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Interstate 278

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Interstate 278 marker

Interstate 278
Map of New York City with I-278 highlighted in red
Route information
Auxiliary route of I‑78
Length 35.62 mi[1][2] (57.32 km)
Existed 1961–present
Major junctions
West end US 1-9 in Linden, NJ
East end I-95 / I-295 / I-678 / Hutchinson River Parkway in Bronx, NY
States New Jersey, New York
Counties NJ: Union
NY: Richmond, Kings, Queens, New York, Bronx
Highway system
Route 208 NJ I-280
NY 277 NY NY 278

Interstate 278 (I-278) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in New Jersey and New York in the United States. The road runs 35.62 miles (57.32 km) from U.S. Route 1/9 (US 1/9) in Linden, New Jersey, to the Bruckner Interchange in the New York City borough of the Bronx. The majority of I-278 is in New York City, where it serves as a partial beltway and passes through all five of the city's boroughs.[a] I-278 follows several freeways, including the Union Freeway in Union County, New Jersey; the Staten Island Expressway (SIE) across Staten Island; the Gowanus Expressway in southern Brooklyn; the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway (BQE) across northern Brooklyn and Queens; a small part of the Grand Central Parkway in Queens; and a part of the Bruckner Expressway in the Bronx. I-278 also crosses multiple bridges, including the Goethals, Verrazzano-Narrows, Kosciuszko, and Triborough Bridges.

I-278 was opened in pieces from the 1930s through the 1960s. Some of its completed segments predated the Interstate Highway System and are thus not up to standards, and portions of I-278 have been upgraded over the years. In New York, the various parts of I-278 were planned by Robert Moses, an urban planner in New York City. The segments proposed tore through many New York City neighborhoods, causing controversy. Despite its number, I-278 does not connect to I-78. There were once plans to extend I-278 west to I-78 east of the Route 24 interchange in Springfield, New Jersey. This was canceled because of opposition from the communities along the route. The segment that does exist in New Jersey was opened in 1969. There were also plans to extend I-78 east across Manhattan and into Brooklyn via the Williamsburg Bridge; this would have been a second location where the two highways would have interchanged, but these plans were also thwarted.

Two segments of I-278 have had different route number designations formerly planned or designated for it. I-87 was once planned to follow the segment of I-278 between the Williamsburg Bridge and the Major Deegan Expressway, but this ultimately became a part of I-278. Additionally, the Bruckner Expressway portion of I-278 had been designated with different route numbers. At first, it was to be I-895 between I-87 and the Sheridan Expressway and I-678 past there. Later, I-278 was planned to follow the Bruckner Expressway and the Sheridan Expressway to I-95 (with no route number for the Bruckner Expressway past there) before the current numbering took place by 1970, with I-895 designated onto the Sheridan Expressway (which was subsequently downgraded to a state highway in 2017).

Route description

  mi km
NJ 2.00 3.22[1]
NY 33.62 54.11[2]
Total 35.62 57.32

New Jersey

View east along I-278 between US 1/9 and the New Jersey Turnpike in Linden

The New Jersey segment of I-278 begins in Linden, Union County at the junction with US 1 and US 9 (US 1-9), where it merges into the southbound direction of that road. The freeway heads east and carries two lanes in each direction, with the eastbound direction widening to three lanes.[1] I-278 runs between urban residential areas to the north and the Bayway Refinery to the south as it continues into Elizabeth.[1][3] In this area, the road meets Route 439 and the New Jersey Turnpike (I-95) at the only intermediate interchange that I-278 has in New Jersey.[1] This short length is sometimes called the Union Freeway. After the New Jersey Turnpike, I-278 turns southeast and crosses the Arthur Kill on the six-lane Goethals Bridge to Staten Island, a borough of New York City. This bridge is maintained by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.[1][3]

