Invercargill (New Zealand electorate)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Invercargill electorate boundaries used since the 2008 election

Invercargill is an electorate of the New Zealand Parliament that has existed since 1866. Since the 2014 election, the electorate's representative is Sarah Dowie of the National Party.

Population centres

The electorate covers Invercargill city and the surrounding rural area, including Stewart Island / Rakiura. In 1996 a boundary redistribution resulted in the abolition of the Awarua electorate and merged with Invercargill following re-drawing of boundaries due to the introduction of mixed-member proportional voting (MMP). Minor but steady population decline in the Southland region has generally resulted in Invercargill expanding northwards. The 2013 redistribution, however, has left Invercargill unchanged.[1]

History

The electorate was established in 1866 when it separated from the Wallace electorate.[2]

The first representative was William Wood, who won the 1866 election.[3] Wood retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1870. William Henderson Calder succeeded Wood in the 1871 election and he resigned in March 1873.[4] The resulting 1873 by-election was won by John Cuthbertson, who served until the end of the parliamentary term in 1875.[5]

Cuthbertson was defeated by George Lumsden in the 1875 election. Lumsden resigned in June 1878,[6] which caused the 1878 by-election. Henry Feldwick was the successful candidate and he commenced his first of three terms for the electorate.[7] At the 1879 election, Feldwick was defeated by James Walker Bain, who retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1881.[8] At the 1881 election, Feldwick was again the successful candidate,[7] only to be defeated again at the 1884 election, on that occasion by Joseph Hatch.[9] At the 1887 election, Feldwick defeated Hatch and commenced his third and final term for the Invercargill electorate, serving until the end of the parliamentary term in 1890.[7]

James Whyte Kelly defeated Feldwick in the 1890 election. Kelly became a member of the Liberal Party and served for three parliamentary terms,[7] but broke away from the Liberal Party and became an Independent Liberal in 1895.[10] For the 1899 election, the Josiah Hanan of the Liberal Party challenged Kelly, with Hanan being successful.[11] Hanan served the electorate until 1925, when he retired.[12]

The 1925 election was narrowly won by the former Prime Minister Sir Joseph Ward standing for the Liberal Party, who beat James Hargest of the Reform Party with 4957 votes to 4798; a third contender, Patrick Hickey, stood for the Labour Party.[13] Until 1919, Ward had for many years represented Awarua.[14] Ward, a former leader of the Liberal Party, contested the election under the "Liberal" label, despite the fact that the remnants of the Liberal Party were now calling themselves by different names.[15] In 1928, Ward helped form the United Party[15] and won the 1928 election.[14] He died on 8 July 1930,[15] which caused the 1930 by-election won by his son Vincent Ward, who retired at the end of the parliamentary term in 1931.[14]

Vincent Ward was succeeded by James Hargest in the 1931 election. At the end of the parliamentary term in 1935, Hargest successfully contested the Awarua electorate.[14] He was succeeded in the Invercargill electorate by William Denham of the Labour Party, who held the electorate for three terms from 1935[16] until his defeat in the 1946 election by Ralph Hanan of the National Party.[12] Hanan was re-elected seven times and died in office on 24 July 1969; the need to hold a by-election before the general election on 29 November was avoided by a special act, the By-election Postponement Act 1969.

The successful candidate in the 1969 general election was John Chewings, who was defeated at the end of the parliamentary term at the 1972 election by Labour's J. B. Munro. At the next election in 1975, Munro was in turn beaten by National's Norman Jones. Jones retired at the end of his fourth term in August 1987 and died shortly thereafter on 19 November.[17]

Jones was succeeded by National's Rob Munro in the 1987 election. Munro served two parliamentary terms before being beaten by Labour's Mark Peck in the 1993 election. Peck retired after four parliamentary terms in 2005 and was succeeded by National's Eric Roy in the 2005 election. Roy retired after three parliamentary terms and was succeeded in 2014 by Sarah Dowie.[18]

