Hongwu Emperor

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Hongwu Emperor
1st Emperor of the Ming Dynasty
明太祖.jpg
Portrait of the Hongwu Emperor in the National Palace Museum
1st Emperor of the Ming Empire
Reign 23 January 1368[n 1] – 24 June 1398
Coronation 23 January 1368
Predecessor Dynasty established
Successor Jianwen Emperor
Born 朱重八
(1328-10-21)21 October 1328
Haozhou, Henan Jiangbei, Yuan Empire (present-day Fengyang, Anhui)
Died 24 June 1398(1398-06-24) (aged 69)
Jingshi, Zhili, Ming Empire (present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu)
Burial 30 June 1398
Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Nanjing, China
Full name
Family name: Zhu ()
Birth name: Chongba (重八)[n 2]
Given name: Xingzong (興宗), later Yuanzhang (元璋)[n 3]
Courtesy name: Guorui (國瑞)
Era name and dates
Hongwu (洪武): 23 January 1368 – 5 February 1399 (briefly, - 22 January 1403)[n 4]
Posthumous name
Emperor Kaitian Xingdao Zhaoji Liji Dasheng Zhishen Renwen Yiwu Junde Chenggong Gāo
開天行道肇紀立極大聖至神仁文義武俊德成功高皇帝
Temple name
Ming Taizu (明太祖)
House House of Zhu
Father Zhu Shizhen
Mother Lady Chen
Religion Buddhism
Hongwu Emperor
Chinese 洪武帝

The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.

In the middle of the 14th century, with famine, plagues, and peasant revolts sweeping across China, Zhu Yuanzhang rose to command the force that conquered China and ended the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty, forcing the Mongols to retreat to the Central Asian steppes. Zhu claimed the Mandate of Heaven and established the Ming dynasty at the beginning of 1368; later in the same year his army occupied the Yuan capital, Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing). Trusting only in his family, he made his many sons powerful feudal princes along the northern marches and the Yangtze valley.[1] Having outlived his first successor, the Hongwu Emperor enthroned his grandson via a series of instructions; this ended in failure, when the Jianwen Emperor's attempt to unseat his uncles led to the Ming Yongle Emperor (r. 1402–1424)".[2]

Most of the historical sites related to the Hongwu Emperor are in Nanjing, the original capital of the Ming dynasty.

Early life

Zhu was born into a desperately poor peasant tenant farmer family in Zhongli Village in the Huai River plain, which is in present-day Fengyang, Anhui Province.[3][4] His father was Zhu Shizhen (朱世珍, original name Zhu Wusi 朱五四) and his mother was Chen Erniang. He had seven older siblings, several of whom were "given away" by his parents, as they did not have enough food to support the family.[5] When he was 16, severe drought ruined the harvest where his family lived. Subsequently, famine killed his entire family, except one of his brothers. He then buried them by wrapping them in white clothes.

Destitute, Zhu accepted a suggestion to take up a pledge made by his brother and became a novice monk at the Huangjue Temple,[6] a local Buddhist monastery. He did not remain there for long, as the monastery ran short of funds, and he was forced to leave.

For the next few years, Zhu led the life of a wandering beggar and personally experienced and saw the hardships of the common people.[7] After about three years, he returned to the monastery and stayed there until he was around 24 years old. He learned to read and write during the time he spent with the Buddhist monks.[8]

Rise to power

Rebels and warlords at the end of Yuan Dynasty, including the territory controlled by Zhu Yuanzhang in 1363.

The monastery where Zhu lived was eventually destroyed by an army that was suppressing a local rebellion. In 1352, Zhu joined one of the many insurgent forces that had risen in rebellion against the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. He rose rapidly through the ranks and became a commander. His rebel force later joined the Red Turbans, a millenarian sect related to the White Lotus Society, and one that followed cultural and religious traditions of Buddhism, Zoroastrianism and other religions. Widely seen as a defender of Confucianism and neo-Confucianism among the predominant Han Chinese population in China, Zhu emerged as a leader of the rebels that were struggling to overthrow the Yuan dynasty.

