Hurricane Jose (2017)

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Hurricane Jose
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Jose 2017-09-08 1347z.jpg
Hurricane Jose at peak intensity near the Leeward Islands on September 8
Formed September 5, 2017
Dissipated September 26, 2017
(Extratropical after September 22)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 155 mph (250 km/h)
Lowest pressure 938 mbar (hPa); 27.7 inHg
Fatalities 1 total
Damage Minimal
Areas affected Leeward Islands, Bahamas, Bermuda, East Coast of the United States, Nova Scotia
Part of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Jose was a powerful and erratic tropical cyclone which was the longest-lived Atlantic hurricane since Hurricane Nadine in 2012. Jose was the tenth named storm, fifth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season. Jose developed into a tropical storm on September 5 from a tropical wave that left the west coast of Africa nearly a week prior. A period of rapid intensification ensued on September 6, when Jose reached hurricane intensity. On September 8, it reached its peak intensity as a high-end Category 4 hurricane. However, due to wind shear, Jose weakened over the next few days as it completed an anti-cyclonic loop north of Hispaniola. Despite weakening to a tropical storm on September 14, Jose managed to regain hurricane intensity the next day as it began to curve northwards. Never strengthening above Category 1 status for the remainder of its lifespan, Jose degraded to a tropical storm once again on September 20. Two days later, Jose transitioned into a post-tropical cyclone as it drifted northeastwards off the coast of New England. By September 26, Jose's remnants dissipated off the East Coast of the United States.

Initially projected to impact the Antilles already affected by Hurricane Irma, Jose triggered evacuations in catastrophically damaged Barbuda, as well as in Saint Martin. Eventually, as Jose changed its path, its inner core and thus the strongest winds stayed offshore. Nonetheless, Jose still brought tropical storm-force winds to those islands. Later on, Jose brought heavy rain, swells, and rough surf to the East Coast of the United States, causing beach erosion and some flooding. A person died after she was caught in a rip current in Asbury Park.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

A westward-moving tropical wave exited the west coast of Africa on August 31.[1] The wave passed south of Cape Verde on September 2 with disorganized thunderstorms. However, environmental conditions favored gradual development, which prompted the National Hurricane Center (NHC) to start tracking the system.[2] By early September 5, the system had become more organized and was producing winds of tropical storm force.[3] Later that day, satellite imagery indicated a well-defined center had formed, surrounded by deep convection and banding features. On that basis, the NHC designated the system as Tropical Storm Jose, at 15:00 UTC on September 5, about 1,505 mi (2,420 km) east of the Lesser Antilles.[4]

Jose gradually intensified in the favorable environment of warm water temperatures, low wind shear, and abundant moisture.[5] The storm developed an eye-like feature and symmetric, radial convection by September 6 as it tracked west-northwest under the influence of a subtropical ridge. The NHC upgraded Jose to hurricane status at 21:00 UTC that day, based on the improved structure and Dvorak intensity estimates.[6] Meanwhile, Jose, along with Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Katia, marked the first time that three hurricanes were simultaneously present in the Atlantic since 2010.[7] The storm subsequently underwent rapid intensification on September 6. Upon attaining peak winds of 155 mph (250 km/h) early on September 9, multiple active hurricanes in the Atlantic simultaneously had wind speeds of at least 150 mph (240 km/h) for the first time in documented history, with Hurricane Irma concurrently making landfall in Cuba as a Category 5 hurricane.[8]

Hurricane Jose off the coast of the Eastern United States on September 18

Jose slowly weakened as the eye became cloud-filled and wind shear began affecting the storm, dropping below Category 4 intensity by 20:00 UTC on September 10.[9] The storm weakened below major hurricane status 08:00 UTC the following day,[10] and below Category 2 status by 02:00 UTC September 12 as higher wind shear began to erode the core.[11] As the storm was entering an anti-cyclonic loop, at 15:00 UTC on September 14, Jose was downgraded to a tropical storm based on Dvorak estimates which put its wind speed below hurricane strength. At this time the NHC noted that northerly wind shear had kept all significant banding to the southeastern quadrant and the center was to the northwest of most convection.[12] However, as the storm was completing the anti-cyclonic loop on September 15, a reconnaissance plane recorded surface winds above hurricane threshold. Accordingly, the NHC re-upgraded Jose to a hurricane.[13]