Members of Parliament

Key

 Independent    Liberal    Liberal-Labour  

 United    Labour    National    NZ First  

Election Winner
1866 election William Wood
1871 election William Henderson Calder
1873 by-election John Cuthbertson
1875 election George Lumsden
1878 by-election Henry Feldwick
1879 election James Walker Bain
1881 election Henry Feldwick (2nd time)
1884 election Joseph Hatch
1887 election Henry Feldwick (3rd time)
1890 election James Whyte Kelly
1893 election
1896 election
1899 election Josiah Hanan
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election
1911 election
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election
1925 election Joseph Ward
1928 election
1930 by-election Vincent Ward
1931 election James Hargest
1935 election William Denham
1938 election
1943 election
1946 election Ralph Hanan
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election John Chewings
1972 election J. B. Munro
1975 election Norman Jones
1978 election
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election Rob Munro
1990 election
1993 election Mark Peck
1996 election
1999 election
2002 election
2005 election Eric Roy
2008 election
2011 election
2014 election Sarah Dowie
2017 election

List MPs

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Invercargill electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Election Winner
1996 election Eric Roy
1999 election
2005 Lesley Soper
2007
2015 Ria Bond[a]
2017 election Liz Craig

Election results

2017 election

General election, 2017: Invercargill[19]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National Green tickY Sarah Dowie 18,102 51.05 -0.43 17,414 48.39 -0.87
Labour Liz Craig 12,523 35.31 +5.81 12,891 35.82 +10.86
NZ First Ria Bond 3,214 9.06 +1.64 3,139 8.72 -2.39
Green Rochelle Surendran 1,623 4.58 -2.75 1,166 3.24 -4.29
Opportunities   760 2.11
Legalise Cannabis   141 0.39 -0.26
Ban 1080   103 0.29 -0.21
ACT   95 0.26 -0.07
Conservative   79 0.22 -3.45
Māori   73 0.20 -0.12
Democrats   43 0.12 -0.16
United Future   27 0.08 -0.12
Outdoors   23 0.06
People's Party   21 0.06
Internet   9 0.03 -0.58[b]
Mana   6 0.02 -0.59[c]
Informal votes 445 163
Total Valid votes 35,462 35,990
Turnout 36,153
National hold Majority 5,579 15.73 -6.25

2014 election

General election, 2014: Invercargill[20]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National Sarah Dowie 17,526 51.48 −3.10 16,880 49.26 −0.62
Labour Lesley Soper 10,044 29.50 −5.29 8,553 24.96 −3.77
NZ First Ria Bond[a] 2,526 7.42 +7.42 3,806 11.11 +4.27
Green David Kennedy 2,497 7.33 −0.36 2,581 7.53 −0.89
Conservative Laura Storr 719 2.11 +2.11 1,256 3.67 +2.68
Democrats Stephnie de Ruyter 333 0.98 −0.67 95 0.28 −0.12
Legalise Cannabis   224 0.65 −0.14
Internet Mana   210 0.61 +0.42[d]
Ban 1080   173 0.50 −0.32
ACT   113 0.33 −0.90
Māori   110 0.32 −0.18
United Future   68 0.20 −0.62
Civilian   23 0.07 +0.07
Independent Coalition   11 0.03 +0.03
Focus   10 0.03 +0.03
Informal votes 400 153
Total Valid votes 34,045 34,266
Turnout 34,292 76.48 +4.60
National hold Majority 7,482 21.98 +2.19

2011 election

General election, 2011: Invercargill[21]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National Green tickY Eric Roy 17,275 54.58 -1.39 16,140 49.88 +2.35
Labour Lesley Soper 11,012 34.79 -1.96 9,296 28.73 -8.15
Green David Kennedy 2,433 7.69 +2.73 2,723 8.42 +4.16
Democrats Stephnie de Ruyter 521 1.65 +1.65 129 0.40 +0.22
ACT Ian Carline 276 0.87 -0.33 397 1.23 -1.47
Libertarianz Shane Pleasance 133 0.42 +0.04 34 0.11 +0.05
NZ First   2,213 6.84 +3.44
Conservative   643 1.99 +1.99
United Future   264 0.82 -0.09
Legalise Cannabis   257 0.79 +0.28
Māori   162 0.50 -0.08
Mana   63 0.19 +0.19
Alliance   34 0.11 -0.05
Informal votes 863 324
Total Valid votes 31,650 32,355
National hold Majority 6,263 19.79 0.58

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 45,014[22]