In 1356, Zhu, and his army conquered Nanjing, which became his base of operations, and the capital of the Ming dynasty during his reign. Zhu's government in Nanjing became famous for good governance, and the city attracted vast numbers of people fleeing from other, more lawless regions. It is estimated that Nanjing's population increased by 10 times over the next 10 years.[9] In the meantime, the Yuan government had been weakened by internal factions fighting for control, and it made little effort to retake the Yangtze River valley. By 1358, central and southern China had fallen into the hands of different rebel groups. During that time the Red Turbans also split up. Zhu became the leader of a smaller faction (called "Ming" around 1360), while the larger faction, under Chen Youliang, controlled the center of the Yangtze River valley.

Zhu was able to attract many talents into his service. One of them was Zhu Sheng (zh) (朱升), who advised him, "Build high walls, stock up rations, and don't be too quick to call yourself a king." Another, Jiao Yu, was an artillery officer, who later compiled a military treatise outlining the various types of gunpowder weapons. Another one, Liu Bowen, became one of Zhu's key advisors, and edited the military-technology treatise titled Huolongjing in later years.

Starting from 1360, Zhu, and Chen Youliang fought a protracted war for supremacy over the former territories controlled by the Red Turbans. The pivotal moment in the war was the Battle of Lake Poyang in 1363, one of the largest naval battles in history. The battle lasted three days and ended with the defeat and retreat of Chen's larger navy. Chen died a month later in battle. Zhu did not participate personally in any battles after that and remained in Nanjing, where he directed his generals to go on campaigns.

In 1367, Zhu's forces defeated Zhang Shicheng's Kingdom of Dazhou, which was centered in Suzhou and had previously included most of the Yangtze River Delta, and Hangzhou, which was formerly the capital of the Song dynasty.[10][11] This victory granted Zhu's government authority over the lands north and south of the Yangtze River. The other major warlords surrendered to Zhu and on 20 January 1368, Zhu proclaimed himself Emperor of the Ming dynasty in Nanjing and adopted "Hongwu" (lit. "vastly martial") as his era name. His dynasty's mission was to drive away the Mongols and restore Han Chinese rule in China.

In 1368, Ming armies headed north to attack territories that were still under Yuan rule. The Mongols gave up their capital, Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing), and the rest of northern China in September 1368 and retreated to Mongolia. On 15 October 1371, one of the Hongwu Emperor's sons, Zhu Shuang, was married to the sister of Köke Temür, a Bayad general of the Yuan dynasty.[12][13][14]

The Ming dynasty defeated Ming Yuchen's Xia polity, which ruled Sichuan.[15]

The Ming army captured the last Yuan-controlled province of Yunnan in 1381, and China was unified under Ming rule.[16]

Reign

Under the Hongwu Emperor's rule, the Mongol, and other foreign bureaucrats, who dominated the government during the Yuan dynasty along with Northern Chinese officials, were replaced by Han Chinese officials. The emperor re-instituted, then abolished, then restored the Confucian civil service imperial examination system, from which most state officials were selected based on their knowledge of literature and philosophy. The Ming examination curriculum followed that set by the Yuan in 1313: a focus on the Four Books over the Five Classics, and the commentaries of Zhu Xi.[17] The Confucian scholar-bureaucrats, previously marginalised during the Yuan dynasty, were reinstated to their predominant roles in the government.

Mongol-related things, including garments and names, were discontinued from use and boycotted. There were also attacks on palaces and administrative buildings previously used by the rulers of the Yuan dynasty.[18] But many of Taizu's government institutions were actually modelled on those of the Yuan dynasty: community schools required (not necessarily successfully) for primary education in every village are one example.[19]

Hongwu founded Qinhuai.[20]

Land reform

As the Hongwu Emperor came from a peasant family, he was aware of how peasants used to suffer under the oppression of the scholar-bureaucrats, and the wealthy. Many of the latter, relying on their connections with government officials, encroached unscrupulously on peasants' lands and bribed the officials to transfer the burden of taxation to the poor. To prevent such abuse, the Hongwu Emperor instituted two systems: Yellow Records and Fish Scale Records. They served both to secure the government's income from land taxes and to affirm that peasants would not lose their lands.

