Hordaland

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Hordaland fylke
County
Hardangerfjord in July 2012
Hardangerfjord in July 2012
Coat of arms of Hordaland fylke
Coat of arms
Hordaland within Norway
Hordaland within Norway
Coordinates: 60°15′N 06°00′E / 60.250°N 6.000°E / 60.250; 6.000Coordinates: 60°15′N 06°00′E / 60.250°N 6.000°E / 60.250; 6.000
Country Norway
County Hordaland
Region Vestlandet
County ID NO-12
Administrative centre Bergen
Government
 • Governor Lars Sponheim
  Venstre
  (2010–present)
 • County mayor Anne Gine Hestetun
  Arbeiderpartiet
  (2015–present)
Area
 • Total 15,460 km2 (5,970 sq mi)
 • Land 14,551 km2 (5,618 sq mi)
Area rank #9 in Norway, 4.78% of Norway's land area
Population (November 18, 2017 est.)[1]
 • Total 519,500
 • Rank 3 (9.72% of country)
 • Density 34/km2 (87/sq mi)
 • Change (10 years) 7.9 %
Demonym(s) Hordalending
Time zone CET (UTC+01)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+02)
Official language form Nynorsk
Income (per capita) (EUR 18,500) 148,000 NOK
GDP (per capita) (EUR 33,000) 263,000 NOK (2001)
GDP national rank 2 (7.55% of country)
Website www.hordaland.no
Data from Statistics Norway

Hordaland [²hɔrdɑˌlɑn] (About this sound listen) is a county in Norway, bordering Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud, Telemark, and Rogaland counties. Hordaland is the third largest county after Akershus and Oslo by population. The county government is the Hordaland County Municipality which is located in Bergen. Before 1972, the city of Bergen was its own separate county apart from Hordaland.

Name and symbols

Name

Hordaland (Old Norse: Hǫrðaland) is the old name of the region which was revived in 1919. The first element is the plural genitive case of hǫrðar, the name of an old Germanic tribe (see Charudes). The last element is land which means "land" or "region" in the Norwegian language.

Until 1919 the name of the county was Søndre Bergenhus amt which meant "(the) southern (part of) Bergenhus amt". (The old Bergenhus amt was created in 1662 and was divided into Northern and Southern parts in 1763.)

Flag

The flag of Hordaland

Hordaland's flag shows two golden axes and a crown in red. The flag is a banner of the coat of arms derived from the old seal of the guild of St. Olav from Onarheim in Tysnes municipality. This seal was used by the delegates of Sunnhordland in 1344 on the document to install king Haakon V of Norway. It was thus the oldest symbol used for the region and adapted as the arms and flag in 1961. The symbols refer to the patron saint of the guild, Saint Olav, King of Norway, whose symbol is an axe.[2]

Coat of arms

The coat-of-arms were officially granted on 1 December 1961. They were designed by Magnus Hardeland, but the general design had been originally used in the Sunnhordland region during the 14th century. In the early 20th century, leaders of the county began using the old arms as a symbol for the county once again. The arms are on a red background and consist of two golden axes that are crossed with a golden crown above them.[3]

History

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1769 63,757 —    
1900 205,771 +222.7%
1950 308,164 +49.8%
1960 338,265 +9.8%
1970 369,430 +9.2%
1980 388,084 +5.0%
1990 407,427 +5.0%
2000 435,219 +6.8%
2010 477,175 +9.6%
2014 508,500 +6.6%
Source: Statistics Norway.[4][5]
Religion in Hordaland[6][7]
religion percent
Christianity
87.34%
Islam
0.77%
Buddhism
0.22%
Other
11.67%

Hordaland county has been around for more than one thousand years. Since the 7th century, the area was made up of many petty kingdoms under the Gulating and was known as Hordafylke since around the year 900. In the early 16th century, Norway was divided into four len. The Bergenhus len was headquartered in Bergen and encompassed much of western and northern Norway.[8]

In 1662, the lens were replaced by amts. Bergenhus amt originally consisted of the present-day areas of Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane, and Sunnmøre and the far northern Nordlandene amt was subordinate to Bergenhus. In the 1680s, Nordlandene and Sunnmøre were split from Bergenhus. In 1763, the amt was divided into northern and southern parts: Nordre Bergenhus amt and Søndre Bergenhus amt. When the amt was split, the present day municipality of Gulen was split with the southern part ending up in Søndre Bergenhus amt. In 1773, the border was re-drawn so that all of Gulen was located in the northern part. Søndre Bergenhus amt was renamed Hordaland fylke in 1919.[8]