2008 election

General election, 2008: Invercargill[23]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National Green tickY Eric Roy 19,414 55.97 +6.46 16,663 47.54 +8.05
Labour Lesley Soper 12,750 36.76 -6.22 12,927 36.88 -8.30
Green Craig Carson 1,718 4.95 +2.07 1,492 4.26 +1.18
ACT Ian Carline 416 1.20 +0.06 947 2.70 +1.55
United Future Maureen Smith 258 0.74 -0.70 319 0.91 -2.31
Libertarianz Shane Pleasance 131 0.38 21 0.06 +0.03
NZ First   1,192 3.40 -1.41
Bill and Ben   413 1.18
Progressive   292 0.83 -0.39
Māori   205 0.58 +0.25
Legalise Cannabis   179 0.51 +0.21
Family Party   145 0.41
Kiwi   105 0.30
Democrats   61 0.17 -0.02
Alliance   54 0.15 +0.08
Pacific   18 0.05
Workers Party   14 0.04
RONZ   4 0.01 -0.00
RAM   1 0.00
Informal votes 338 143
Total Valid votes 34,687 35,052
National hold Majority 6,664 19.21 +12.69

2005 election

General election, 2005: Invercargill[24]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National Eric Roy 15,570 49.51 12,559 39.49
Labour Wayne Harpur 13,518 42.98 14,369 45.18
Green Craig Carson 906 2.88 980 3.08
United Future Ralph Kennard 453 1.4 1,024 3.22
ACT Ian Beker 358 1.14 365 1.15
Progressive Heka Taefu 231 0.73 388 1.22
Democrats Bruce Stirling 187 0.59 63 0.20
Māori Gina Haremate-Crawford 163 0.52 106 0.33
Direct Democracy Craig Guy 65 0.21 11 0.03
NZ First   1,530 4.81
Destiny   188 0.59
Legalise Cannabis   96 0.30
Christian Heritage   56 0.19
Alliance   22 0.07
One NZ   13 0.04
Family Rights   11 0.03
Libertarianz   10 0.03
99 MP   9 0.03
RONZ   5 0.02
Informal votes 316 111
Total Valid votes 31,451 31,805
National gain from Labour Majority 2,052 6.52

2002 election

General election, 2002: Invercargill
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Mark Peck 14,548 48.77 -8.31 14,089 46.73 +1.80
National Eric Roy 11,756 39.41 +7.71 8,021 26.60 -3.32
Progressive Stephnie de Ruyter 1,006 3.37 -1.61[e] 760 2.52
Green Craig Carson 963 3.23 +1.04 1,298 4.30 +1.22
United Future Vince Smith 806 2.70 1,851 6.14
ACT Peter Phiskie 313 1.05 1,073 3.56 +0.23
Christian Heritage Mervyn Lemuel Clayton 235 0.79 301 1.00 -1.63
Alliance Anna McMartin 202 0.68 241 0.80 -9.11
NZ First   1,838 6.10 +3.33
ORNZ   444 1.47
Legalise Cannabis   219 0.73 -0.45
One NZ   14 0.05 +0.01
Mana Māori   2 0.01 -0.02
NMP   1 0.00 0.00
Informal votes 296 108
Total Valid votes 29,829 30,152
Labour hold Majority 2,792 9.36 -16.02

1999 election

General election, 1999: Invercargill
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Mark Peck 17,970 57.08 +8.25 14,196 44.93 +11.69
National Eric Roy 9,980 31.70 -3.69 9,453 29.92 -4.34
Alliance Stephnie de Ruyter 1,567 4.98 3,132 9.91 +0.15
Green Craig William Carson 689 2.19 974 3.08
Christian Heritage Russell Zwies 536 1.70 832 2.63
NZ First Allan Wise 488 1.55 875 2.77 -9.12
ACT Matt McInnes 251 0.80 1,051 3.33 +0.41
Legalise Cannabis   372 1.18 -0.47
Future NZ   245 0.78
South Island   157 0.50
Libertarianz   92 0.29 +0.26
United NZ   86 0.27 -0.21
Animals First   44 0.14 -0.01
McGillicuddy Serious   44 0.14 -0.19
Natural Law   13 0.04 -0.12
One NZ   13 0.04
Mana Māori   8 0.03 +0.02
People's Choice   5 0.02
Mauri Pacific   2 0.01
Freedom Movement   1 0.00
NMP   0 0.00
Republican   0 0.00
Informal votes 431 317
Total Valid votes 31,481 31,595
Labour hold Majority 7,991 25.38 +11.94

1996 election

General election, 1996: Invercargill[25][26][27]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Mark Peck 15,383 48.83 10,502 33.24
National Red XN Eric Roy 11,148 35.39 10,825 34.26
NZ First Owen Horton 2,302 7.31 3,757 11.89
Alliance Bruce Stirling 1,536 4.88 3,083 9.76
ACT Louis Crimp 441 1.40 921 2.92
Independent Philip Jones 294 0.93
McGillicuddy Serious Anthony Hobbs 200 0.63 105 0.33
United NZ Stuart Jordan 111 0.35 153 0.48
Natural Law Jacque Hughes 87 0.28 49 0.16
Christian Coalition   1,495 4.73
Legalise Cannabis   521 1.65
Progressive Green   60 0.19
Animals First   47 0.15
Green Society   26 0.08
Conservatives   14 0.04
Superannuitants & Youth   11 0.03
Libertarianz   8 0.03
Advance New Zealand 6 0.02
Mana Māori   4 0.01
Te Tawharau 4 0.01
Asia Pacific United 2 0.01
Ethnic Minority Party 1 0.00
Informal votes 207 115
Total Valid votes 31,502 31,594
Labour hold Majority 4,235 13.44

1931 election

General election, 1931: Invercargill[28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent James Hargest 4,652 38.84 -8.25
Independent W. McChesney 4,144 34.60
Labour William Denham 3,182 26.57
Majority 508 4.24 -1.58
Informal votes 37 0.31 +0.05
Turnout 12,015 87.52 +8.02
Registered electors 13,729

1930 by-election

Invercargill by-election, 1930[29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
United Vincent Ward 5,194 52.91
Reform James Hargest 4,623 47.09
Majority 571 5.82
Informal votes 25 0.25 -0.51
Turnout 9,842 79.50 -13.62
Registered electors 12,380

1928 election

1928 general election: Invercargill[30][31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
United Joseph Ward 7,309 63.89 +16.98
Reform Morell Macalister 4,131 36.11
Majority 3,178 27.78 +26.27
Informal votes 88 0.76 +0.25
Turnout 11,528 93.12 -0.61
Registered electors 12,380

1925 election

General election, 1925: Invercargill[13][32][33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Joseph Ward 4,957 46.91
Reform James Hargest 4,798 45.41
Labour Pat Hickey 811 7.68
Majority 159 1.50 -9.22
Informal votes 55 0.52 -0.34
Turnout 10,621 93.73 +3.44
Registered electors 11,332

1899 election

General election, 1899: Invercargill[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Josiah Hanan 2,451 52.82
Liberal-Labour James Whyte Kelly 2,189 47.18 -2.07
Majority 262 5.65 -7.08
Turnout 4,640 79.94 +1.02
Registered electors 5,804

1896 election

General election, 1896: Invercargill[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal-Labour James Whyte Kelly 2,237 49.25 -17.98
Liberal John Sinclair 1,659 36.53
Conservative William Benjamin Scandrett 646 14.22
Majority 578 12.73 -21.74
Turnout 4,542 78.92 +0.71
Registered electors 5,755

1893 election

General election, 1893: Invercargill[36][37]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal-Labour James Whyte Kelly 2,423 67.23 +25.48
Independent Joseph Hatch 1,181 32.77
Majority 1,242 34.46 +26.61
Turnout 3,604 78.21 +4.48
Registered electors 4,608

1890 election

General election, 1890: Invercargill[38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal-Labour James Whyte Kelly 633 41.75
Conservative James Walker Bain 517 34.10
Liberal Henry Feldwick 366 24.15
Majority 116 7.65
Turnout 1,516 73.73
Registered electors 2,056

1878 by-election

Invercargill by-election, 1878[39]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Henry Feldwick 230 51.22 +51.22
Independent James Walker Bain 219 48.78 +48.78
Majority 11 2.45
Turnout 449