However, the reforms did not eliminate the threat of the bureaucrats to peasants. Instead, the expansion of the bureaucrats and their growing prestige translated into more wealth, and tax exemption for those in the government service. The bureaucrats gained new privileges, and some became illegal money-lenders and managers of gambling rings. Using their power, the bureaucrats expanded their estates at the expense of peasants' lands through outright purchase of those lands, and foreclosure on their mortgages whenever they wanted the lands. The peasants often became either tenants, or workers, or sought employment elsewhere.[21]

Since the beginning of the Ming dynasty in 1357, great care was taken by the Hongwu Emperor to distribute land to peasants. One way was by forced migration to less-dense areas.[22] Some of those people were tied to a pagoda tree in Hongdong (洪洞大槐樹) and moved.[23] Public works projects, such as the construction of irrigation systems, and dikes, were undertaken in an attempt to help farmers. In addition, the Hongwu Emperor also reduced the demands for forced labour on the peasantry. In 1370, the Hongwu Emperor ordered that some lands in Hunan and Anhui should be given to young farmers who had reached adulthood. The order was intended to prevent landlords from seizing the land, as it also decreed that the titles to the lands were not transferable. During the middle part of his reign, the Hongwu Emperor passed an edict, stating that those who brought fallow land under cultivation could keep it as their property without being taxed. The policy was well received by the people and in 1393, cultivated land rose to 8,804,623 ching and 68 mou, something not achieved during any other Chinese dynasty.[citation needed]

The Hongwu Emperor instigated the planting of 50 million trees in the vicinity of Nanjing, reconstructing canals, irrigation, and transporting southern people to the north for repopulation. He successfully managed to increase the population from 60 to 100 million.[24]

Military

View of the Great Wall at Juyong Pass, reconstructed by the Ming dynasty.

The Hongwu Emperor realised that the Mongols still posed a threat to China, even though they had been driven away after the collapse of the Yuan dynasty. He decided to reassess the orthodox Confucian view that the military was an inferior class to the scholar bureaucracy. He kept a powerful army, which in 1384 he reorganised using a model known as the weisuo system (simplified Chinese: 卫所制; traditional Chinese: 衛所制; literally: "guard battalion"). Each military unit consisted of 5,600 men divided into five battalions, and ten companies.[25] By 1393 the total number of weisuo troops had reached 1,200,000. Soldiers were also assigned land on which to grow crops, whilst their positions were made hereditary. This type of system can be traced back to the fubing system (Chinese: 府兵制) of the Sui and Tang dynasties.

Training was conducted within local military districts. In times of war, troops were mobilised from all over the empire on the orders of the Ministry of War, and commanders were appointed to lead them to battle. After the war, the army was disbanded into smaller groups and sent back to their respective districts, and the commanders had to return their authority to the state. This system helped to prevent military leaders from having too much power. The military was under the control of a civilian official for large campaigns, instead of a military general.[citation needed]

Nobility

When the Ming dynasty emerged, Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang's military officers were given noble titles. These privileged the holder with a stipend, but in all other aspects was merely symbolic.[26] Mu Ying's family was among them.[27][28][29][30][31][32] Special rules against abuse of power were implemented on the nobles.[33]

Consolidating control

Manicheanism, and White Lotus were prohibited and outlawed by Hongwu.[34]

The Hongwu Emperor expected everyone to obey his rule[35][36] and was infamous for killing many people during his purges.[37] His tortures included flaying, and slow slicing.[38][39][40] One of his generals, Chang Yuchun, carried out massacres in some places[citation needed] in Shandong and Hunan provinces to take revenge against people who resisted his army.[41][42][43] As time went on, the Hongwu Emperor became increasingly fearful of rebellions and coups, even going so far as to order the execution of those of his advisers who dared criticise him.[44] He was also said to have ordered the massacre of several thousand people living in Nanjing after having heard one talked about him without respect.[45][46][47] In 1380, after much killing, a lightning bolt struck his palace and he stopped the massacres for some time, as he was afraid divine forces would punish him.[48]

