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House of York

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House of York
Arms of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York.svg
As descendants of the sovereign in the male line the dukes of York bore the arms of the kingdom differentiated by a label argent of three points, each bearing three torteaux gules
Country
Parent house House of Plantagenet
Titles
Founded 1385
Founder Edmund of Langley
Final ruler Richard III of England
Current head Extinct
Dissolution 1499
Deposition 1485
Ethnicity English
  1. ^ a b titular claim rather than de facto
English Royalty
House of York
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke
Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke
Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge
Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke
Edward IV
Edward V
George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence
Richard III

The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet. Three of its members became Kings of England in the late 15th century. The House of York was descended in the male line from Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, but also represented Edward's senior line, being cognatic descendants of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, Edward III's second surviving son. It is based on these descents that they claimed the English crown.[1][2] Compared with the House of Lancaster, it had a senior claim to the throne of England according to cognatic primogeniture but junior claim according to the agnatic primogeniture. The reign of this dynasty ended with the death of Richard III of England in 1485. It became extinct in the male line with the death of Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick in 1499.

Descent from Edward III

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of their five sons who lived to adulthood. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard to Anne Mortimer that the Yorkist faction in the Wars of the Roses made its claim on the throne. The other party in the Wars of the Roses, the Lancasters, were descendants of Edmund's elder brother, John of Gaunt whose son Henry usurped the throne of Richard II in 1399.

Edmund had two sons, Edward, and Richard of Conisburgh. Edward succeeded to the dukedom in 1402, but was killed at the battle of Agincourt in 1415, with no issue. Richard married Anne Mortimer, a great-granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, the second son (cadet line) of Edward III. Furthermore, Anne's son Richard also became heir general to the earldom of March, after her only brother, Edmund, 5th Earl, died without issue in 1425. Their father Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March had been named heir presumptive of Richard II before Henry IV's accession; although it had been passed over at the time, Anne's son Richard also inherited this claim to the throne.

Richard of Conisburgh was executed following his involvement in the Southampton Plot to depose Henry V of England in favour of the Earl of March. The dukedom of York therefore passed to his son, Richard Plantagenet. Through his mother, Richard Plantagenet also inherited the lands of the earldom of March, as well as the Mortimer claim to the throne.

KEY
House of York
Edward III,
King of England

1312–1377
Lionel,
1st Duke of Clarence

1338–1368
Philippa,
5th Countess of Ulster

1355–1382
Edmund,
1st Duke of York

1341–1402
Roger,
4th Earl of March

1374–1398
Anne Mortimer
1390–1411
Richard,
3rd Earl of Cambridge

1375–1415
Edward,
2nd Duke of York

1373–1415
Richard,
3rd Duke of York

1411–1460
Edward IV,
King of England

1442–1483
Edmund,
Earl of Rutland

1443–1460
George,
1st Duke of Clarence

1449–1478
Richard III,
King of England

1452–1485
Elizabeth of York,
Queen of England

1466–1503
married Henry VII of England
Edward V,
King of England

1470–1483?
Richard,
1st Duke of York

1473–1483?
Edward,
17th Earl of Warwick

1475–1499
Edward,
Prince of Wales

1473–1484
Arthur, Prince of Wales Tudor Rose.svg Henry VIII,
King of England
Tudor Rose.svg
Margaret Tudor Rose.svg
from here descends
James VI of Scotland and I of England
Mary Tudor Rose.svg

Wars of the Roses

Despite his elevated status, Richard Plantagenet was denied a position in government by the advisers of the weak Henry VI, particularly John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, and the queen consort, Margaret of Anjou. Although he served as Protector of the Realm during Henry VI's period of incapacity in 1453-54, his reforms were reversed by Somerset's party once the king had recovered.

The Wars of the Roses began the following year, with the First Battle of St Albans. Initially, Richard aimed only to purge his Lancastrian political opponents from positions of influence over the king. It was not until October 1460 that he claimed the throne for the House of York. In that year the Yorkists had captured the king at the battle of Northampton, but victory was short-lived. Richard and his second son Edmund were killed at the battle of Wakefield on 30 December.

Richard's claim to the throne was inherited by his son Edward. With the support of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick ("The Kingmaker"), Edward, already showing great promise as a leader of men, defeated the Lancastrians in a succession of battles. While Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou were campaigning in the north, Warwick gained control of the capital and had Edward declared king in London in 1461. Edward strengthened his claim with a decisive victory at the Battle of Towton in the same year, in the course of which the Lancastrian army was virtually wiped out.

Reigns of the Yorkist Kings

The early reign of Edward IV was marred by Lancastrian plotting and uprisings in favour of Henry VI. Warwick himself changed sides, and supported Margaret of Anjou and the king's jealous brother George, Duke of Clarence, in briefly restoring Henry in 1470-71. However, Edward regained his throne, and the House of Lancaster was wiped out with the death of Henry VI himself, in the Tower of London in 1471. In 1478, the continued trouble caused by Clarence led to his execution in the Tower of London; popularly he is thought to have been drowned in a butt of malmsey wine.

On Edward's death in 1483, the crown passed to his twelve-year-old son Edward. Edward IV's younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was appointed Protector, and escorted the young king, and his brother Richard, to the Tower of London. The famous Princes in the Tower were never seen again. However it is unknown whether they were killed or who might have killed them. Parliament declared, in the document Titulus Regius, that the two boys were illegitimate, on the grounds that Edward IV's marriage was invalid, and as such Richard was heir to the throne. He was crowned Richard III in July 1483.

Defeat of the House of York

Richard III had many enemies. Though the House of Lancaster had been extinguished, the Lancastrian sympathisers survived, who now rallied behind Henry Tudor, a descendant of the Beauforts, a legitimized branch of the House of Lancaster. Moreover, the family of Edward IV, and the Edwardian loyalists, were naturally opposed to him, essentially dividing his Yorkist power base. A coup attempt failed in late 1483, but in 1485 Richard met Henry Tudor at the battle of Bosworth Field. During the battle, some of Richard's important supporters switched sides or withheld their retainers from the field. Richard himself was killed. He was the last of the Plantagenet kings, as well as the last English king to die in battle.

Henry Tudor declared himself king, took Elizabeth of York, eldest child of Edward IV, as his wife, symbolically uniting the surviving houses of York and Lancaster, and acceded to the throne as Henry VII, founder of the Tudor dynasty which reigned until 1603.

Later claimants

The de la Pole family were sometimes suggested as heirs to the Yorkist cause, but Henry Tudor and his son Henry VIII of England efficiently suppressed all such opposition.

Another Yorkist branch descends from George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, and younger brother of Edward IV. The heir to this branch is the Earl of Loudoun, currently Simon Abney-Hastings. There was in Edward IV's reign a suspicion that this king was illegitimate. In 2004, the British station Channel 4 revived the George branch's claim as "Britain's Real Monarch". The Earls of Loudoun would then, at least, be the heirs to the Yorkists.[3]

Legacy

Upon Henry Tudor's uniting the rival houses of Lancaster and York, the title Duke of York became a royal prerogative and is traditionally accorded to the second son of the reigning monarch. Beginning with Richard of Shrewsbury (son of Edward IV, one of the Princes in the Tower), none of its holders were able to transmit it; they either died without a male heir or succeeded to the throne. The title is held today by Prince Andrew, second son of Queen Elizabeth II and her consort Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

The symbol of the House of York was a white rose, still used as the badge of Yorkshire and Jacobitism. York, Pennsylvania, is known as the White Rose City after the symbol of the House of York. The rivalry between York and Lancaster, in the modern form of the counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire, has continued into the present day on a more friendly basis.

Dukes of York

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Edmund of Langley
(House of York founder)
1385–1402
Edmund of Langley 5 June 1341
Kings Langley
son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault
Isabella of Castile
1372
3 children

Joan de Holland
ca. 4 November 1393
no children
1 August 1402
Kings Langley
age 61
Edward of Norwich
1402–1415
Edward of Norwich 1373
Norwich
son of Edmund of Langley and Isabella of Castile
Philippa de Mohun
c. 1397
no children
25 October 1415
Agincourt
age 42
Richard Plantagenet
1415–1460
Richard Plantagenet 21 September 1411
son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge and Anne de Mortimer
Cecily Neville
1437
13 children
30 December 1460
Wakefield
age 49
Edward Plantagenet
1460–1461
Edward Plantagenet 28 April 1442
Rouen
son of Richard Plantagenet and Cecily Neville
Elizabeth Woodville
1 May 1464
10 children
9 April 1483
Westminster
age 40

Edward Plantagenet became Edward IV in 1461, thus merging the title of Duke of York in crown.

