Zrinski family

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Zrinski
Grb Zrinskih, Čakovec 5.JPG
Country
Parent house House of Šubić
Titles Counts of Zrin[1][2] (Croatian: knezovi Zrinski), Ban of Croatia[3][4]
Founded 1347[3]
Founder Juraj I Zrinski (although his uncle Grgur II. Bribirski was the first lord of Zrin, acting on behalf of his minor nephew, Juraj III Bribirski was the first to call himself Zrinski)[4]
Final ruler Ivan Antun Zrinski[4]
Current head Extinct
Dissolution 1703[3]

Zrinski (Hungarian: Zrínyi) was a Croatian-Hungarian noble family,[5][6][7] influential during the period in history marked by the Ottoman wars in Europe in the Kingdom of Hungary and Croatia and in the later Austro-Hungarian Empire. Notable members of this family were Bans (viceroys) of Croatia, considered national heroes in both Croatia and Hungary, and were particularly celebrated during the period of romanticism; this movement was called Zrinijada in Croatian.

History

The Zrinski or Zrínyi, meaning "those of Zrin", are a branch of the Šubić family, which arose when king Louis I of Hungary needed some of the Šubićs' fortresses for his coming wars against Venice, and the city of Zadar in particular.

In 1347, Louis I took their estates around Bribir in the Hrvatsko Primorje hinterlands and gave them the Zrin estate with Zrin Castle in the Croatian region of Banovina, south of the modern city of Petrinja and west of Hrvatska Kostajnica.[8] Since that time they are known as the Counts of Zrin in historical sources.[3][1][2] Later, their power steadily increased, so that they acquired the territory between the rivers Krka and Zrmanja and the sea by the 13th century. At the outset of the 14th century, Paul I Šubić of Bribir was the longest-ruling Ban of Croatia (1275–1312), as well as lord of all of Bosnia (1305-1312). His son was Paul II Šubić of Bribir.

Paul I's grandson was the first Zrinski, Juraj III. Šubić of Bribir, who took the title Juraj I. Zrinski. His cousin, countess Jelena Šubić, was at the same time married to Vladislav Kotromanić. Their first-born child, Tvrtko I, became the Ban of Bosnia and from 1377 the King of Bosnia. Their niece and adopted daughter, Elizabeta Kotromanić (Elisabeth of Bosnia), married Louis I the Great. Elizabeth's and Louis' daughters succeeded their father and became queens in their own right, as Mary of Hungary and Jadwiga of Poland.

Ruins of Zrin Castle, Croatia.

The Zrinskis were Croats and played a crucial role in the history of the Croatian state, both before their arrival in Zrin and later. On the other hand, they are also identified as hungarus or natio hungarica, which means "somebody from the Kingdom of Hungary", regardless of the language spoken and nationality. They were among many noble families in the Kingdom of Hungary. In the 16th century, Ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski gained dominion over Međimurje County in the northernmost part of Croatia with its capital Čakovec. Because they lived, worked, and intermarried with nobility from all parts of the multiethnic kingdom, it was natural and expected that they should be fluent in four or five languages. It is certain, that Nikola Zrinski spoke at least Croatian, Hungarian, Italian, Turkish and of course Latin. It is of interest that he was the most prominent Hungarian poet in the 17th century, while his brother Peter is known for his poems in Croatian language.

Among the many notable personalities of the family, there were a few women. Katarina Zrinska (1625–1673), a noted poet, was born in the Frankopan family, and, having married Petar Zrinski, became the member of the Zrinski family. Her daughter, Jelena Zrinska, was the wife of Francis I Rákóczi, the prince of Transylvania.

The Zrinski and the Frankopan families were the two most prominent noble families in Croatia in 16th and 17th century and they both perished in 1671 when Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan were charged with treason by the Emperor Leopold I, owing it to their role in the so-called Zrinski-Frankopan Plot (in Hungarian historiography called the Wesselényi Plot), and executed in Wiener Neustadt. The estates of Zrinski and Frankopan families were confiscated and their surviving members relocated.

The remains of Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan were transferred from Austria to Croatia in 1919 and buried in the Zagreb Cathedral.

The last male Zrinski descendants were Adam Zrinski (1662-1691), son of Nikola Zrinski, a Habsburg Monarchy army lieutenant-colonel. He inherited from his father the large and valuable "Bibliotheca Zriniana". Died in the Battle of Slankamen in 1691, accidentally shot in his back by one of his fellow soldiers. Ivan Antun Zrinski (1654-1703), son of Petar Zrinski and Katarina Zrinska, was Habsburg army officer, who was accused of high treason and died after years in dungeons.

According to legend there was a Zrinski member who became a Venetian army officer in the 17th century but was inscribed under the name Sdrinias. The Venetian Republic sent him to Greece where he eventually settled.[9] The Sdrinias family still exists in Greece.

Bans

The family produced four bans of Croatia (viceroys):

Zrinski in art

Zrinski in literature and theatre

Zrinski in paintings

Zrinski family was often topic in the paintings of Oton Iveković.

  • Nikola Zrinski pred Sigetom
  • Oproštaj Zrinskog i Frankopana od Katarine Zrinske
  • Juriš Nikole Zrinskog iz Sigeta
  • Miklós Barabás: Miklós Zrinyi
  • Viktor Madarász: Miklós Zrinyi

Zrinski in sculptures

  • in citatel in Budapest

Zrinski in engineering

Holdings

Some castles which were propriety of the family. Some castles, like Dubovac, Kraljevica, Ozalj, Severin na Kupi and others were jointly owned with Frankopan family.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Von Zrin (Zrinski)". Arcanum Database Ltd. Retrieved 2017-10-28. 
  2. ^ a b "Zrinski, Petar Graf". Biographisches Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas (online edition). Retrieved 2017-10-28. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Obitelj Zrinski". ARHiNET (digital archive information system of Croatian State Archives). Retrieved 2017-10-28. 
  4. ^ a b c "Zrinski". Croatian Encyclopedia by Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography (online edition). Retrieved 2017-10-28. 
  5. ^ Piotr Stefan Wandycz: The Price of Freedom: A History of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the Present, 2nd edition, Routledge, London, 1992 [1]
  6. ^ Dominic Baker-Smith, A. J. Hoenselaars, Arthur F. Kinney: Challenging Humanism: Essays in Honor of Dominic Baker-Smith, Rosemont Publishing & Printing Corp., 2010 [2]
  7. ^ Marcel Cornis-Pope, John Neubauer (editors): History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe, Volume 1, John-Benjamin Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, 2004 [3]
  8. ^ "Zrínyi (croato Zrinski)". Treccani - Enciclopedia Italiana (online edition). Retrieved 2017-10-28. 
  9. ^ "Obitelj Sdrinias". Croatian Nobility Association (plemstvo.hr). Retrieved 2017-10-28. 

External links

  • Zrinski stamps
  • Marek, Miroslav. "hung/zrinyi.html". genealogy.euweb.cz. 
  • Obitelj Zrinski at arhinet.arhiv.hr (in Croatian)
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