The Hongwu Emperor also noted the destructive role of court eunuchs under the previous dynasties. He drastically reduced their numbers, forbidding them to handle documents, insisting that they remain illiterate, and executing those who commented on state affairs. The emperor had a strong aversion to the eunuchs, epitomized by a tablet in his palace stipulating: "Eunuchs must have nothing to do with the administration". This aversion to eunuchs did not long continue among his successors, as the Hongwu and Jianwen emperors' harsh treatment of eunuchs allowed the Yongle Emperor to employ them as a power base during his coup.[1] In addition to the Hongwu Emperor's aversion to eunuchs, he never consented to any of his marital relatives becoming court officials. This policy was fairly well-maintained by later emperors, and no serious trouble was caused by the empresses or their relatives.

The Hongwu Emperor attempted, and largely succeeded in, the consolidation of control over all aspects of government, so that no other group could gain enough power to overthrow him. He also buttressed the country's defences against the Mongols. He increasingly concentrated power in his own hands. He abolished the Chancellor's post, which had been head of the main central administrative body under past dynasties, by suppressing a plot for which he had blamed his chief minister. Many argue that the Hongwu Emperor, because of his wish to concentrate absolute authority in his own hands, removed the only insurance against incompetent emperors.[citation needed]

However, the Hongwu Emperor could not govern the sprawling Ming Empire all by himself and had to create the new institution of the "Grand Secretary". This cabinet-like organisation progressively took on the powers of the abolished prime minister, becoming just as powerful in time. Ray Huang argued that Grand-Secretaries, outwardly powerless, could exercise considerable positive influence from behind the throne.[citation needed] Because of their prestige and the public trust which they enjoyed, they could act as intermediaries between the emperor and the ministerial officials, and thus provide a stabilising force in the court. He executed tens of thousand officials and their relatives over sedition, treason, corruption and other charges.[49][50][51][52][53][54][55]

In the Hongwu Emperor's elimination of the traditional offices of grand councilor, the primary impetus was Hu Weiyong's alleged attempt to usurp the throne. Hu was the Senior Grand Councilor and a capable administrator; however over the years, the magnitude of his powers, as well as involvement in several political scandals eroded the paranoid emperor's trust in him. Finally, in 1380, the Hongwu Emperor had Hu and his entire family arrested and executed on charges of treason. Using this as an opportunity to purge his government, the emperor also ordered the execution of countless other officials, as well as their families, for associating with Hu. The purge lasted over a decade and resulted in more than 30,000 executions. In 1390, even Li Shanchang, one of the closest old friends of the emperor, who was rewarded as the biggest contributor to the founding of the Ming Empire, was executed along with over 70 members of his extended family. A year after his death, a deputy in the Board of Works made a submission to the emperor appealing Li's innocence, arguing that since Li was already at the apex of honour, wealth and power, the accusation that he wanted to help someone else usurp the throne was clearly ridiculous. The Hongwu Emperor was unable to refute the accusations and finally ended the purge shortly afterwards.

Through the repeated purges and the elimination of the historical posts, the Hongwu Emperor fundamentally altered the centuries-old government structure of China, greatly increasing the emperor's absolutism.

The Hongwu Emperor was extremely authoritarian, a virtual dictator, and governed directly over all affairs. He wrote essays posted in every village throughout China warning the people to behave and of the horrifying consequences if they disobeyed.[24] The 1380s writings of Hongwu are known as the "Great warnings" or "Grand Pronouncements".[56] They were called "Ancestral injunctions".[57][58] He wrote the Six Maxims which inspired the Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor,[59][60][61] 六諭[62] 聖諭六言[63][64][65][66][67]

Legal reform

The legal code drawn up in the time of the Hongwu Emperor was considered one of the great achievements of the era. The History of Ming mentioned that as early as 1364, the monarchy had started to draft a code of laws. This code was known as Code of the Great Ming or Laws of the Great Ming (大明律). The emperor devoted much time to the project and instructed his ministers that the code should be comprehensive and intelligible, so as not to allow any official to exploit loopholes in the code by deliberately misinterpreting it. The Ming code laid much emphasis on family relations. The code was a great improvement on the code of the Tang dynasty in regards to the treatment of slaves. Under the Tang code, slaves were treated as a species of domestic animal; if they were killed by a free citizen, the law imposed no sanction on the killer. Under the Ming dynasty, the law protected both slaves and free citizens.[citation needed]

