Indonesia Raya

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Indonesia Raya
English: Indonesia the Great
Original recording from 1945

National anthem of  Indonesia
Also known as Indonesia Raja → (old spelling)
English: Great Indonesia
Lyrics Wage Rudolf Supratman, 1924
Music Wage Rudolf Supratman, 1924
Adopted 17 August 1945 (original)
17 August 1950 (official)
Audio sample
'"Indonesia Raya"'
(Symphonic rendition by Jozef Cleber)

"Indonesia Raya" has been the national anthem of Indonesia since the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia on the 17 August 1945. The song was introduced by its composer, Wage Rudolf Supratman, on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress in Batavia.[1] The song marked the birth of the all-archipelago nationalist movement in Indonesia that supported the idea of one single "Indonesia" as successor to the Dutch East Indies, rather than split into several colonies. The first newspaper to openly publish the musical notation and lyrics of "Indonesia Raya" — an act of defiance towards the Dutch authorities — was the Chinese Indonesian weekly Sin Po.[2]

The first stanza of "Indonesia Raya" was chosen as the national anthem when Indonesia proclaimed its independence at 17 August 1945. Jozef Cleber, a Dutch composer, created an arrangement of the tune for philharmonic orchestra in 1950. This arrangement is widely used.[3]

"Indonesia Raya" is played in flag raising ceremonies (student assemblies) in schools across Indonesia every Monday. The flag is raised in a solemn and timed motion so that it reaches the top of the flagpole as the anthem ends. The main flag raising ceremony is held annually on 17 August to commemorate Independence day. The ceremony is led by the President of Indonesia and is usually held in Merdeka Palace.

History

Indonesian Youth Congress

In 1928, youths from across Indonesia held the first Indonesian Youth Congress, an official meeting to push for the independence of the nation. Upon hearing about the efforts, young reporter Wage Rudolf Supratman contacted the organizers of Congress with the intention of reporting the story, but they requested that he not publish the story from fear of Dutch colonial authorities. The organizers wanted to avoid suspicion so that the Dutch would not ban the event. Supratman promised them this, and the organizers allowed him free access to the event. Supratman, who was also a musician and also a teacher, was inspired by the meetings and intended to write a song for the conference. After receiving encouragement from the conference leader Sugondo Djojopuspito, Supratman played on the violin the song Indonesia with the hope that it would someday become a national anthem. He kept the script to himself because he felt that it was not the appropriate time to announce it.[4]

Supratman first performed Indonesia on the violin on 28 October 1928 during the Second Indonesian Youth Congress.[5]

Distribution

Following the Second Youth Congress, the text of Indonesia was distributed by many political and student organisations. The press also played a key role in the publication of the song. On 7 November 1928, the Soeloeh Ra'jat Indonesia daily published the words to the song. This was followed by the Sin Po Chinese weekly on 10 November.[6] In 1929, Wage Rudolf Supratman changed the title of his song to "Indonesia Raya" and appended the phrase National Anthem of Indonesia below it, but the text of the song did not change. Supratman personally printed and distributed copies of the song with its new title through pamphlets. All one thousand copies of the manuscript were sold within a short amount of time to his friends and family.[7]

A businessman friend of his, Yo Kim Tjan, also expressed interest in recording "Indonesia Raya". With Supratman's consent, Yo created a copy of the song on a gramophone record overseas to obtain the best sound quality with the intention of bringing the copy back to Indonesia. However, before Yo was able to do so, Dutch colonial authorities had imposed a ban on the song. Yo was unable to bring the original back but was able to bring home a copy. According to Yo, Supratman had also given him the rights to sell record copies of "Indonesia Raya" through his store Toko Populair.[8]

Orchestral rendition

Initially, there had been no orchestral rendition of the anthem. Thus in 1950, President Soekarno made an appeal to Jozef Cleber to compose a symphonic rendition of "Indonesia Raya".

Cleber at the time had been among the 46 persons of the Cosmopolitan Orchestra, under direction of Yvon Baarspul, sent by the Netherlands Government to help the Indonesian Government for its own music development in Jakarta. "Jos" Cleber was an experienced arranger for not only popular songs back in his hometown, but also for Indonesian pop song arrangements such as Di Bawah Sinar Bulan Purnama and Rangkaian Melati. The final rendition of the anthem is still in common use today.