Yorkist Kings of England

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Edward IV
4 March 1461 –
3 October 1470

11 April
1471–1483[4]
Edward IV 28 April 1442
Rouen
son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville[4]
Elizabeth Woodville
Grafton Regis
1 May 1464
10 children[4]
9 April 1483
Westminster Palace
age 40[4]
Edward V
9 April–25 June 1483[5]
Edward V 2 November 1470
Westminster
son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville[5]
unmarried c. 1483
London
age about 12 (traditionally: murdered)[6]
Richard III
26 June
1483–1485[7]
Richard III 2 October 1452
Fotheringhay Castle
son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville[8]
Anne Neville
Westminster Abbey
12 July 1472
1 son[8]
22 August 1485
Bosworth Field
age 32 (killed in battle)[8]

Coats of Arms


Armoiries Écu Nom et blasonnement
Coat of Arms of Edward IV of England (1461-1483).svg
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Edward IV of England (1442 † 1483), son of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, King of England and Lord of Ireland

écartelé, en 1 et 4 d'azur semé de lys d'or, en 2 et 3, de gueules aux trois léopards d'or, armés, lampassés d'azur ou écartelé, en 1 et 4 de France (ancien), en 2 et 3, d'Angleterre (moderne)[9] · [10] · [11] · [12].

Coat of Arms of Edward V of England (1483).svg
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Edward V of England (1470 † 1483), son of Edward IV, King of England and Lord of Ireland

écartelé, en 1 et 4 d'azur semé de lys d'or, en 2 et 3, de gueules aux trois léopards d'or, armés, lampassés d'azur ou écartelé, en 1 et 4 de France (ancien), en 2 et 3, d'Angleterre (moderne)[9] · [10] · [11] · [12].

Coat of Arms of Richard III of England (1483-1485).svg
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Richard III of England (1452 † 1485), brother of Edward IV, King of England and Lord of Ireland,

écartelé, en 1 et 4 d'azur semé de lys d'or, en 2 et 3, de gueules aux trois léopards d'or, armés, lampassés d'azur ou écartelé, en 1 et 4 de France (ancien), en 2 et 3, d'Angleterre (moderne)[9] · [10] · [11] · [12].


Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence 1338-1368 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each charged with a canton Gules[13] Son of: King Edward III and Queen Philippa.
Arms of the House of de Burgh.svg
Elizabeth de Burgh, Countess of Ulster 1332–1363 Or, a cross Gules (de Burgh)[13] Daughter of: William Donn de Burgh, Earl of Ulster and Matilda of Lancaster.

Married to: Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence; 1352–1363.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Philippa of Clarence, 5th Countess of Ulster.svg
Philippa of Clarence, Countess of Ulster 1355–1382 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each charged with a canton Gules, impaling, Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent[14] Daughter of: Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence and Elizabeth de Burgh, Countess of Ulster.

Married to: Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March; 1368–1381.

Arms of the House of Mortimer.svg
Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March 1352–1381 Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent (Mortimer)[14] Son of: Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and Philippa Montacute.
Arms of the Earl of March.svg
Roger Mortimer, Earl of March 1374–1398 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent (Mortimer), 2nd and 3rd Or, a cross Gules (de Burgh)[14] Son of: Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March and Philippa of Clarence, Countess of Ulster.
Arms of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent.svg
Alianore Holland, Countess of March 1370–1405 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, within a bordure Argent (Kent)[14] Daughter of: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and Alice Holland.

Married to: Roger Mortimer, Earl of March; 1388–1398.

Arms of Anne de Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge.svg
Anne Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge 1390–1411 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules, within a bordure Argent charged with lions rampant purpure, impaling, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent (Mortimer), 2nd and 3rd Or, a cross Gules (de Burgh)[14] Daughter of: Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and Alianore Holland, Countess of March.

