Hromada (secret society)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A hromada (Ukrainian: [ɦroˈmɑdɐ] (About this sound listen), "community") was one of a network of secret societies of Ukrainian intelligentsia that appeared soon after the Crimean War. The societies laid a groundwork for appearance of the Ukrainian political elite and national political movement. The Ukrainian national and anti-oppressive movement intensified with the January Uprising and issuing of the Valuev Circular. Many former members of the disbanded Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius.

Parallel to hromoda network in the Russian Empire, in the Austria-Hungary sprang out Prosvita (Enlightenment) societies.

Important hromadas existed in Saint Petersburg, Kiev, Poltava, Chernihiv, Odessa, Ternopil, Lviv, Chernivtsi, Stryi.

The first hromada was established in Saint Petersburg when the first members of the Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius returned from their exile. Important publication of the Petersburg hromada was magazine Osnova (Basis) that was published for a short time in 1860s.

Due to student unrest and other revolutionary activity the Russian minister of internal affairs Pyotr Valuev had arrested several hromada leaders (Pavlo Chubynsky, Petro Yefymenko and others) and exiled them to Siberia.[1] After the publication of the Pylyp Morachevsky's New Testament in Ukrainian, Valuev banned most of publications and issued his secret Valuev circular as an instruction to the minister of education.

The same year most of the western regions of the Russian Empire rebelled in the January Uprising.

The most important hromada was created in Kiev and became better known as the Old Hromada. It was created sometimes in 1870s based on a secret club of chlopomans (commoners).

As reaction to the hromada movement, the Russian government issued the well known Ems Ukaz in 1876 prohibiting the use of Ukrainian language.

In 1897 on initiative of Volodymyr Antonovych and Oleksandr Konysky in Kiev took place a congress of Hromada members where was established the General Ukrainian Non-partisan Democratic Organization.[2] To the new organization entered all members of Hromada that existed in 20 cities of the Russian Ukraine.[2] Hromada however continued to exist until the February Revolution in 1917.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ Peter Valuev at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine
  2. ^ a b c Hromadas Archived 2014-12-11 at the Wayback Machine.. "Handbook on the History of Ukraine".

External links

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hromada_(secret_society)&oldid=817126001"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hromada_(secret_society)
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Hromada (secret society)"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA