lavender,[4][7][10] to blue-purple,[9] or lilac violet.[2] There is occasionally a white,[2][7][22] or very pale blue form.[23] But they are not very vigorous and poorly lived.[9]

It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals), known as the 'standards'.[18] The pendant shaped falls are 7.5 cm (3 in) long,[5] and 3 cm wide.[4] They are wide on the haft (the bend of the petal), and then becomes thinner along the blade (the tip of the petal).[2][4][6] They have a dense, orange,[4][7][18] golden yellow,[6][9][23] or yellow beard.[11][12][15] The beard is longer than Iris korolkowii's beard.[2] The obovate shaped,[6] standards are 7.5 cm (3 in) long,.[4][5] They widen gradually to from haft to a rounded apex.[2][4][6]

It has a 2.5 cm long perianth tube,[2][4][5] which is green with a purple tinge.[2][6] It has short pedicels (flower stalks),[2][4][6] and oblong shaped styles,[6] which are 2.5 cm long,[4] and similar in colour to the flower petals.[2] It has semi-ovate,[6] or triangular crests,[2] and long anthers, with white,[6] or cream coloured pollen.[4] It has an oblong, 2.5 cm long ovary.[4]

After the iris has flowered, in May,[2] it produces a long and narrow seed capsule,[2][4][6] which is pointed at the tip.[2][4][6] It dehisced (splits open) laterally (side to side).[4] Inside are pyriform (pear shaped), brown seeds.[2][6] They are rugulose and have a white aril (appendage).[6][21]

Biochemistry

In 1960, a study was carried out on a hybrid form between Iris hoogiana and Iris chamaeiris alba (now classified as a synonym of Iris lutescens). It compared chromosomal counts of the irises and hybrids. Iris hoogiana had a count of 2n=44 and the other iris had a count of 2n=40, the hybrid had a count of 2n=84.[24]

In 2001, a chemical extraction study was carried out on the rhizomes of Iris hoogiana. It found a new iridal called 'Hoogianal'.[25]

As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes, this can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings.[18] It has a chromosome count: 2n = 44.[7][16][24]

Taxonomy

Curtis's Botanical Magazine, London, vol. 146 (Series. 4, vol. 16) Tab. 8844 in 1920

It has the common names of 'Aril iris',[21][26][27] 'regelia iris',[21][26] or 'Redbeard Iris'.[6][22]

It is known as 'sideniris'[28] or 'sideiris' (in Sweden).[29][30]

The Latin specific epithet hoogiana refers to the Dutch nursery men, 'Hoog'.[7][31] Hoog, was one of 2 brothers, who manage the bulb nursery of 'Van Tubergen', based in Haarlem.[9] They were the nephews of the nursery founder, Cornelis Gerrit van Tubergen (1844-1919).[6]

The iris was discovered in Southern Turkestan in 1913 by Paul Graeber, (a collector for the van Tubergen nursery, later honored with Iris graeberiana) and then the rhizomes were sent to the nursery.[2][6][9]

It was first published and described by William Rickatson Dykes in The Gardeners' Chronicle (Gard. Chron. ) Series 3 Issue 60, page 216 on 4 November 1916.[6][28][32]

Mr Dykes had noticed the similarity of Iris hoogiana to Iris korolkowii and Iris stolonifera and therefore it was a member of the Regalia section.[6]

It was then published in Gardeners' Chronicle, in Series 1, page 277 in 1919,[9] and then with an illustration in Curtis's Botanical Magazine 146 in 1920,[5][6]

In 1924, Olga Fedtschenko (a Russian botanist) published and described Iris splendens in the 'Bull. Jard. Bot. Princ.' 23.,[2] which is now listed as a synonym of Iris hoogiana.[1]

It was verified by United States Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service on 2 October 2014.[28]

Iris hoogiana is an accepted name by the RHS.[26]

It was given the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 1994.[8][12][15]

Distribution and habitat

It is native to temperate central Asia.[26][28]