Staten Island Expressway

Time-lapse video of a westbound trip on Interstate 278

Upon coming onto Staten Island, I-278 becomes the Staten Island Expressway.[3] After the Goethals Bridge, the highway has a toll plaza serving the bridge. At this point, the freeway becomes eight lanes and maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation, coming to an exit for Western Avenue and Forest Avenue before reaching a directional interchange with New York State Route 440 (NY 440, named the West Shore Expressway). NY 440 forms a concurrency with I-278 and the road heads into residential neighborhoods. The road carries four lanes eastbound and three lanes westbound as it comes to the exit serving Richmond Avenue. Immediately after, NY 440 splits from the Staten Island Expressway at a large interchange, heading north on the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Expressway.[2][3] This interchange also provides access to Victory Boulevard.[2] East of this point, the expressway gains a bus lane in each direction. The six-lane I-278 turns to the east past this point, with Gannon Avenue serving as a frontage road, and reaches the Bradley Avenue exit.[2][3]

The next interchange the Staten Island Expressway is with Todt Hill Road and Slosson Avenue.[2] This exchange was the original terminal of the bus lane in each direction that also serves as a high-occupancy vehicle lane that was built in 2005.[4] After Todt Hill Road, I-278 runs through a wooded area where it comes to an incomplete interchange that was to be the northern terminus of the Richmond Parkway.[3][5] The road continues back into residential areas and comes to an interchange serving Clove Road and Richmond Road.[2][3] The next interchange the freeway has is with Hylan Boulevard.[2] A short distance later, the Staten Island Expressway comes to a large interchange that serves Lily Pond Road and Bay Street. Immediately after, I-278 reaches the former toll plaza for the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge,[2][3] where electronic toll collection is in effect for the westbound lanes.[6] Following the toll plaza area, I-278 goes onto the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge linking to Brooklyn over the Narrows. This bridge, which is maintained by the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, has six lanes on the lower level and seven lanes on the upper level which includes 1 HOV Lane.[3][7] In addition to local traffic on Staten Island, the expressway provides the most direct route from Brooklyn and Long Island to New Jersey. It is widely known throughout the New York area as one of the most congested roads in the city.[8]

A view from the center of a freeway, looking across to homes on a wooded hill
Homes along the Staten Island Expressway

Gowanus Expressway

After the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, I-278 continues into Brooklyn on the Gowanus Expressway. Immediately after the bridge, the freeway comes to an eastbound exit and westbound entrance for the Belt Parkway. After this, a full interchange serves 92nd Street at which point I-278 becomes a single-level six-lane freeway. Soon after, one of the eastbound lanes becomes as a high-occupancy vehicle lane.[9] The Gowanus Expressway continues northeast into urban residential neighborhoods and reaches an eastbound interchange at Fort Hamilton Parkway and a westbound interchange at 86th Street. Turning more to the north, I-278 comes to a partial interchange at 65th Street, with an exit eastbound and entrance eastbound. The road curves northwest at this point and comes to a directional interchange providing access to 3rd Avenue and the Belt Parkway.[2][3] The Gowanus Expressway turns northeast again at the interchange with Belt Parkway, and it continues along an elevated alignment through urban residential and commercial areas.[3]

Along this viaduct, I-278 has interchanges with 38th Street/39th Street and the western terminus of NY 27 (Prospect Expressway). After the NY 27 interchange, the freeway widens to eight lanes and heads north, coming to an interchange with the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel approach (I-478, officially the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel), with the exit ramps splitting from the median of I-278. Westbound access to the tunnel is provided by the Hamilton Avenue exit.[2][3]

An elevated freeway in a city with bicyclists riding on it
The Gowanus Expressway during the 2008 Five Boro Bike Tour

In this area, the freeway passes over the Gowanus Canal, an extremely polluted canal that was once used for shipping.[10] The site has been designated a Superfund Site by the Environmental Protection Agency.[11][12]

Brooklyn–Queens Expressway

After the exit for the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel, I-278 heads north onto the six-lane Brooklyn–Queens Expressway, passing through urban neighborhoods near downtown Brooklyn on a depressed alignment.[3] The next interchange the highway reaches serves Atlantic Avenue.[2] After Atlantic Avenue, the road runs along the East River harbor in downtown Brooklyn/Brooklyn Heights and is partially covered to create the Brooklyn Heights Promenade.[3] I-278, at this point maintained by the New York City Department of Transportation, makes a sharp turn to the east away from the East River and comes to an interchange serving the Brooklyn Bridge and Cadman Plaza.[2][3][13] The freeway continues on an elevated alignment and makes a turn southeast as it comes to ramps accessing the Manhattan Bridge.[2][3]

