Human Development Index

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World map indicating the Human Development Index (based on 2015 and 2016 data, published on March 21, 2017).
  0.900 and over
  0.850–0.899
  0.800–0.849
  0.750–0.799
  0.700–0.749
  0.650–0.699
  0.600–0.649
  0.550–0.599
  0.500–0.549
  0.450–0.499
  0.400–0.449
  0.350–0.399 and under
  Data unavailable
World map indicating the categories of Human Development Index by country (based on 2015 and 2016 data, published on March 21, 2017).
  Very high (Developed)
  High (Developing)
  Medium (Developing)
  Low (Undeveloped)
  Data unavailable

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita is higher. The HDI was developed by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq,[1] often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in their life, and was published by the United Nations Development Programme.

The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)," and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)."

Origins

The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Reports Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, and had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies." To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen, utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.[2] Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public, academics, and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being.

Dimensions and calculation

New method (2010 Index onwards)

Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Index (HDI) combines three dimensions:[3][4]

  • A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth
  • Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling
  • A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$)

In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used:

1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI)

LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.

2. Education Index (EI)

2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) [5]
Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025.
2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) [6]
Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.

3. Income Index (II)

II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100.

Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices:

LE: Life expectancy at birth
MYS: Mean years of schooling (i.e. years that a person aged 25 or older has spent in formal education)
EYS: Expected years of schooling (i.e. total expected years of schooling for children under 18 years of age)
GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita

Old method (before 2010 Index)

The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report:

HDI trends between 1975 and 2004
  OECD
  Europe not in the OECD and CIS
  Latin America and the Caribbean
  East Asia

This methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report.

The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).[7] In general, to transform a raw variable, say , into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

where and are the lowest and highest values the variable can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with ⅓ contributed by each of the following factor indices:

  • Life Expectancy Index =
  • Education Index =
  • GDP =

Other organizations/companies may include other factors, such as infant mortality, which produces a different HDI.

2016 Human Development Index

The 2016 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on March 21, 2017, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2015. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[8]

  • Increase = increase.
  • Steady = steady.
  • Decrease = decrease.
  • The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2015 report.
Rank Country Score
2016 estimates for 2015
[9]
Change in rank from previous year[9] 2016 estimates for 2015
[9]
Change from previous year
[9]
1 Steady  Norway 0.949 Increase 0.001
2 Increase (1)  Australia 0.939 Increase 0.002
2 Steady   Switzerland 0.939 Increase 0.001
4 Steady  Germany 0.926 Increase 0.002
5 Increase (1)  Denmark 0.925 Increase 0.002
5 Decrease (1)  Singapore 0.925 Increase 0.001
7 Decrease (1)  Netherlands 0.924 Increase 0.001
8 Steady  Ireland 0.923 Increase 0.003
9 Steady  Iceland 0.921 Increase 0.002
10 Decrease (1)  Canada 0.920 Increase 0.001
10 Increase (1)  United States 0.920 Increase 0.002
12 Steady  Hong Kong 0.917 Increase 0.001
13 Steady  New Zealand 0.915 Increase 0.002
14 Increase (1)  Sweden 0.913 Increase 0.004
15 Decrease (1)  Liechtenstein 0.912 Increase 0.001
16 Steady  United Kingdom 0.909 Increase 0.001
17 Steady  Japan 0.903 Increase 0.001
18 Steady  South Korea 0.901 Increase 0.002
19 Steady  Israel 0.899 Increase 0.001
20 Steady  Luxembourg 0.898 Increase 0.002
21 Increase (1)  France 0.897 Increase 0.003
22 Decrease (1)  Belgium 0.896 Increase 0.001
23 Steady  Finland 0.895 Increase 0.002
24 Steady  Austria 0.893 Increase 0.001
25 Steady  Slovenia 0.890 Increase 0.002
26 Increase (1)  Italy 0.887 Increase 0.006
27 Decrease (1)  Spain 0.884 Increase 0.002
28 Steady  Czech Republic 0.878 Increase 0.003
29 Steady  Greece 0.866 Increase 0.001
30 Steady  Brunei 0.865 Increase 0.001
30 Increase (1)  Estonia 0.865 Increase 0.002
32 Steady  Andorra 0.858 Increase 0.001
33 Increase (1)  Cyprus 0.856 Increase 0.002
33 Increase (2)  Malta 0.856 Increase 0.003
33 Steady  Qatar 0.856 Increase 0.001
36 Steady  Poland 0.855 Increase 0.003
37 Steady  Lithuania 0.848 Increase 0.002
38 Steady  Chile 0.847 Increase 0.002
38 Steady  Saudi Arabia 0.847 Increase 0.002
40 Steady  Slovakia 0.845 Increase 0.003
41 Steady  Portugal 0.843 Increase 0.002
42 Steady  United Arab Emirates 0.840 Increase 0.004
43 Steady  Hungary 0.836 Increase 0.002
44 Steady  Latvia 0.830 Increase 0.002
45 Steady  Argentina 0.827 Increase 0.001
45 Increase (1)  Croatia 0.827 Increase 0.004
47 Decrease (1)  Bahrain 0.824 Increase 0.001
48 Increase (1)  Montenegro 0.807 Increase 0.003
49 Decrease (1)  Russia 0.804 Decrease 0.001
50 Increase (1)  Romania 0.802 Increase 0.004
51 Decrease (1)  Kuwait 0.800 Increase 0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDI

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[8] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 206).

  1.  Norway 0.898
  2.  Iceland 0.868
  3.  Netherlands 0.861
  4.  Australia 0.861
  5.  Germany 0.859
  6.   Switzerland 0.859
  7.  Denmark 0.858
  8.  Sweden 0.851
  9.  Ireland 0.850
  10.  Finland 0.843
  11.  Canada 0.839
  12.  Slovenia 0.838
  13.  United Kingdom 0.836
  14.  Czech Republic 0.830
  15.  Luxembourg 0.827
  16.  Belgium 0.821
  17.  Austria 0.815
  18.  France 0.813
  19.  United States 0.796
  20.  Slovakia 0.793
  21.  Japan 0.791
  22.  Spain 0.791
  23.  Estonia 0.788
  24.  Malta 0.786
  25.  Italy 0.784
  26.  Israel 0.778
  27.  Poland 0.774
  28.  Hungary 0.771
  29.  Cyprus 0.762
  30.  Lithuania 0.759
  31.  Greece 0.758
  32.  Portugal 0.755
  33.  South Korea 0.753
  34.  Croatia 0.752
  35.  Latvia 0.742
  36.  Montenegro 0.736
  37.  Russia 0.725
  38.  Romania 0.714
  39.  Argentina 0.698
  40.  Chile 0.692

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Kuwait.

2015 Human Development Index

The 2015 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on December 14, 2015, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2014. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[10][11][12]

  • Increase = increase.
  • Steady = steady.
  • Decrease = decrease.
  • The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2014 report.
Rank Country Score
2015 estimates for 2014
[13]
Change in rank from previous year[13] 2015 estimates for 2014
[13]
Change from previous year
[13]
1 Steady  Norway 0.944 Increase 0.002
2 Steady  Australia 0.935 Increase 0.002
3 Steady   Switzerland 0.930 Increase 0.002
4 Steady  Denmark 0.923 Steady
5 Steady  Netherlands 0.922 Increase 0.002
6 Steady  Germany 0.916 Increase 0.001
6 Increase (2)  Ireland 0.916 Increase 0.004
8 Decrease (1)  United States 0.915 Increase 0.002
9 Decrease (1)  Canada 0.913 Increase 0.001
9 Increase (1)  New Zealand 0.913 Increase 0.002
11 Decrease (2)  Singapore 0.912 Increase 0.003
12 Steady  Hong Kong 0.910 Increase 0.002
13 Steady  Liechtenstein 0.908 Increase 0.001
14 Steady  Sweden 0.907 Increase 0.002
14 Increase (1)  United Kingdom 0.907 Increase 0.005
16 Steady  Iceland 0.899 Steady
17 Steady  South Korea 0.898 Increase 0.003
18 Steady  Israel 0.894 Increase 0.001
18 Steady  Macau 0.894 [14]
19 Steady  Luxembourg 0.892 Increase 0.002
20 Decrease (1)  Japan 0.891 Increase 0.001
21 Steady  Belgium 0.890 Increase 0.002
22 Steady  France 0.888 Increase 0.001
23 Steady  Austria 0.885 Increase 0.001
24 Steady  Finland 0.883 Increase 0.001
25 Steady  Taiwan 0.882 [15]
26 Steady  Slovenia 0.880 Increase 0.001
27 Steady  Spain 0.876 Increase 0.002
28 Steady  Italy 0.873 Steady
29 Steady  Czech Republic 0.870 Increase 0.002
30 Steady  Greece 0.865 Increase 0.002
31 Steady  Estonia 0.861 Increase 0.002
32 Steady  Brunei 0.856 Increase 0.004
33 Steady  Cyprus 0.850 Steady
33 Increase (1)  Qatar 0.850 Increase 0.001
34 Steady  Andorra 0.845 Increase 0.001
35 Increase (1)  Slovakia 0.844 Increase 0.005
36 Decrease (1)  Poland 0.843 Increase 0.003
37 Steady  Lithuania 0.839 Increase 0.002
37 Steady  Malta 0.839 Increase 0.002
39 Steady  Saudi Arabia 0.837 Increase 0.001
40 Steady  Argentina 0.836 Increase 0.003
41 Decrease (1)  United Arab Emirates 0.835 Increase 0.002
42 Steady  Chile 0.832 Increase 0.002
43 Steady  Portugal 0.830 Increase 0.002
44 Steady  Hungary 0.828 Increase 0.003
45 Steady  Bahrain 0.824 Increase 0.003
46 Increase (1)  Latvia 0.819 Increase 0.003
47 Decrease (1)  Croatia 0.818 Increase 0.001
48 Decrease (1)  Kuwait 0.816 Steady
49 Steady  Montenegro 0.802 Increase 0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDI

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[10] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 216).

  1.  Norway 0.893 (Steady)
  2.  Netherlands 0.861 (Increase 1)
  3.   Switzerland 0.861 (Increase 1)
  4.  Australia 0.858 (Decrease 2)
  5.  Denmark 0.856 (Increase 3)
  6.  Germany 0.853 (Decrease 1)
  7.  Iceland 0.846 (Decrease 1)
  8.  Sweden 0.846 (Decrease 1)
  9.  Ireland 0.836 (Increase 1)
  10.  Finland 0.834 (Increase 1)
  11.  Canada 0.832 (Decrease 2)
  12.  Slovenia 0.829 (Steady)
  13.  United Kingdom 0.829 (Increase 3)
  14.  Czech Republic 0.823 (Increase 1)
  15.  Luxembourg 0.822 (Decrease 1)
  16.  Belgium 0.820 (Increase 1)
  17.  Austria 0.816 (Decrease 4)
  18.  France 0.811 (Steady)
  19.  Slovakia 0.791 (Increase 2)
  20.  Estonia 0.782 (Increase 4)
  21.  Japan 0.780 (Decrease 1)
  22.  Israel 0.775 (Decrease 3)
  23.  Spain 0.775 (Decrease 1)
  24.  Italy 0.773 (Decrease 1)
  25.  Hungary 0.769 (Increase 2)
  26.  Malta 0.767 (Steady)
  27.  Poland 0.760 (Increase 2)
  28.  United States 0.760 (Steady)
  29.  Cyprus 0.758 (Increase 1)
  30.  Greece 0.758 (Decrease 5)
  31.  Lithuania 0.754 (Steady)
  32.  South Korea 0.751 (Increase 1)
  33.  Portugal 0.744 (Decrease 1)
  34.  Croatia 0.743 (Increase 1)
  35.  Belarus 0.741
  36.  Latvia 0.730

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Cuba, and Kuwait.

2014 Human Development Index

The 2014 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on July 24, 2014, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2013. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:[16][11][12]

  • Increase = increase.
  • Steady = steady.
  • Decrease = decrease.
  • The number in brackets represents the number of ranks the country has climbed (up or down) relative to the ranking in the 2013 report.
Rank Country HDI
New 2014 estimates for 2013
[17]
Change in rank between 2014 report and 2013 report[17] New 2014 estimates for 2013
[17]
Change compared between 2014 report and 2013 report
[17]
1 Steady  Norway 0.944 Decrease 0.011
2 Steady  Australia 0.933 Increase 0.002
3 Steady   Switzerland 0.917 Increase 0.001
4 Steady  Netherlands 0.915 Steady
5 Steady  United States 0.914 Increase 0.002
6 Steady  Germany 0.911 Steady
7 Steady  New Zealand 0.910 Increase 0.002
8 Steady  Canada 0.902 Increase 0.001
9 Increase (3)  Singapore 0.901 Increase 0.002
10 Steady  Denmark 0.900 Steady
11 Decrease (3)  Ireland 0.899 Decrease 0.017
12 Decrease (1)  Sweden 0.898 Increase 0.001
13 Steady  Iceland 0.895 Increase 0.002
14 Steady  United Kingdom 0.892 Increase 0.002
14 Steady  Macau 0.892 [14]
15 Steady  Hong Kong 0.891 Increase 0.002
15 Increase (1)  South Korea 0.891 Increase 0.003
17 Decrease (1)  Japan 0.890 Increase 0.002
18 Decrease (2)  Liechtenstein 0.889 Increase 0.001
19 Steady  Israel 0.888 Increase 0.002
20 Steady  France 0.884 Steady
21 Steady  Taiwan 0.882 [15]
22 Steady  Austria 0.881 Increase 0.001
22 Steady  Belgium 0.881 Increase 0.001
22 Steady  Luxembourg 0.881 Increase 0.001
23 Steady  Finland 0.879 Steady
24 Steady  Slovenia 0.874 Steady
25 Steady  Italy 0.872 Steady
26 Steady  Spain 0.869 Steady
27 Steady  Czech Republic 0.861 Steady
28 Steady  Greece 0.853 Decrease 0.001
29 Steady  Brunei 0.852 Steady
30 Steady  Qatar 0.851 Increase 0.001
31 Steady  Cyprus 0.845 Decrease 0.003
32 Steady  Estonia 0.840 Increase 0.001
33 Steady  Saudi Arabia 0.836 Increase 0.003
34 Increase (1)  Lithuania 0.834 Increase 0.003
34 Decrease (1)  Poland 0.834 Increase 0.001
35 Steady  Andorra 0.830 Steady
35 Increase (1)  Slovakia 0.830 Increase 0.001
36 Steady  Malta 0.829 Increase 0.002
37 Steady  United Arab Emirates 0.827 Increase 0.002
38 Increase (1)  Chile 0.822 Increase 0.003
38 Steady  Portugal 0.822 Steady
39 Steady  Hungary 0.818 Increase 0.001
40 Steady  Bahrain 0.815 Increase 0.002
40 Steady  Cuba 0.815 Increase 0.002
41 Decrease (2)  Kuwait 0.814 Increase 0.001
42 Steady  Croatia 0.812 Steady
43 Steady  Latvia 0.810 Increase 0.002
44 Steady  Argentina 0.808 Increase 0.002

Countries not included

Some countries were not included for various reasons, primarily due to the lack of necessary data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2014 report:[16] North Korea, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Tuvalu.

Inequality-adjusted HDI

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)[16] is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account."

Note: The green arrows (Increase), red arrows (Decrease), and blue dashes (Steady) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 168).

  1.  Norway 0.891 (Steady)
  2.  Australia 0.860 (Steady)
  3.  Netherlands 0.854 (Increase 1)
  4.   Switzerland 0.847 (Increase 3)
  5.  Germany 0.846 (Steady)
  6.  Iceland 0.843 (Increase 2)
  7.  Sweden 0.840 (Decrease 4)
  8.  Denmark 0.838 (Increase 1)
  9.  Canada 0.833 (Increase 4)
  10.  Ireland 0.832 (Decrease 4)
  11.  Finland 0.830 (Steady)
  12.  Slovenia 0.824 (Decrease 2)
  13.  Austria 0.818 (Decrease 1)
  14.  Luxembourg 0.814 (Increase 3)
  15.  Czech Republic 0.813 (Decrease 1)
  16.  United Kingdom 0.812 (Increase 3)
  17.  Belgium 0.806 (Decrease 2)
  18.  France 0.804 (Steady)
  19.  Israel 0.793 (Increase 1)
  20.  Japan 0.779 (New)
  21.  Slovakia 0.778 (Increase 1)
  22.  Spain 0.775 (Decrease 2)
  23.  Italy 0.768 (Increase 1)
  24.  Estonia 0.767 (Increase 1)
  25.  Greece 0.762 (Increase 2)
  26.  Malta 0.760 (Decrease 3)
  27.  Hungary 0.757 (Decrease 1)
  28.  United States 0.755 (Decrease 12)
  29.  Poland 0.751 (Increase 1)
  30.  Cyprus 0.752 (Decrease 1)
  31.  Lithuania 0.746 (Increase 2)
  32.  Portugal 0.739 (Steady)
  33.  South Korea 0.736 (Decrease 5)
  34.  Latvia 0.725 (Increase 1)
  35.  Croatia 0.721 (Increase 4)
  36.  Argentina 0.680 (Increase 7)
  37.  Chile 0.661 (Increase 4)

Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Cuba, and Kuwait.

Past top countries

The list below displays the top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. Norway has been ranked the highest twelve times, Canada eight times, followed by Japan which has been ranked highest three times. Iceland has been ranked highest twice.

In each original HDI

The year represents when the report was published. In parentheses is the year for which the index was calculated.

Geographical coverage

The HDI has extended its geographical coverage: David Hastings, of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, published a report geographically extending the HDI to 230+ economies, whereas the UNDP HDI for 2009 enumerates 182 economies and coverage for the 2010 HDI dropped to 169 countries.[18][19]

Country/region specific HDI lists

Criticism

The Human Development Index has been criticized on a number of grounds including alleged ideological biases towards egalitarianism and so-called "Western models of development", failure to include any ecological considerations, lack of consideration of technological development or contributions to the human civilization, focusing exclusively on national performance and ranking, lack of attention to development from a global perspective, measurement error of the underlying statistics, and on the UNDP's changes in formula which can lead to severe misclassification in the categorisation of 'low', 'medium', 'high' or 'very high' human development countries.[20]

Economists Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong and Maximilian Auffhammer discuss the HDI from the perspective of data error in the underlying health, education and income statistics used to construct the HDI. They identified three sources of data error which are due to (i) data updating, (ii) formula revisions and (iii) thresholds to classify a country's development status and conclude that 11%, 21% and 34% of all countries can be interpreted as currently misclassified in the development bins due to the three sources of data error, respectively. The authors suggest that the United Nations should discontinue the practice of classifying countries into development bins because - they claim - the cut-off values seem arbitrary, can provide incentives for strategic behavior in reporting official statistics, and have the potential to misguide politicians, investors, charity donors and the public who use the HDI at large.[20]

In 2010, the UNDP reacted to the criticism and updated the thresholds to classify nations as low, medium, and high human development countries. In a comment to The Economist in early January 2011, the Human Development Report Office responded[21] to a January 6, 2011 article in the magazine[22] which discusses the Wolff et al. paper. The Human Development Report Office states that they undertook a systematic revision of the methods used for the calculation of the HDI and that the new methodology directly addresses the critique by Wolff et al. in that it generates a system for continuous updating of the human development categories whenever formula or data revisions take place.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  3. ^ "Human Development Report 2010". UNDP. 4 November 2010. 
  4. ^ "Technical notes" (PDF). UNDP. 2013. 
  5. ^ Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) is a calculation of the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime based on education attainment levels of the population converted into years of schooling based on theoretical duration of each level of education attended. Source: Barro, R. J.; Lee, J.-W. (2010). "A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010". NBER Working Paper No. 15902. 
  6. ^ (ESYI is a calculation of the number of years a child is expected to attend school, or university, including the years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrollment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education and is calculated assuming the prevailing patterns of age-specific enrollment rates were to stay the same throughout the child's life. Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. (Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010). Correspondence on education indicators. March. Montreal.)
  7. ^ Definition, Calculator, etc. at UNDP site Archived December 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ a b http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf
  9. ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2016 – "Human Development for everyone"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  10. ^ a b http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr_2015_statistical_annex.pdf
  11. ^ a b The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.Macau in Figures, 2015
  12. ^ a b Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2015 – "Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  14. ^ a b The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI. Macau in Figures, 2016
  15. ^ a b The UN does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as a sovereign state. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures. Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  16. ^ a b c http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-report-en-1.pdf
  17. ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2014 – "Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience"". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  18. ^ Hastings, David A. (2009). "Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index". United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Working Paper WP/09/02. 
  19. ^ Hastings, David A. (2011). "A "Classic" Human Development Index with 232 Countries". HumanSecurityIndex.org.  Information Note linked to data
  20. ^ a b Wolff, Hendrik; Chong, Howard; Auffhammer, Maximilian (2011). "Classification, Detection and Consequences of Data Error: Evidence from the Human Development Index". Economic Journal. 121 (553): 843–870. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0297.2010.02408.x. 
  21. ^ "UNDP Human Development Report Office's comments". The Economist. January 2011. [dead link]
  22. ^ "The Economist (pages 60–61 in the issue of Jan 8, 2011)". January 6, 2011. 

External links

  • Human Development Index
  • Human Development Tools and Rankings
  • "Technical note explaining the definition of the HDI" (PDF).  (5.54 MB)
  • New demographic datasets by 'Human Development Index (HDI)’
  • An independent HDI covering 232 countries, formulated along lines of the traditional (pre-2010) approach.
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