The arrangements starts with a Tutti of strings and trumpets (in Verse A) that represents a brave and an elegant sound, and in the middle of the song (in Verse B) is played smoothly by strings, and finally (in Verse C) comes another Tutti of strings and trumpets, together with the timpani and cymbals, giving it a brave sound fitting for a national anthem that was respected by the people.

The original recording was recorded by the Cosmopolitan Orchestra under Cleber's direction on Phillips tape in 1951 by the Radio of Jakarta. The record was digitally restored in 1997 in Australia based on Cleber's sheet music that was kept in Jakarta, and it was played again by the Victorian Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Addie MS.

Ownership

In 1951, ownership of the copyright to "Indonesia Raya" came into question. President Sukarno ordered a search for the rightful heir to Supratman.[9] By law, Supratman was the copyright holder of "Indonesia Raya" as its composer. After Supratman's death in 1938, ownership of the rights to his works fell upon the designated heirs, his four surviving sisters. However, because "Indonesia Raya" was officially adopted as the national anthem of Indonesia on 17 August 1945, the work became the property of the state. In addition, the name of "Wage Rudolf Supratman" must be listed as its creator.[10]

As a national anthem, copies of "Indonesia Raya" cannot be circulated as merchandise to be sold. Consequently, the government had the obligation to obtain all the rights to distribute the song, including the original recording, from Yo Kim Tjan. In 1958, the government obtained the sole right to "Indonesia Raya" from Supratman's family.[11] The following year, Yo handed the original record of the song to the Indonesian government. With the recommendation of the Department of Education, the government also rewarded Supratman's sisters with 250,000 Indonesian rupiah each on 31 May 1960.[12]

National anthem

"Indonesia Raya", as stated in the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia tahun 1945) is the national anthem of Republic of Indonesia.[13] This is stipulated in the Chapter XV, Article 36B of the constitution.[14]

Furthermore, based on Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 44 Tahun 1958[15] (PP No.44/1958 - Government Regulation Number 44 Year 1958), the first stanza of "Indonesia Raya" is used as the official lyrics of the national anthem of Indonesia.

Lyrics

There is no official translation of "Indonesia Raya" into other languages. On 28 October 1953, on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the anthem, the Harian Umum daily published their own English, German, and Dutch translations of the song. A bulletin released by the Ministry of Information used these translations.[16] Currently, however, the translations are no longer published. The following table includes the original lyrics of the song in Indonesian, an approximate literal translation into English and a more poetic, singable one.

Indonesia Raya (Indonesia the Great)
Indonesian lyrics English translation Singable English translation
First stanza

Indonesia, tanah airku
Tanah tumpah darahku
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Jadi pandu ibuku

Indonesia, kebangsaanku
Bangsa dan tanah airku
Marilah kita berseru
"Indonesia bersatu!"

Hiduplah tanahku, hiduplah negeriku
Bangsaku, rakyatku, semuanya
Bangunlah jiwanya, bangunlah badannya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

<REFRAIN >  :
Indonesia Raya, merdeka! Merdeka!
Tanahku, negeriku yang kucinta
Indonesia Raya, merdeka! Merdeka!
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya!
Indonesia Raya, merdeka! Merdeka!
Tanahku, negeriku yang kucinta
Indonesia Raya, merdeka! Merdeka!
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya!

Indonesia, my homeland.
The land where I have shed my blood.
It is there I stand,
to be my motherland's guide.

Indonesia, my country
My people and my homeland,
Let us proclaim
"Indonesians unite!"

Long live my land, long live my country
My people, my homeland, all of it
let her soul be raised may her body be awakened
For Indonesia the Great

<REFRAIN >  :
Indonesia the Great, independent and free
My home and country which I love
Indonesia the Great, independent and free
Long live Indonesia the Great!
Indonesia the Great, independent and free
My home and country which I love
Indonesia the Great, independent and free
Long live Indonesia the Great!
Indonesia, beloved homeland

Where I have spilt my blood

Thou art where I stand firmly

Guiding my motherland true

Indonesia, my people

I pledge my allegiance to you

Let us all unite and proclaim

"Indonesians unite!'

Long live my land, eternal may it last

My people, my country, all of it

Arise, my compatriots

For Indonesia the Great!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

My land so beloved dearly!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

Long live Indonesia the Great!