I-278 southbound approaching Downtown Brooklyn

North of the bridges, the highway becomes state-maintained again and reaches at an exit serving Tillary Street and Flushing Avenue.[2][13] At this point, the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway continues east through residential areas and turns northeast upon coming to the Wythe Avenue/Kent Avenue exit. The road passes through the Williamsburg neighborhood on a depressed alignment, reaching an interchange that serves the Williamsburg Bridge, with an exit at Metropolitan Avenue a short distance later. I-278 becomes elevated again as it passes through more neighborhoods and comes to the interchange with Humboldt Street/McGuinness Boulevard. The Brooklyn–Queens Expressway enters more industrial areas as it comes to Meeker Avenue/Morgan Avenue.[2][3]

I-278 crosses the Newtown Creek into Queens on the Kosciuszko Bridge. Upon entering Queens, the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway runs north between residential neighborhoods to the east and Calvary Cemetery to the west before coming to an interchange with I-495.[2][3] After I-495, the freeway makes a turn to the east, passing over homes before crossing over New Calvary Cemetery.[3] The road turns northeast through more urban neighborhoods and reaches an interchange at NY 25 (Queens Boulevard).[2][3] At this point, I-278 becomes city-maintained again and passes under the Long Island Rail Road's Main Line as it continues into a depressed alignment.[3][13] The Brooklyn–Queens Expressway turns north as it approaches the exit for Broadway and Roosevelt Avenue. I-278 heads back onto a viaduct and comes to a single-point urban interchange at NY 25A. A short distance past NY 25A, the freeway splits into east and west segments with four lanes each that respectively merge into the Grand Central Parkway east- and west-bound. Astoria Boulevard is accessible from either leg.[2][3] Both legs receive Interstate funding, though only the western leg is signed as part of I-278.[14]

A congested elevated freeway passing through an area of urban high rise buildings
The expressway rising to its elevated section in Brooklyn

Grand Central Parkway and Triborough Bridge

I-278 turns west to run along the eight-lane state-maintained Grand Central Parkway, with Astoria Boulevard (and Hoyt Avenue later on) serving as a frontage road.[3][13] The road runs along a depressed alignment, passing under Amtrak's Northeast Corridor.[3] At the 31st Street interchange, the Grand Central Parkway overlap ends, and I-278 continues northwest along the tolled, eight-lane Triborough Bridge, which passes over Astoria.[2][3] Eastbound tolls are collected electronically at this point.[15][6]

Approach to the Triborough Bridge in Astoria, with Hoyt Avenue on either side

I-278 crosses the East River on the Triborough Bridge, which maintained by the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. It then enters Wards Island, which is a part of the borough of Manhattan.[3][7] On Wards Island, the highway heads north through Wards Island Park and passes to the east of Manhattan Psychiatric Center as it passes over the border onto Randall's Island, which is connected to Wards Island by land.[3] I-278 passes through the bridge's former toll plaza before an interchange that provides access to Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive by way of another segment of the Triborough Bridge over the Harlem River. After this interchange, the Triborough Bridge carries the route over the Bronx Kill into the Bronx,[2][3] where westbound tolls are collected electronically.[15][6]

Bruckner Expressway

In the Bronx, I-278 becomes the Bruckner Expressway and reaches an interchange with the southern terminus of I-87 (Major Deegan Expressway).[2] At this point, the Bruckner Expressway heads northeast on a six-lane elevated alignment through industrial areas with some residences, paralleling the Northeast Corridor.[3] Along this section, there is a westbound exit and eastbound entrance for 138th Street.[2] I-895 splits from the eastbound direction of I-278 as the Bruckner Expressway makes a turn to the east into residential and commercial neighborhoods on a surface alignment, crossing the Bronx River on a drawbridge.[2][3] The road has an interchange at Hunts Point Avenue before coming to the Bronx River Parkway. Continuing east, the road has an exit serving White Plains Road and Castle Hill Avenue.[2]