Married to: Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge; 1408–1411.


Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York.svg
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York 1341–1402 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules[15] Son of: King Edward III and Queen Philippa.

See: House of York

Arms of Castille (English heraldry).svg
Isabella of Castille 1355–1392 Quarterly, Castille and Leon (Kingdom of Castille)[15] Daughter of: King Peter of Castile and María de Padilla.

Married to: Edmund of Langley, Duke of York; 1372–1392.

Arms of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent.svg
Joan Holland 1380–1434 Gules, three lions passant guardant Or, within a bordure Argent (Kent)[15] Daughter of: Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and Alice Holland.

Married to: Edmund of Langley, Duke of York; 1393–1402.


Colour key
(Line of descent)
  Monarchs
  Paternal descent
  Maternal descent
  Consorts
  Illegitimate descent
  Collaterals

Descendants of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York.svg
Edward of Norwich, Duke of York 1373-1415 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Gules each charged with three castles Or[16]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France ancien, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules[16]

Son of: Edmund of Langley, Duke of York and Isabella of Castille.
Arms of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge.svg
Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge 1385-1415 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules, within a bordure Argent charged with lions rampant purpure[17] Son of: Edmund of Langley, Duke of York and Isabella of Castille.

Executed in 1415 at the orders of King Henry V, for Treason.

Arms of Anne de Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge.svg
Anne Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge 1390-1411 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules, within a bordure Argent charged with lions rampant purpure, impaling, Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent (Mortimer), 2nd and 3rd Or, a cross Gules (de Burgh)[14] Daughter of: Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and Alianore Holland, Countess of March.

Married to: Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge; 1408-1411.

Heiress of the House of Clarence.

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (Variant).svg Arms of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York.svg Richard of York, Duke of York 1411-1460 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, quarterly, France moderne, and England, overall a label of three points each charged with three torteaux Gules, 2nd, quarterly, Castile and Leon, 3rd, quarterly, Mortimer and de Burgh, and overall and inescutcheon Gules, three passant guardant Or, a bordure Argent[18]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules[18]

Son of: Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge, Duke of York and Anne Mortimer.

Originator of the claim of the House of York to the throne, by combining the claims of Clarence (from his mother) and York (from his father).

Descendants of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York.svg
Richard of York, Duke of York 1411-1460 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France modern, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with three torteaux Gules[18] Son of: Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge, Duke of York and Anne Mortimer.

Originator of the claim of the House of York to the throne.

Defeated and killed at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460.

Arms of Cecily Neville, Duchess of York.svg
Cecily Neville, Duchess of York 1415-1495 Gules a saltire Argent (Neville)[18] Daughter of: Ralph de Neville, Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort(daughter of John of Gaunt).

Married to: Richard of York, Duke of York; 1429-1460.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Elizabeth of York (Princess).svg
Edward, Earl of March
(later King Edward IV)
1442-1483 Quarterly, 1st, quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, 2nd and 3rd Or, a cross Gules (de Burgh), 4th Barry of six, Or and Azure, on a chief two pales, the corners gyronny, overall an escutcheon Argent (Mortimer)[19] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.
Arms of Edmund, Earl of Rutland.svg
Edmund, Earl of Rutland 1443-1460 Quarterly, 1st, quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of five points Argent the two dexter points charged with lions rampant purpure and three sinister points each with three torteaux, 2nd and 3rd de Burgh, 4th Mortimer[20] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.

Killed after the Battle of Wakefield.

Arms of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
George, Duke of Clarence 1449-1478 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with a canton Gules[21] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.
Arms of Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
Richard, Duke of Gloucester
(later King Richard III)
1452-1485 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points ermine each charged with a canton Gules (same as Thomas of Lancaster)[22] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.
Descendants of Edward IV of England
Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
King Edward IV 1442-1483 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England[23] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.

Declared king in 1461, usurping the crown from the weak King Henry VI.

First king of the House of York.

