Independence Day (Brazil)

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Independence Day
Dia da Independência
Brazilian Army Parade.jpeg
Independence Day parade in Brasília
Also called Sete de Setembro (September 7)
Dia da Pátria (Nation's Day)
Observed by Brazil
Type National
Significance The day of the Declaration of Independence of Brazil
Celebrations Parades and concerts
Date September 7
Next time 7 September 2018 (2018-09-07)
Frequency annual

The Independence Day of Brazil (Portuguese: Dia da Independência, Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈdʒi.ɐ dɐ ĩdepẽˈdẽsjɐ]), commonly called Sete de Setembro (Seventh of September, [ˈsɛtʃi dʒi seˈtẽbɾu]), is a national holiday observed in Brazil on September 7 of every year. The date celebrates Brazil's Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves on September 7, 1822.

Background

In 1808, French troops commanded by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Portugal as a retaliation for the Iberian country's refusal to participate in the trade embargo against the United Kingdom. Fleeing persecution, the Portuguese monarchs transferred the Portuguese Court from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, then capital of Colonial Brazil. In 1815, Prince Regent John VI created the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, elevating Brazil to the rank of kingdom and increasing its administrative independence. Brazil, Portugal, and Great Britain were the three major contributors to the Independence of Brazil all three motivated by the circumstances peculiar to each.[1] Brazil's Independence was ultimately won through diplomacy after 3 years of war against Portugal.[1]

Origin

Prince Pedro declares the Independence of Brazil on September 7, 1822. "Independência ou Morte" (Independence or death) (1888), oil on canvas painting by Pedro Américo.

A political revolution erupted in Portugal in 1820, forcing the royal family to return. John VI's heir, Pedro, Prince of Brazil, remained in Brazil. In 1821, the Portuguese Assembly demanded Brazil to return to its former condition of colony and the return of the heir prince to Portugal. Pedro, influenced by the Rio de Janeiro Senate (Senado da Câmara) refused to return on January 9, 1822, a date which became known as Dia do Fico (I'll Stay Day).

On September 2, 1822, a new decree with Lisbon's demands arrived in Rio de Janeiro, while Prince Pedro was in São Paulo. Princess Maria Leopoldina, acting as Princess Regent, met with the Council of Ministers and decided to send her husband a letter advising him to proclaim Brazil's independence. The letter reached Prince Pedro on September 7, 1822. That same day, in a famous scene at the shore of the Ipiranga River, he declared the country's independence, ending 322 years of colonial dominance of Portugal over Brazil.[2] On the day of Prince Pedro's proclamation he was declaring a fact for the foundations of a new state had already been laid.[1] According to journalist Laurentino Gomes, who wrote a book about the event, Prince Pedro "could not wait for his arrival to São Paulo to announce the decision".[3] Gomes adds that "he was a reckless man in his decisions but he had the profile of leader that Brazil needed at the time, because there was no time to think".[3]

Observance

  • Federal law N° 662, issued on April 4, 1949, made Independence Day a paid federal holiday.[4][5]
  • Federal law N° 5.571, issued on November 28, 1969, established the protocol for the Independence Day celebration.[6]

Celebration

In Brazil

President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, beside his wife Marisa Letícia, reviews troops during the parade in 2007.

Independence Day is a national holiday marked by patriotic displays and military parades in most Brazilian cities.

In Brasília, the celebration takes place at the Ministries Esplanade with a military parade in the presence of the President of Brazil. Around 30,000 people attend the event each year, which costs about one million reais.[7][8] Similar military and civil parades are held in all the state capitals, and in many cities throughout the country.

The national commemorations are broadcast on cable channel TV NBR and public TV station TV Brasil. In 2016, in honor of that year's Rio de Janeiro Summer Olympic Games, portions of that city's parade were aired on the channel. It should be noted that until 1959 all national parades were held there as it was the former capital city. By 2017 TV NBR also began broadcasting snippets of the São Paulo parade, given that the city is the birthplace of the independent country.

Abroad

In New York City, the Brazilian Day is produced by João de Matos and held annually to celebrate the Independence Day.[9] The event takes place at 46th Street, near Times Square, in Manhattan.[10] The Brazilian Day concert is the centerpiece of the event, featuring famous Brazilian musicians, such as Daniela Mercury, Ivete Sangalo, Chitãozinho & Xororó, Skank, Sandy & Junior, Cláudia Leitte, and Banda Calypso. In 2008, the event drew a crowd of 1.5 million people, according to the New York City Police Department.[9] The Brazilian television network Globo sponsors the event and airs it live to Brazil and over 115 countries through Globo International Network.

Similar events are held in Deerfield Beach, Florida,[11] San Diego,[12] Toronto,[13] Los Angeles,[14] and London, United Kingdom.[15]


Gallery

Independence Day military parade

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Manchester, Alan K. (1951). "The Recognition of Brazilian Independence". The Hispanic American Historical Review. 31 (1): 80–96. JSTOR 2509132. 
  2. ^ (in Portuguese) Sete de Setembro Prefeitura do Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved on July 5, 2009.
  3. ^ a b Brasil, Ubiratan. "O impetuoso que o país precisava". O Estado de S. Paulo. September 5, 2010.
  4. ^ (in Portuguese). Lei No 662, de 6 de Abril de 1949. Presidência da República. Retrieved on July 5, 2009.
  5. ^ (in Portuguese) Decreto Nº 27.048 de 12 de Agosto de 1949. Presidência da República. Retrieved on July 5, 2009.
  6. ^ (in Portuguese) Lei Nº 5.571, de 28 de Novembro de 1969. Soleis.adv.br. Retrieved on July 5, 2009.
  7. ^ Menezes, Leilane. "30 mil pessoas devem assistir ao desfile de 7 de setembro na Esplanada". Correio Braziliense. September 4, 2010.
  8. ^ "Festa de 7 de setembro vai custar quase R$ 1 milhão". O Globo. September 2, 2010.
  9. ^ a b History of the Brazilian Day in NY Archived September 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Brazilian Day in New York. Retrieved on July 13, 2009.
  10. ^ Kugel, Seth (August 6, 2006). "The Last Samba of Summer". New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2009. 
  11. ^ "Brazilian Day Florida". Brazilian Day Florida. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2009. 
  12. ^ Brazilian Day San Diego Brazilian Day San Diego. Retrieved on July 13, 2009.
  13. ^ "Brazilian Day Canada". Retrieved on September 7, 2010.
  14. ^ "Brazilian Day in L.A". Consulate General of Brazil. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2009. 
  15. ^ "Brazilian Day London". Brazilian Day London. Archived from the original on August 3, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2009. 
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