Rounding the western periphery of the subtropical ridge, Jose moved northward, beginning on September 16.[14] Despite an asymmetric appearance on satellite imagery, the hurricane intensified slightly, reaching a secondary peak intensity of 90 mph (150 km/h) on September 17.[15] The wind field expanded as Jose continued northward, and a large convective band developed along the northern periphery as the central area of thunderstorms diminished.[16][17] An area of convection and an eye feature reformed on September 19 while the storm was east of North Carolina.[18] A Hurricane Hunters flight on September 20 indicated that Jose weakened to tropical storm status, by which time the storm turned to the northeast.[19] Thereafter, the central convection diminished as the storm passed north of the Gulf Stream over cooler water temperatures.[20] Early on September 22, the NHC redesignated Jose as a post-tropical cyclone, after convection had diminished for over 12 hours, and since the storm had acquired a frontal system. The northern convective band moved over New England while the center drifted southeast of Cape Cod.[21] Afterward, Jose's remnants continued to drift eastward off the New England coast, before slowly turning back to the west on September 23.[22] Jose continued to drift off the coast of New England on September 24 while its sustained winds gradually decreased below gale-force strength, before turning south towards Hurricane Maria later in the day.[23] On the next day, Jose's remnants made a loop back towards the Massachusetts coastline, before getting caught in the jet stream and heading eastward once again, on September 26.[24] Later that day, the remnants of Jose succumbed to wind shear, and the system dissipated off the coast of Maine.[25]

Preparations and impact

Jose (right) strengthening while threatening the Leeward Islands during the first occurrence of three active Atlantic hurricanes since 2010. Hurricanes Irma and Katia can be seen to the left of Jose.
U.S. Geological Survey specialists installed 17 storm-tide sensors in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island.

Hurricane Jose threatened the Lesser Antilles within days of catastrophic damage by Hurricane Irma, especially in Barbuda, which was 95% destroyed by Irma.[26] The government of Antigua and Barbuda began efforts on September 8 to evacuate the entire island prior to Jose's anticipated arrival.[27] Nine shelters housing 17,000 persons were opened on Barbuda.[28] Women and children of Saint Martin attempted to flee the island, although men stayed.[29] However, the inner core remained far offshore of the Lesser Antilles,[30] sparing Antigua and Barbuda.[31]

The government of the Bahamas shut down the Nassau International Airport and ordered evacuation from vulnerable Bahamian islands.[32] On September 18, while passing far to the northwest of Bermuda as a Category 1 hurricane, the outer bands of Jose produced wind gusts as high as 46 mph (74 km/h) and 1.43 in (36 mm) of rain on the islands.[33][34]

In advance of the storm, U.S. Geological Survey specialists across three states installed 17 storm-tide sensors – seven in Connecticut, seven in Massachusetts and three in Rhode Island – along shorelines likely to receive some large waves and storm surge from the storm to collect information about the storm's effects.[35] The NHC issued a tropical storm warning for portions of the Atlantic coastline, including the Outer Banks in North Carolina, through Delmarva and the Jersey Shore. Tropical storm warnings were also issued for Long Island, and the coastline of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. Storm surge warnings were also posted for Nantucket, Massachusetts and parts of the Outer Banks.[19]

On September 19, rough surf and swells from Jose flooded portions of the Outer Banks of North Carolina, causing road closures along sections of North Carolina Highway 12.[36] The storm brought heavy winds and rain to Ocean City, Maryland on September 19, with large waves and strong currents flooding a parking lot at the Ocean City Inlet.[37] On September 19, waves from Jose breached a dune and flooded a portion of Delaware Route 1 in Sussex County, Delaware, forcing the road to be closed and traffic detoured.[38] Large waves from Jose caused beach erosion along the Jersey Shore. In North Wildwood, waves from the storm went over a seawall and high tide caused street flooding along the bay. Flooding from Jose shut down Ocean Drive between Avalon and Sea Isle City.[39] One person was found unconscious after being caught in a rip current in Asbury Park; she died in the hospital the following day.[40]