Arms of Elizabeth Woodville.svg
Elizabeth Woodville 1437-1492 Quarterly of six, 1st, Agent, a lion rampant double queued gules, crowned Or (Luxembourg), 2nd, quarterly 1st and 4th, Gules, a star of eight points Argent, 2nd and 3rd, Azure semée of fleurs de lys Or (de Baux d' Andrée), 3rd, Barry Argent and Azure, overall a lion rampant Gules (Lusignan of Cyprus), 4th, Gules, three bendlets Argent, on a chief of the first, charged with a fillet in base Or, a rose of the second (Ursins), 5th, Gules, three pallets vairy, on a chief Or a label five points Azure (St. Pol), 6th, Argent, a fess and a canton conjoined Gules (Woodville)[24] Daughter of: Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers and Jacquetta of Luxembourg.

Married to: Sir John Grey; 1452-1461.

Married to: King Edward IV; 1464-1483.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of Elizabeth of York (Princess).svg
Elizabeth of York 1466-1503 Quarterly, 1st, quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, 2nd and 3rd de Burgh, 4th Mortimer[25] Daughter of: King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville.

Married to: King Henry VII; 1486-1503.

Arms of the Prince of Wales (Modern).svg
Edward, Prince of Wales
(later King Edward V)
1470-1483? Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent[26] Son of: King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville.

One of the two: Princes in the Tower.

Arms of Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York.svg
Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York 1473-1483? Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent on the first point a canton Gules[27] Son of: King Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville.

One of the two: Princes in the Tower.

Arms of Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle.svg
Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle ?-1542 Quarterly, 1st, quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, 2nd and 3rd de Burgh, 4th Mortimer, overall a baston sinister Azure[28] Illegitimate son of: King Edward IV.

Imprisoned in 1540 at the orders of King Henry VIII for treason. Died two days after receiving the news he was to be released.

Descendants of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence
Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence.svg
George, Duke of Clarence 1449-1478 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent each point charged with a canton Gules[21] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.

Executed in 1478 at the orders of King Edward IV (his own brother), for having designs on the throne.

Arms of Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence.svg
Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence 1451-1476 Gules a saltire Argent, a label of three points gobony, Argent and Azure (Neville)[21] Daughter of: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Anne de Beauchamp.

Married to: George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence; 1469-1476.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury.svg
Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury 1473-1541 Quarterly, 1st, Quarterly, France modern and England, a label of three points Argent each charged with a canton Gules (Clarence), 2nd, Gules a saltire Argent, a label of three points gobony Argent and Azure (Neville), impaling Gules, a fess between six crosses crosslet Or (Beauchamp), 3rd, Chequy Or and Azure, a chevron ermine (Newburgh), impaling Argent, three lozenges conjoined in fess Gules (Montacute), 4th, Or, an eagle displayed Vert (Monthermer), impaling Quarterly 1st and 4th, Or, three chevrons Gules (Clare), 2nd and 3rd, Quarterly, Argent and Gules, a fret Or, overall a bendlett Sable (Despencer)[21] Daughter of: George, Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville.

Married to: Sir Richard Pole; 1487-1505?.

Matriarch of the Pole family; mother of Cardinal Reginald Pole, later Archbishop of Canterbury.

Executed in 1541 at the orders of King Henry VIII for treason.

Later beatified by the Catholic Church as Blessed.

Arms of Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick.svg
Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick 1475-1499 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points gobony, Argent and Azure (Neville)[29] Son of: George, Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville.

Nominated heir of King Richard III in 1484.

Executed in 1499 at the orders of King Henry VII for treason.

Last legitimate male-line member of the House of Plantagenet.

Descendants of Richard III of England
Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
King Richard III 1452-1485 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England[22] Son of: Richard of York, Duke of York and Cecily Neville.

Defeated and killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, fighting against Henry Tudor, later King Henry VII.

Last legitimate male-line Plantagenet king.

Arms of Anne Neville.svg Arms of Anne Neville (Variant).svg Anne Neville 1456-1485 Quarterly of seven, 1st, Gules, a fess between six crosses crosslet Or (Beauchamp), 2nd, Chequy Or and Azure, a chevron ermine (Newburgh), 3rd, Argent, three lozenges conjoined in fess Gules (Montacute), 4th, Or, an eagle displayed Vert (Monthermer), 5th, Gules a saltire Argent, a label of three points gobony Argent and Azure (Neville), 6th, Or, three chevrons Gules (Clare), 7th, Quarterly, Argent and Gules, a fret Or, overall a bendlett Sable (Despencer)[30]

Gules, a saltire Argent[22]

Daughter of: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Anne de Beauchamp.