Second stanza

Indonesia, tanah yang mulia
Tanah kita yang kaya
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Untuk selama-lamanya

Indonesia, tanah pusaka
Pusaka kita semuanya
Marilah kita mendoa
"Indonesia bahagia!"

Suburlah tanahnya, suburlah jiwanya
Bangsanya, rakyatnya, semuanya
Sadarlah hatinya, sadarlah budinya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

<REFRAIN >

Indonesia, a noble land
Our wealthy land
there I stand
Forever and ever

Indonesia, the land of heritage
A heritage to us all
Let us pray
"Joyful Indonesia!"

Fertile may her soil, flourish may her soul
The nation, the people, entirely
Vigilant may her heart, vigilant may her mind
For the Great Indonesia

<REFRAIN >
Indonesia, noble and sublime

A land bountiful and free

Thou art where I plant my roots

Forever to stand

Indonesia, land of my fathers

All thine children's heirloom

Let us pray to thine success

For Indonesians' joy!

Rich are thy fields, holy is thine soul

Every one of us, arise!

Open all thine hearts and minds

For Indonesia the Great!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

My land so beloved dearly!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

Long live Indonesia the Great!

Third stanza

Indonesia, tanah yang suci
Tanah kita yang sakti
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Menjaga ibu sejati

Indonesia, tanah berseri
Tanah yang aku sayangi
Marilah kita berjanji
"Indonesia abadi!"

Selamatlah rakyatnya, selamatlah putranya
Pulaunya, lautnya, semuanya
Majulah negerinya, majulah pandunya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

<REFRAIN >

Indonesia, a sacred land
Our victorious land
there, I stand
To defend the good mother

Indonesia, a radiant land
My beloved land
Let us pledge
"Indonesia is eternal!"

Safe may her people, safe may her children
her islands, her seas entirely
Let the country be developed, let her scouts advance
For the Great Indonesia

<REFRAIN >
Indonesia, land so pure

A land mighty with resolve

Thou art whom I pledge to

My unchanging allegiance.

Indonesia, a resplendent spirit

Escapes not thine body nor soul

Let us all unite and proclaim

"Indonesia, one and true!"

May thy children be safe from all strife and war

Thy islands, thy seas, too

Indonesians, march on, Indonesians march on

For Indonesia the Great!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

My land so beloved dearly!

Indonesia the Great, be free, be free!

Long live Indonesia the Great!

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Indonesia - Indonesia Raya". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 
  2. ^ "National Geographic Indonesia Pewarta Melayu-Tionghoa di era pergerakan nasional". 
  3. ^ "Error". www.jakarta.go.id. 
  4. ^ Sularto 1982, pp. 11–13
  5. ^ Sularto 1982, p. 20
  6. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 37
  7. ^ Sularto 1982, p. 28
  8. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 38
  9. ^ Winarno 2003, p. 63
  10. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 61
  11. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 62
  12. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 64
  13. ^ Wikisource:Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia#Section XV .2A.2A : The State.27s Flag.2C Language.2C and Coat of Arms.2C and The National Anthem
  14. ^ s:Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia#Section XV .2A.2A : The State's Flag, Language, and Coat of Arms, and The National Anthem
  15. ^ http://www.hukumonline.com/detail.asp?id=22256&cl=Berita (a news article stating the regulation regulating the symbol and instrument of the country)
  16. ^ Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya 1972, p. 59

References

  • Panitia Penyusun Naskah Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (1972), Brosur Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (in Indonesian), Jakarta: Proyek Pengembangan Media Kebudayaan, OCLC 2391302. 
  • Sularto, Bambang (1982), Sejarah Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (in Indonesian) (1st ed.), Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, OCLC 10894709. 
  • Winarno, Bondan (2003), Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya (in Indonesian), Jakarta: TSA Komunika, ISBN 979-97105-1-0. 

External links

  • Streaming audio, lyrics and information for and about 'Indonesia Raya'
  • Music Video - An Amazing HD Version of Indonesian National Anthem, hosted on YouTube
  • Indonesia Raya 1945 - A World War II era reel that shows the full length song, also hosted on YouTube
  • Indonesia Raya during the Commemoration of the Anniversary of the Indonesian Armed Forces
  • Indonesia Raya performed by an orchestra
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