Eastbound I-278 in the Bronx, at the exit for I-895

I-278's eastern terminus is at the Bruckner Interchange further to the east. Here, the Bruckner Expressway becomes I-95 and continues towards the New England Thruway. At this interchange, I-278 also has access to I-295, I-678, and the Hutchinson River Parkway.[2][3] Legally, the New York section of I-278 is defined as part of Interstate Route Connector 512 and all of Interstate Route Connector 518 in New York Highway Law § 340-a.[16]


New Jersey

The start of I-278 in New Jersey

The New Jersey portion of freeway was planned in 1955 as the Union Freeway and designated as I-278 in 1958. It was to connect the Goethals Bridge west to I-78 at the tripoint of Springfield, Union Township, and Millburn.[17][18] The western part of this planned freeway faced strong opposition.[19] Even though it was to run along an abandoned railroad right-of-way, it would traverse through dense development in Roselle Park, Kenilworth, and Union Township,[20] thereby making the project further disliked.[19] By 1967, state officials decided not to pursue the continuation of I-278, and used the funds for I-278 to build I-195 across Central New Jersey instead.[21] The only section of I-278 in New Jersey was built between US 1/9 in Linden and the Goethals Bridge, opening to traffic in 1969 at a cost of $11.5 million.[22]

The Union Freeway Extension was revived in the late 1960s, and was to start at US 1/9, but end at I-287 in Hanover Township, following the Route 24 freeway between I-78 and I-287. However, the Federal Highway Administration rejected the proposal in 1970, thus ending the I-278 project.[23]

The original four-lane Goethals Bridge, which predated the I-278 designation, was replaced with two new 3-lane cable-stayed bridges, each carrying traffic in one direction. The new eastbound bridge opened to both directions of traffic in June 2017,[24] and westbound traffic was shifted to the new westbound bridge in May 2018.[25]

Staten Island Expressway

The new exit 15 on the Staten Island Expressway eastbound, opened on July 9, 2012

The Staten Island Expressway was first planned in 1941 as the Cross-Richmond Express Highway, a freeway connecting the Goethals and Verrazzano (originally Verrazano) bridges that was a part of a comprehensive system of freeways and parkways for the borough of Staten Island.[26] In 1945, Robert Moses took over planning for the freeway and called it the Clove Lakes Expressway.[27] The plan received approval in stages through the mid-1950s and construction on the expressway began in 1959.[19][28] By this time, the Staten Island Expressway had received the I-278 designation.[17]

The construction of the Staten Island Expressway was particularly noted for the massive movement of earth required to build the section of the highway between Clove Road and Price Street (now Narrows Road North, a service road of the expressway) between Grymes Hill and Emerson Hill. The earth removed from the cut in the hill was placed in a remote section of central Staten Island adjacent to Sea View Hospital and has since been nicknamed "Moses Mountain," as a backhanded compliment to the highway's builder.[29] Originally Moses intended for a spur of the expressway, the Richmond Parkway, to follow the central ridge of the island, connecting with the Outerbridge Crossing in the southwestern part of the island. However, there was massive local opposition to this spur, and unlike previous projects by Moses, the northern half of the spur was canceled when Mayor John V. Lindsay took office in 1966. The southern half of this proposed spur was built, however.[5] The aborted section, from the Expressway to Richmond Avenue, has become a part of the Staten Island Greenbelt, one of New York City's public parks.[5] A ramp stub of an interchange on the expressway, cut into the hills of Todt Hill, still exists. Part of the trail system of the Greenbelt was using the abandoned overpass bridge as pedestrian crossing of the Expressway up until 2013, when it was dismantled for lane widening improvements.[3][30]

The first link of the Staten Island Expressway opened in January 1964, from the Goethals Bridge to Victory Boulevard. The remainder opened later that year. The freeway had a total cost of $47 million.[31] In 1998, bus lanes were created on the eastern part of the Staten Island Expressway near the Verrazano Narrows Bridge; they were extended west to Todt Hill Road/Slosson Avenue in 2005.[32][33] In 2008, the bus lanes were opened to high-occupancy vehicles during rush hours.[4]

In July 2008, officials announced a $50 million project to improve the severe traffic conditions on a 1.8-mile (2.9 km) stretch of the expressway. Included in the project is the construction of six new on- and off-ramps, improvements to and relocations of existing on- and off-ramps, and other improvements to surrounding roads. This followed numerous minor alterations to alleviate traffic, such as time/distance displays and the designated bus lanes.[30] Construction started in November 2010, with the project then expected to cost $75 million.[34] A new exit 15, which served Lily Pond Avenue and Bay Street on the eastern end of Staten Island, opened to traffic on July 9, 2012, replacing a former exit further to the east. Signage was also changed to display Fingerboard Road and Lily Pond Avenue as the outlet for the new exit, rather than Lily Pond and Bay Street.[35][36] On January 17, 2013, westbound exit 13 was permanently closed in favor of a new interchange setup, which involved two new ramps: exit 13B for Richmond Road and Targee Street and exit 13A for Clove Road and Richmond Road.[37]

Gowanus Expressway

An elevated four lane freeway in an urban area as it appeared in 1954
The original Gowanus Expressway in 1954, before widening. This part was built on the BMT Third Avenue Elevated

The Gowanus Expressway was initially the Gowanus Parkway, first planned in the 1930s.[38] Construction of the road, overseen by Robert Moses, started in 1939, with the parkway being built on top of the BMT Third Avenue Line. The parkway was completed in 1941 and became part of a Belt Parkway that received the NY 27A designation.[39] The Gowanus Parkway was to be reconstructed into the Gowanus Expressway in the 1950s to connect the Verrazano Narrows Bridge to the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel. The first segment of the Gowanus Expressway, from the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel to the Prospect Expressway (NY 27), was opened in May 1950.[40] The freeway was initially planned to be twelve lanes, with two 3-lane roadways in each direction, but it was ultimately reduced to a six-lane highway to reduce disruption to the Bay Ridge neighborhood.[27] The Gowanus Expressway was incorporated into the Interstate Highway System and became a component of I-278.[17] The conversion of Gowanus Expressway to a six-lane freeway configuration was completed in 1964 at a cost of $100 million.[31] The NY 27A designation was removed from the Gowanus Expressway by 1970.[41][42]

By 2000, a high-occupancy vehicle lane was added to the eastbound Gowanus Expressway to serve traffic heading toward Manhattan.[9] Over the years, the viaduct structure of the Gowanus Expressway has deteriorated.[43] In 1998, a $16 million feasibility study for a tunnel for the Gowanus Expressway was awarded.[44] The New York State Department of Transportation was considering putting the road in a tunnel,[45] but in November 2011 the Federal Highway Administration canceled the project.[46] The viaduct's vertical steel supports show material missing due to rust,[47] but the federal government promises it won't collapse.[48]

Brooklyn–Queens Expressway and Grand Central Parkway

The Brooklyn–Queens Expressway was initially planned in 1936 as the Brooklyn–Queens Connecting Highway, a link between the Gowanus Parkway and the Triborough Bridge.[49] The brief portion of I-278 on the Grand Central Parkway, connecting the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway and the Triborough Bridge, had opened in the 1930s.[50] A part of the Brooklyn–Queens Connecting Highway, namely the Kosciuszko Bridge and the viaducts leading to the bridge, opened in 1939 between Meeker Avenue and Queens Boulevard (NY 25).[51]

In 1940, Moses proposed an expressway between Queens and Brooklyn to relieve local streets of congestion from the Manhattan and Williamsburg Bridges.[52] The section between the Kosciuszko and Williamsburg Bridges opened on May 25, 1950.[53] A further extension between the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel and the Brooklyn Bridge, which included the Brooklyn Heights Promenade, was opened on June 23, 1954, connecting to the Gowanus Expressway.[54] This was followed by a mile-long section between the Williamsburg Bridge and Flushing Avenue on September 1, 1958.[55] Two sections of the expressway opened on August 26, 1959: a segment between the Brooklyn Bridge and Tillary Street in Brooklyn, and between the Grand Central Parkway and Roosevelt Avenue in Queens.[56] The expressway between Tillary Street and Flushing Avenue, around the Brooklyn Navy Yard, was opened shortly thereafter on January 6, 1960.[57] The road in its entirety was completed on December 23, 1964 at a cost of $137 million, with the opening of a mile-long underpass connecting Queens Boulevard with Roosevelt Avenue.[58] The major interchange with the Long Island Expressway was rebuilt in 1966 for $32.7 million.[59]