Married to: Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales; 1470-1471.

Married to: King Richard III; 1472-1485.

Anne sometimes bore her father, Warwick the Kingmaker's, full achievement, however at other times she also bore the arms of Neville without difference.

Arms Name Life Blazon Notes
Arms of the Prince of Wales (Modern).svg
Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales 1473-1484 Quarterly, 1st and 4th, France moderne, 2nd and 3rd England, with a label of three points Argent[31] Son of: King Richard III and Anne Neville,

Died at age 10 in 1484, Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick nominated heir in his place.


York badges

The most popular symbol of the house of York was the White Rose of York. The Yorkist rose is white in colour, because in Christian liturgical symbolism, white is the symbol of light, typifying innocence and purity, joy and glory.[32] During the civil wars of the fifteenth century, the White Rose was the symbol of Yorkist forces opposed to the rival House of Lancaster. The red rose of Lancaster would be a later invention used to represent the House of Lancaster, but was not in use during the actual conflict.[33] The opposition of the two roses gave the wars their name: the Wars of the Roses (coined in the 19th century.)


White Rose Badge of York.svg
Sun of York.svg
Rose en Soleil Badge of York.svg
White Lion of Mortimer Badge of Edward IV.svg
Falcon and Fetterlock Badge of Edward IV.svg Black Bull of Clarence Badge of Edward IV.svg White Boar Badge of Richard III (Loyaulte Me Lie).svg
White Rose Badge of York.
Sun of York.
Rose en Soleil Badge of York
White Lion of Mortimer Badge of Edward IV.
Falcon and Fetterlock Badge of Edward IV.
Black Bull of Clarence Badge of Edward IV.
White Boar Badge of Richard III (Loyaulte Me Lie).

See also

References

  1. ^ Morgan, Kenneth O. (2000). The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 623. ISBN 0-19-822684-5. 
  2. ^ "House of York". 1911Encyclopedia.org. Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007. 
  3. ^ "Channel 4 website devoted to "Britain's Real Monarch"". 3 January 2004. 
  4. ^ a b c d Edward was briefly deposed during his reign by Henry VI. Lundy, Darryl. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10164". Retrieved 25 October 2007. [unreliable source]
  5. ^ a b Edward V was deposed by Richard III, who usurped the throne on the grounds that Edward was illegitimate. "EDWARD V - Archontology.org". Retrieved 25 October 2007. 
  6. ^ Lundy, Darryl. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10165". Retrieved 25 October 2007. [unreliable source]
  7. ^ "RICHARD III - Archontology.org". Retrieved 25 October 2007. 
  8. ^ a b c Lundy, Darryl. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10163". Retrieved 25 October 2007. [unreliable source]
  9. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference Neubecker was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ a b c Louda, Jiri; Maclagan, Michael (December 12, 1988), "Netherlands and Luxembourg, Table 33", Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (1st (U.S.) ed.), Clarkson N. Potter, Inc.; 
  11. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference HeralEurop was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference Louda2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 65
  14. ^ a b c d e f Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 66
  15. ^ a b c Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 103
  16. ^ a b Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 104
  17. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 105
  18. ^ a b c d Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 106
  19. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 113
  20. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 108
  21. ^ a b c d Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 110
  22. ^ a b c Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 122
  23. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 114
  24. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 117
  25. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 134
  26. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 121
  27. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 119
  28. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 120
  29. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 111
  30. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 116
  31. ^ Pinches, J.H & R.V., p. 124
  32. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Liturgical Colours". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  33. ^ Cite error: The named reference history was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

External links

  • The White Rose of York on the 'History of York' website.
  • The Plantagenets on the official website of the British monarchy.
  • The Yorkists on the official website of the British monarchy.
House of York
Cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet
Preceded by
House of Lancaster
Ruling house of the Kingdom of England
1461–1470
Succeeded by
House of Lancaster
Ruling house of the Kingdom of England
1471–1485
Succeeded by
House of Tudor
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