See also

References

  1. ^ Eric Blake (August 31, 2017). Tropical Weather Outlook (TXT) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  2. ^ John Cangialosi (September 2, 2017). Tropical Weather Outlook (TXT) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  3. ^ John Cangialosi (September 2, 2017). Tropical Weather Outlook (TXT) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  4. ^ Chris Landsea (September 4, 2017). Tropical Storm Jose Discussion Number 1 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  5. ^ Chris Landsea (September 5, 2017). Tropical Storm Jose Discussion Number 2 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  6. ^ David Zelinsky (September 6, 2017). Hurricane Jose Discussion Number 6 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  7. ^ Grinberg, Emanuella (7 September 2017). "Three hurricanes now in the Atlantic basin". CNN. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  8. ^ Levenson, Eric (9 September 2017). "Hurricane Jose strengthens to 'extremely dangerous' Category 4". CNN. Retrieved 9 September 2017. 
  9. ^ "Hurricane JOSE". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-16. 
  10. ^ "Hurricane JOSE". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-16. 
  11. ^ "Hurricane JOSE". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-16. 
  12. ^ "Tropical Storm JOSE". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-16. 
  13. ^ Eric Blake (September 15, 2017). Hurricane Jose Discussion Number 42 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 15, 2017. 
  14. ^ Robbie Berg (September 16, 2017). Hurricane Jose Discussion Number 46 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 22, 2017. 
  15. ^ John Cangialosi (September 17, 2017). Hurricane Jose Discussion Number 49 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 22, 2017. 
  16. ^ Daniel P. Brown (September 17, 2017). Hurricane Jose Discussion Number 51 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 22, 2017. 
  17. ^ Dave Roberts (September 17, 2017). Hurricane Jose Discussion Number 52 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 22, 2017. 
  18. ^ Stacy Stewart (September 19, 2017). Hurricane Jose Discussion Number 57 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 22, 2017. 
  19. ^ a b Lixion Avila (September 20, 2017). Tropical Storm Jose Discussion Number 59 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 22, 2017. 
  20. ^ Lixion Avila (September 20, 2017). Tropical Storm Jose Discussion Number 60 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 22, 2017. 
  21. ^ David Zelinsky (September 22, 2017). Post-Tropical Cyclone Jose Discussion Number 67 (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 22, 2017. 
  22. ^ "WPC surface analysis valid for 09/23/2017 at 15 UTC". NOAA's National Weather Service. September 23, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017. 
  23. ^ "WPC surface analysis valid for 09/24/2017 at 15 UTC". NOAA's National Weather Service. September 24, 2017. Retrieved September 24, 2017. 
  24. ^ "WPC surface analysis valid for 09/26/2017 at 06 UTC". NOAA's National Weather Service. September 26, 2017. Retrieved September 26, 2017. 
  25. ^ "WPC surface analysis valid for 09/26/2017 at 18 UTC". NOAA's National Weather Service. September 26, 2017. Retrieved September 26, 2017. 
  26. ^ Fowler, Tara (9 September 2017). "Hurricane Jose to Give Irma-Battered Islands Another Lashing". ABC News. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  27. ^ "Barbuda is trying to totally evacuate today ahead of Hurricane Jose after Hurricane Irma 'demolished' 90% of the island". Business Insider. September 8, 2017. 
  28. ^ Jacguard, Nicholas (September 10, 2017). "Ouragan José : à Saint-Martin, l'angoisse puis le soulagement". Le Parisien. Retrieved September 13, 2017. 
  29. ^ Fonsegrieves, Romain (9 September 2017). "Women and children first in scramble to flee St. Martin". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 2017-09-10. Retrieved 9 September 2017. 
  30. ^ Gray, Melissa (9 September 2017). "Hurricane Jose veers away from Barbuda, sparing island hit by Irma". CNN. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  31. ^ "L'ouragan José épargne Saint-Martin et Saint-Barthélemy, dévastées par Irma". Les Vix Du Monde. September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 13, 2017. 
  32. ^ Vultaggio, Maria (8 September 2017). "Will Hurricane Jose Hit The Bahamas After Irma?". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 2017-09-11. Retrieved 9 September 2017. 
  33. ^ "Jose brings strong winds and risk of thunder". The Royal Gazette. September 18, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2017. 
  34. ^ "BWS Daily Climatology Table Two: September 1 2017 to September 18 2017". September 19, 2017. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved September 19, 2017. 
  35. ^ "More than a dozen USGS Storm-Tide Sensors Deployed for Hurricane Jose". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-20. 
  36. ^ Molina, Camila (September 19, 2017). "Rip currents from Hurricane Jose flood areas of OBX; parts of NC 12 closed". The News & Observer. Raleigh, NC. Retrieved September 20, 2017. 
  37. ^ Bavaro, Angelo (September 19, 2017). "Ocean City Pounded by Heavy Winds and Rain". Salisbury, MD: WBOC-TV. Retrieved September 19, 2017. 
  38. ^ Overturf, Madeleine (September 19, 2017). "Waves from Hurricane Jose Breach Dune, Flood Route One". Salisbury, MD: WBOC-TV. Retrieved September 19, 2017. 
  39. ^ Pradelli, Chad (September 19, 2017). "Hurricane Jose sends waves crashing over sea wall". Philadelphia, PA: WPVI-TV. Retrieved September 20, 2017. 
  40. ^ "Woman Dies After Getting Caught in Jose-Spawned Rip Current". U.S. News. Associated Press. September 23, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2017. 

External links

  • Track and wind speed history
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