A freeway in a trench through an urban area, with a church visible in the background
Climbing out of trench in Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn and passing St. Stephens to head south for Gowanus Canal as seen during the Five Boro Bike Tour

The construction of the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway, overseen by Moses, tore through many residential neighborhoods in Brooklyn and Queens instead of following the East River.[29][60] One portion of the expressway, the two-tiered Promenade section in Brooklyn Heights that was designed by Moses, was originally planned to go straight through Hicks Street, then connect to the Brooklyn Bridge at Adams Street. Another route that was proposed by Moses would have continued up Hicks Street past Atlantic Avenue, removing all the buildings on one side of Court Street, then curving east into Tillary Street (at Cadman Plaza). The Brooklyn Heights Association was able to fight these proposed routes, which created the two-tiered section above Furman Street with the Promenade over it.[61] Several tunnels were later proposed to replace the Promenade,[62] but none of the tunnel proposals were supported or funded.[63]

In 1958, existing segments of the expressway were eligible for interstate highway funding. For a short time, the segment of highway between the Triborough Bridge and the Williamsburg Bridge was to be designated I-87 and continue north as the Major Deegan Expressway. By 1959, the I-278 designation was given to the entire length of the highway.[17] Since the roadway was constructed prior to modern expressway standards, the road needed to be upgraded to meet these standards. By the 1990s, a major multiyear project beginning in the 1980s brought upgrades to the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway.[64]

In 1999, a proposal surfaced to put the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway in a tunnel.[65] In the early 2000s, the expressway underwent another upgrade project that replaced the viaduct within downtown Brooklyn and Fort Greene.[66] Simultaneously, the Queens section of the BQE between Queens Boulevard and 25th Avenue was also renovated.[67] The Koscisuzko Bridge was replaced from 2014 to 2017 with a new eastbound span that temporarily served both directions of traffic.[68] A second span of the Kosciuszko Bridge would open in 2020 for westbound traffic, adding more lanes to the BQE across the bridge.[68]

Formerly, the frontage road of the Grand Central between BQE and the RFK Bridge served as a truck route, since large trucks are not permitted on the parkway. Exemptions are provided for smaller trucks that conform with strict regulations, but only on the section of the Grand Central that overlaps with I-278.[69] In December 2017, the state concluded a $2.5 million project that lowered the roadbed of the section of the parkway that is concurrent with I-278. This section of I-278 now has a 14-foot (4.3 m) vertical clearance, which allows most trucks to stay on I-278.[70]

Aanother upgrade is set to renovate the section of the BQE in Brooklyn Heights underneath the aging Promenade structure starting in 2020.[71] In fall 2018, the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) proposed rebuilding the double-decker, 1.5-mile (2.4 km) section of I-278 running under the Brooklyn Heights Promenade, which had deteriorated severely over the years. Two options were proposed.[72][73] The cheaper option entailed building a temporary 6-lane highway in the location of the Promenade while they repaired the underlying structure.[74][72][73] The other, more expensive option was to repair the existing 6-lane highway one lane at a time.[73][72] Because of sizable opposition to demolishing the promenade, mayor Bill de Blasio later stated that his administration was open to considering other ideas, including routing the expressway over Brooklyn Bridge Park.[75]

Bruckner Expressway

The eastern end of I-278, at the Bruckner Interchange

The Bruckner Expressway was originally the Bruckner Boulevard, designated as part of NY 1A.[76][77][78] In the 1930s, a freeway was planned on the Bruckner Boulevard alignment in order to provide a connection between the Triborough Bridge and a freeway leading north into Westchester County.[26][49] Moses took over planning for the road in 1951 and called for an elevated freeway between the Triborough Bridge and the Bronx River and a depressed freeway east of there.[79] Construction on the elevated segment of the Bruckner Expressway began in 1957 and on the depressed segment in 1959. The depressed portion was opened in 1961 while the elevated portion of the Bruckner Expressway was opened in 1962.[80] In 1972, the large Bruckner Interchange was finished, completing the route.[81]