The city of Bergen was classified as a city-county (byamt) from 1831–1972. During that time in 1915, the municipality of Årstad was annexed into Bergen. In 1972, the neighboring municipalities of Arna, Fana, Laksevåg and Åsane were annexed into the city of Bergen. Also at that same time, the city of Bergen lost its county status, and became a part of Hordaland county.[8]

Government

Hardanger is one of Norway's most important sources of fruit, providing approximately 40% of the country's fruit production, including apples, plums, pears, cherries, and redcurrants.

A county (fylke) is the chief local administrative area in Norway. The whole country is divided into 19 counties. A county is also an election area, with popular votes taking place every 4 years. In Hordaland, the government of the county is the Hordaland County Municipality. It includes 57 members are elected to form a county council (Fylkesting). Heading the Fylkesting is the county mayor (fylkesordførar). Since 2015, the Hordaland county municipality has been led by Anne Gine Hestetun, the county mayor.

The county also has a County Governor (fylkesmann) who is the representative of the King and Government of Norway. Lars Sponheim is the current County Governor of Hordaland.

The municipalities in Hordaland are divided among four district courts (tingrett): Nordhordland, Sunnhordland, Bergen, and Hardanger. Hordaland is also part of the Gulating Court of Appeal district based in Bergen.[8]

Most of the municipalities in Hordaland are part of the Hordaland police district. Gulen and Solund in Sogn og Fjordane county are also part of the Hordaland police district. Bømlo, Etne, Fitjar, Stord and Sveio are a part of the "Haugaland and Sunnhordland" police district, along with eight other municipalities in Rogaland county.[8]

Geography

Finse is the highest point of the Norwegian Railway System, located at 1,222 m (4,009 ft) above sea level.

Hordaland is semi-circular in shape. It is located on the western coast of Norway, split from southwest to northeast by the long, deep Hardangerfjorden, one of Norway's main fjords and a great tourist attraction. About half of the National park of Hardangervidda is in this county. The county also includes many well-known waterfalls of Norway, such as Vøringsfossen and Stykkjedalsfossen. It also includes the Folgefonna and Hardangerjøkulen glaciers.

More than 60% of the inhabitants live in Bergen and the surrounding area. Other urban or semi-urban centres include Leirvik, Voss and Odda.

Panorama over the island of Sotra.

Municipalities

Map of Hordaland Districts and Municipalities
  Nordhordland
  Midthordland
  Sunnhordland
  Hardanger
  Voss
The population growth in Hordaland (Blue: High / Green: Medium / Red: Low to Negative)

In 1837, the counties were divided into local administrative units each with their own governments. The number and borders of these municipalities have changed over time, and at present there are 33 municipalities in Hordaland.

Districts

Hordaland is conventionally divided into traditional districts. The inland districts are Hardanger and Voss and the coastal districts are Sunnhordland, Midhordland and Nordhordland. Strilelandet is the colloquial name of a more informal region commonly held to encompass Midhordland and Nordhordland. Stril is a name the inhabitants of Bergen apply to the people living in the traditionally agricultural areas surrounding the city.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Hordaland county is twinned with:[8]

Notable residents

References

  1. ^ Statistics Norway – Population per 1 April 2011 and population changes during 1st quarter of 2011. Hordaland.
  2. ^ "Civic heraldry of Norway – Norske Kommunevåpen". Heraldry of the World. Retrieved 2015-04-12. 
  3. ^ "Hordaland fylke" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  4. ^ http://www.ssb.no/fob/kommunehefte/12/fob_12_tabeller.pdf
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-08-21. Retrieved 2016-02-07. 
  6. ^ Statistics Norway – Church of Norway.
  7. ^ Statistics Norway – Members of religious and life stance communities outside the Church of Norway, by religion/life stance. County. 2006–2010 Archived 2011-11-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ a b c d e f no:Hordaland
  9. ^ "Home page of Cardiff Council – Cardiff's twin cities". Cardiff Council. 15 June 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 

External links

  • County web site
  • Map of Hordaland
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