Range

It is found in the former USSR republic,[2][5] of Turkestan,[18][23][26] Tajikistan,[7][28] and Uzbekistan[7][28]

One source also mentions Kazakhstan.[7]

The iris is located within the Pamir Alay mountains,[2][5] and Varzob River valley in Dushanbe,[4] of Tajikistan.[8]

Habitat

It grows on the well drained grassy,[2] slopes of mountains.[4][18] They can be found at altitudes of up to 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) above sea level.[4]

Cultivation

Seen in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris

Iris hoogiana is described as being easy to grow and cultivate in the UK.[3][14]

It is hardy to between USDA Zone 3 and Zone 8,[10][21] including Zone 5.[22][33] One source, mentions between Zones 2 to 9.[11] It is also hardy to Zone H3 in Europe,[5] including the UK,[14] if the iris position is sheltered.[23] in a dry sheltered bed beside a wall.[4][18] Such as in Kew Gardens.[4] It is hardy in parts of USSR, including regions around Leningrad, although it still prefers the shelter of shrubs or trees.[13] It could be thought as half-hardy in cold regions.[12] and may need shelter during the winter.[4][23]

It prefers to grow in very well drained soils.[4][10][33] It can tolerate sandy or clay soils.[11] It can tolerate a pH level between 5 and 7.5.[11]

It prefers positions in full sun.[21][23][33] But can tolerate part shade.[11]

It needs a period of dryness during summer, creating a summer dormancy period.[10][21] When the leaves disappear until the next spring.[7] If the plants are long exposed to moisture they are prone to viral diseases.[7]

The iris is intolerant of winds, which can dry out the plants.[13]

It can be grown in rockeries,[7][29] or a raised bed.[29]

In his garden in Surrey, William Dykes had up to 100 specimens of Iris hoogiana, in open-sided frames.[23]

The rhizome should be planted at a depth of 2 inches,[10] to protect against winds,[13] in October.[9]

Hybrids and Cultivars

Several cultivars have been bread, as well as several hybrids, which have been hybridized with Iris stolonifera.[5]

Iris hoogiana cultivars include;

  • 'Alba',[20][34] (which has white flowers overlaid with a pale-lavender blue,[11] and can grow up to 6ocm high,[29])
  • 'Alpheus',[6]
  • 'Antiope',[35] (it was named after Antiope, queen of the Amazons, by Antoine Hoog in May 1999,[36] it has large cream flowers that have a touch of blue as well, and can grow up to 35 cm tall,[37])
  • 'Amphion',[35]
  • 'Blue Joy',[6]
  • 'Bronze Beauty',[20][34] (which has pale purple standards and deep violet falls, but also has hints of bronze, it can grow up to 28 inches tall,[33])
  • 'Ice Bowl',[6]
  • 'Late Amethyst',[6]
  • 'Noblesse',[6]
  • 'Purple Dawn',(the flowers are a mixture of lavender, lilac, violet, and pale rose, which also has a yellow beard)[33]
  • 'Purpurea',[6][34]
  • 'Tweet',(which can grow up to 50 cm tall).[38]

Toxicity

Like many other irises, most parts of the plant are poisonous (rhizome and leaves), if mistakenly ingested can cause stomach pains and vomiting. Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction.[27]