Over the years, the I-278 portion of the Bruckner Expressway has had different designations. When the Interstate Highway System was first created, the road was to be part of I-895 from I-87 to the Sheridan Expressway and I-678 from there to I-95.[17] Later, I-278 was planned to follow the Bruckner Expressway from I-87 to the Sheridan Expressway, where it would continue on that freeway to I-95, while the Bruckner Expressway was not designated an interstate north of there.[41] By 1970, I-278 was routed onto its current alignment, with I-895 created along the Sheridan Expressway.[42]

Exit list

State County Location mi[1][2][82][83] km Old exit New exit Destinations Notes
New Jersey Union Linden 0.00 0.00 3B US 1-9 south – Linden Proposed link approved by the Port Authority would allow access to US 1-9 north[84]
Elizabeth 1.01 1.63 3C Route 439 (Bayway Avenue) to US 1-9 north – Elizabeth, Linden Last eastbound exit before toll
1.20 1.93 3A I-95 / N.J. Turnpike Exit 13 on I-95 / NJ Turnpike
Arthur Kill 2.00
Goethals Bridge (eastbound toll)
New York Staten Island Bloomfield 1.60 2.57 3 Western Avenue Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
1.70 2.74 4 Forest Avenue Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
1.83 2.95 5 NY 440 south (West Shore Expressway) – Outerbridge Crossing Western terminus of concurrency with NY 440
1.90 3.06 6 South Avenue Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
GranitevilleBulls Head
2.04 3.28 7 Richmond Avenue
2.74 4.41 8 Victory Boulevard Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
2.93 4.72 9 NY 440 north (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Expressway) – Bayonne Bridge Eastern terminus of concurrency with NY 440; exit 10 on NY 440
2.74 4.41 10 Victory Boulevard Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
Castleton CornersWillowbrook
3.44 5.54 11 Bradley Avenue
4.78 7.69 12 Todt Hill Road / Slosson Avenue
SunnysideEmerson Hill
5.73 9.22 13 Clove Road / Richmond Road / Targee Street / Hylan Boulevard Signed as exits 13A (Clove) and 13B (Richmond / Targee) westbound; Hylan Boulevard only accessible eastbound
7.34 11.81 14 Narrows Road west / Fingerboard Road / Hylan Boulevard
Fort Wadsworth 7.58 12.20 15 Fingerboard Road / Lily Pond Avenue – South Beach Signed as exits 15S (south) and 15N (north) westbound
The Narrows 8.88 14.29 Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge (westbound toll)
Brooklyn Bay Ridge 8.64 13.90 16 Belt Parkway east – Kennedy Airport Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; exit 3 on Belt Parkway; no commercial vehicles
9.84 15.84 17 92nd Street – Bay Ridge Last westbound exit before toll
10.47 16.85 18 Fort Hamilton Parkway Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
10.89 17.53 19 86th Street Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
Sunset Park 11.18 17.99 20 7th Avenue / 65th Street / 6th Avenue
11.93 19.20 21 Third Avenue Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
12.65 20.36 22 Belt Parkway east Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; western terminus of the Belt Parkway; no commercial vehicles
Greenwood Heights 13.92 22.40 23 38th Street / 39th Street No entrance ramps
14.29 23.00 24 NY 27 east (Prospect Expressway) No westbound entrance from NY 27; western terminus of NY 27
Red Hook 15.06 24.24 26A 25 Hugh L. Carey Tunnel (I-478) to West Street (NY 9A) / Holland Tunnel (I-78) / FDR Drive – Manhattan Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; westbound exit/eastbound entrance is via exit 26
15.14 24.37 26B 26 Hamilton Avenue Signed westbound for Hugh L. Carey Tunnel – Manhattan
Brooklyn Heights 16.12 25.94 27 Atlantic Avenue
16.74 26.94 28A Cadman Plaza West No eastbound entrance; signed as exit 28 westbound
Downtown Brooklyn 17.20 27.68 28B Brooklyn Bridge Eastbound exit only; westbound exit is via exit 28
17.47 28.12 29A Manhattan Bridge Eastbound exit and entrance; westbound exit is via exit 29
18.10 29.13 29B Tillary Street – Brooklyn Civic Center Signed as exit 29 westbound