1875 election

1875 general election: Invercargill[40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent George Lumsden 180 53.10 +53.10
Independent John Cuthbertson 159 46.90 −5.58
Majority 21 6.19
Turnout 339

1873 by-election

Invercargill by-election, 1873[41]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent John Cuthbertson 159 52.48
Independent William Wood 144 47.52
Majority 15 4.95
Turnout 303

1871 election

1871 general election: Invercargill[42]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent William Henderson Calder 142 61.21 +61.21
Independent George Lumsden 90 38.79 +38.79
Majority 52 22.41
Turnout 232

Table footnotes

  1. ^ a b Bond entered parliament as a list MP on 28 April 2015 after Winston Peters won the Northland by-election, 2015.
  2. ^ 2017 Internet Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with Mana Party in the 2014 election
  3. ^ 2017 Mana Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with the Internet Party in the 2014 election
  4. ^ 2014 Internet Mana swing is relative to the votes for Mana in 2011; it shared a party list with Internet in the 2014 election.
  5. ^ Percentage change calculated as a candidate for the Alliance Party in the 1999 election

Notes

  1. ^ Report of the Representation Commission 2014 (PDF). Representation Commission. 4 April 2014. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-477-10414-2. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  2. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 159.
  3. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 149.
  4. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 99.
  5. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 102.
  6. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 120.
  7. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 105.
  8. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 94.
  9. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 112.
  10. ^ "The New Parliament". Otago Witness (2232). 10 December 1896. p. 20. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  11. ^ "The Invercargill Seat". Colonist. XLIII (9659). 12 December 1899. p. 3. Retrieved 24 November 2011. 
  12. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 111.
  13. ^ a b The General Election, 1925. Government Printer. 1926. p. 5. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  14. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 146.
  15. ^ a b c Bassett, Michael. "Ward, Joseph George 1856–1930". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 26 November 2011. 
  16. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 103.
  17. ^ "Obituary—N. P. H. Jones". VDIG group. Retrieved 25 November 2011. 
  18. ^ Berwick, Louise; Mcdougall, Nicci; Mcleod, Hannah (20 September 2014). "Soper won't stand again as Dowie wins city vote". The Southland Times. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  19. ^ "Official Count Results -- Invercargill (2017)". Electoral Commission. 7 October 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2017. 
  20. ^ "Official Count Results – Invercargill (2014)". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  21. ^ Invercargill results, 2011
  22. ^ "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2011. 
  23. ^ 2008 election results Archived 11 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ "Official Count Results -- Invercargill". Electoral Commission. 1 October 2005. Retrieved 6 October 2017. 
  25. ^ "Electorate Candidate and Party Votes Recorded at Each Polling Place – Invercargill, 1996" (PDF). Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  26. ^ "Part III – Party Lists of Successful Registered Parties" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  27. ^ "Part III – Party Lists of unsuccessful Registered Parties" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  28. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 3. Retrieved 2 November 2014. 
  29. ^ "Invercargill Seat". The Evening Post. CX (44). 20 August 1930. p. 10. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  30. ^ "General Election". The Evening Post. CVI (121). 27 November 1928. p. 14. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  31. ^ The General Election, 1928. Government Printer. 1929. p. 3. Retrieved 4 December 2013. 
  32. ^ "Missing Votes in Lyttelton Election". Auckland Star. LVI (LVI). 13 November 1925. p. 8. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  33. ^ "Amended Results". The Evening Post. CX (117). 13 November 1925. p. 6. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  34. ^ "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 3. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  35. ^ "Otago". Auckland Star. XXVII (305). 23 December 1896. p. 6. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  36. ^ "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. p. 3. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  37. ^ "The General Election". Otago Daily Times. 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  38. ^ "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  39. ^ "Invercargill Election". Grey River Argus. 21 (3097). 19 July 1878. p. 2. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  40. ^ "Invercargill 25th December". The Evening Post. XII (152). 28 December 1875. p. 2. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  41. ^ "The Invercargill Election". The Southland Times (1744). 23 May 1873. p. 2. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  42. ^ "Invercargill Election". Daily Southern Cross. XXVII (4199). 28 January 1871. p. 2. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 

References

  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
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