References

  1. ^ a b "Iris hoogiana Dykes is an accepted name". theplantlist.org (The Plant List). 23 March 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Komarov, V.L. (1935). "Akademiya Nauk SSSR (FLORA of the U.S.S.R.) Vol. IV". archive.org. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d Christopher Brickell (Editor)RHS Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers, p. 612, at Google Books
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 93, at Google Books
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey (Editors) The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification (2011) , p. 259, at Google Books
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Walker, Kenneth (24 January 2015). "(SPEC) Iris hoogiana Dykes". wiki.irises.org (American Iris Society). Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Chapitre I (partie 8) Les Regelia". irisbotanique.over-blog.com. Retrieved 18 May 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "Iris hoogiana". hillkeep.ca. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Dykes, William (2009). "Handbook of Garden Irises" (PDF). beardlessiris.org (The Group for Beardless Irises). Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "Iris". rslandscapedesign.blogspot.co.uk. 13 February 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Iris hoogiana". backyardgardener.com. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h "Iris hoogiana". greenfingers.com. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g "Regelia iris". flowerlib.ru. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f Stebbings, Geoff (1997). The Gardener's Guide to Growing Irises. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. p. 71. ISBN 0715305395. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f "Iris hoogiana". rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  16. ^ a b "Iris summary" (PDF). pacificbulbsociety.org. 14 April 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  17. ^ a b Wilson, Debbie (August–September 2004). "Fragrance Detective" (PDF). henricomga.org (The Garden Gate Newsletter). Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Austin, Claire (2005). Irises; A Garden Encyclopedia. Timber Press. ISBN 0881927309. 
  19. ^ Allan M. Armitage Herbaceous Perennial Plants: A Treatise on their Identification, Culture and Garden Attributes, p. 1452, at Google Books
  20. ^ a b c "Aril Irises". pacificbulbsociety.org. Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Kramb, D. (9 November 2003). "Iris hoogiana". signa.org (Species Iris Group of North America). Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  22. ^ a b c d Donald WymanWyman's Gardening Encyclopedia, p. 576, at Google Books
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Cassidy, George E.; Linnegar, Sidney (1987). Growing Irises (Revised ed.). Bromley: Christopher Helm. pp. 78 and 124. ISBN 0-88192-089-4. 
  24. ^ a b Simonet, Marc; Werckmeister, Peter (1960). "A colchicine-induced amphiploider section Bastard between Iris Hoogiana Dykes (section Regelia Foster et Baker) and Iris chamaeiris Bert. (Section Pogoniris Spach, series Pumilae Lawr.)". The breeder. 30 (5): 190–193. doi:10.1007/bf00710478. Retrieved 7 November 2014. 
  25. ^ Marner, Franz-Josef; Hanisch, Bernadette (18 April 2001). "Hoogianal, a β-Irone Precursor from Iris hoogiana Dykes (Iridaceae)". Helvetica Chimica Acta. 84 (4): 933–938. doi:10.1002/1522-2675(20010418)84:4<933::aid-hlca933>3.0.co;2-y. Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  26. ^ a b c d e "Iris hoogiana". www.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  27. ^ a b "Species Iris, Aril Iris, Iris hoogiana 'Hoogiana'". davesgarden.com. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f "Iris hoogiana". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  29. ^ a b c d "Iris hoogiana Alba". gerbianska.com. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  30. ^ "Classification". hih=gruppen.se. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  31. ^ Bird, Richard (Spring 1990). "Understanding Latin". The Seed Raising Journal. Thompson & Morgan. 4 (2). Retrieved 20 May 2015. 
  32. ^ "Iridaceae Iris hoogiana Dykes". ipni.org (International Plant Names Index). Retrieved 20 May 2015. 
  33. ^ a b c d e "Iris to moraea". odysseybulbs.com. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  34. ^ a b c "Iris hoogiana". edgewoodgardens.net. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  35. ^ a b "Iris, Hexapogon section (Regelia and Oncocyclus irises)". kevockgarden.co.uk. Retrieved 4 June 2015. 
  36. ^ "Regeliocyclus hybrids". hillkeep.ca. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  37. ^ "Iris hoogiana 'Antiope'". pottertons.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2015. 
  38. ^ "Iris hoogiana". rightplants4me.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2015. 

Other sources

  • Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
  • Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR).
  • Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
  • Khassanov, F. O. & N. Rakhimova. 2012. Taxonomic revision of the genus Iris L. (Iridaceae Juss.) for the flora of Central Asia. Stapfia 97:177.
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Mathew, B. 1981. The Iris. 62–63.

External links

  • Image of Iris hoogiana

Media related to Iris hoogiana at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Iris hoogiana at Wikispecies

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