Clinton Hill 18.68 30.06 30 Flushing Avenue Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
Williamsburg 19.32 31.09 31 Wythe Avenue / Kent Avenue Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
19.85 31.95 32A Williamsburg Bridge – Manhattan Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; indirect eastbound exit and westbound entrance via exit 32B
20.41 32.85 32B Metropolitan Avenue No eastbound entrance; signed as exit 32 eastbound
Greenpoint 20.60 33.15 33 Humboldt Street / McGuinness Boulevard Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
21.80 35.08 34 Meeker Avenue / Morgan Avenue Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
Newtown Creek 22.10 35.57 Kosciuszko Bridge
Queens Long Island City 22.40–
35 I-495 (Long Island Expressway) / 48th Street / Greenpoint Avenue – Midtown Tunnel, Eastern Long Island Westbound exit to I-495 east via Greenpoint Avenue; no eastbound entrance from I-495 west;
signed as exits 35A (west) and 35B (east) eastbound; 48th Street not signed eastbound; exit 17 on I-495
Woodside 23.30 37.50 36 39 NY 25 (Queens Boulevard) / 65th Place / 58th Street Signed as exits 39W (west) and 39E (east) westbound
23.87 38.42 37 40 Broadway / Roosevelt Avenue
Jackson Heights 24.48 39.40 38 41 NY 25A (Northern Boulevard)
24.66 39.69 39 42 Grand Central Parkway east – LaGuardia Airport Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; exit 4 on Grand Central Parkway
25.30 40.72 40 43 30th Avenue Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
Astoria 25.57 41.15 41 44 Astoria Boulevard west Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
26.01 41.86 4 Grand Central Parkway east – LaGuardia Airport Eastern terminus of concurrency with the Grand Central Parkway; westbound exit and eastbound entrance; no commercial vehicles
26.37 42.44 3 45 31st Street / Astoria Boulevard Western terminus of the Grand Central Parkway; last eastbound exit before toll
East River 27.11 43.63 Robert F. Kennedy Bridge suspension span (eastbound toll gantry)
Manhattan Randall's Island 27.58 44.39 46A Randall's Island Westbound exit only; eastbound access via exit 46
28.18 45.35 46 FDR Drive – Manhattan, Randall's Island Toll gantry before entrance ramps for I-278 and Randall's Island
Hell Gate 28.60 46.03 Robert F. Kennedy Bridge truss span (westbound toll gantry)
The Bronx Port Morris 28.89 46.49 44 47 I-87 north (Major Deegan Expressway) to New York Thruway – Albany Southern terminus of I-87
29.49 47.46 45 48 East 138th Street Westbound entrance via St. Ann's Place
Hunts Point 30.78 49.54 46 49 NY 895 north (Sheridan Expressway) to East 177th Street Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; southern terminus of NY 895 (former I-895)
31.18 50.18 50 Hunts Point Avenue – Hunts Point Market Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
Soundview 31.48 50.66 51 Bronx River Avenue Westbound exit only
31.58 50.82 51 52 Bronx River Parkway north – White Plains No westbound exit; exit 2 on Bronx Parkway
No commercial vehicles
Unionport 32.35 52.06 52 53 White Plains Road / Castle Hill Avenue
Throggs Neck 33.62 54.11 54 I-295 south (Throgs Neck Bridge) / I-678 south (Whitestone Bridge) / Hutchinson River Parkway north / Zerega Avenue Bruckner Interchange; eastbound exit and westbound entrance;
northern termini of I-295 and I-678; southern terminus of Hutchinson Parkway
33.62 54.11 I-95 north (Bruckner Expressway) – New Haven, CT Eastern terminus; exit 6B on I-95
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also


  1. ^ It does not go through the island of Manhattan, but does pass through Randalls and Wards Islands, which are technically a part of the borough of Manhattan.


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External links

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata
  • Interstate 278 at Alps' Roads • New York Routes
  • Union Freeway @
  • Staten Island Expressway @
  • Gowanus Expressway @
  • BQE @
  • Bruckner Expressway @
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