Economic reform

Supported by the scholar-bureaucrats, he accepted the Confucian viewpoint that merchants were solely parasitic. He felt that agriculture should be the country's source of wealth and that trade was ignoble. As a result, the Ming economic system emphasised agriculture, unlike the economic system of the Song dynasty, which had preceded the Yuan dynasty and had relied on traders and merchant for revenues. The Hongwu Emperor also supported the creation of self-supporting agricultural communities.

However, his prejudice against merchants did not diminish the numbers of traders. On the contrary, commerce increased significantly during the Hongwu era because of the growth of industry throughout the empire. This growth in trade was due in part to poor soil conditions and the overpopulation of certain areas, which forced many people to leave their homes and seek their fortunes in trade. A book titled Tu Pien Hsin Shu,[citation needed] written during the Ming dynasty, gave a detailed description of the activities of merchants at that time.

Educational reforms

Quan Tang, the Minister of Justice, stood up against Hongwu over his command to downgrade Mencius.[68]

At the Guozijian, law, math, calligraphy, equestrianism, and archery were emphasized by the Hongwu Emperor in addition to Confucian classics and also required in the Imperial Examinations.[69][70][71][72][73][74] Archery and equestrianism were added to the exam by Hongwu in 1370 like how archery and equestrianism were required for non-military officials at the 武舉 College of War in 1162 by the Song Emperor Xiaozong.[75] The area around the Meridian Gate of Nanjing was used for archery by guards and generals under Hongwu.[76] A cavalry based army modeled on the Yuan military was implemented by the Hongwu and Yongle Emperors.[77] Hongwu's army and officialdom incorporated Mongols.[78]

Equestrianism and archery were favorite pastimes of He Suonan who served in the Yuan and Ming militaries under Hongwu.[79] Archery towers were built by Zhengtong Emperor at the Forbidden City.[80] Archery towers were built on the city walls of Xi'an erected by Hongwu.[81]

Around 1384, the Hongwu Emperor ordered the Chinese translation and compilation of Islamic astronomical tables, a task that was carried out by the scholars Mashayihei, a Muslim astronomer, and Wu Bozong, a Chinese scholar-official. These tables came to be known as the Huihui Lifa (Muslim System of Calendrical Astronomy), which was published in China a number of times until the early 18th century,[82]

Religious policy

The Jinjue Mosque in Nanjing was constructed by the decree of the Hongwu Emperor.

The Hongwu Emperor ordered the construction of several mosques in Nanjing, Yunnan, Guangdong and Fujian provinces,[83] and had inscriptions praising the Islamic prophet Muhammad placed in mosques. He rebuilt the Jinjue Mosque (literally meaning: Pure Enlightenment Mosque) in Nanjing and large numbers of Hui people moved to the city during his rule.[84]

Chinese sources claim that the Hongwu Emperor had close relations with Muslims and had around ten Muslim generals in his military,[85] including Lan Yu, Ding Dexing, Mu Ying, Feng Sheng and Hu Dahai, and that "His Majesty ordered to have mosques built in Xijing and Nanjing [the capitals], and in southern Yunnan, Fujian and Guangdong." He also personally wrote a 100 word praise (baizizan) on Islam, Allah and the Prophet Muhammad.[86]

During the war fighting the Mongols, among the Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang's armies was the Hui Muslim Feng Sheng.[87]

Foreign policy

Vietnam

The Hongwu Emperor was a non interventionist, refusing to intervene in a Vietnamese invasion of Champa to help the Chams, only rebuking the Vietnamese for their invasion, being opposed to military action abroad.[88] He specifically warned future Emperors only to defend against foreign barbarians, and not engage in military campaigns for glory and conquest.[89] In his 1395 ancestral injunctions, the emperor specifically wrote that China should not attack Champa, Cambodia or Annam (Vietnam).[90][91] He was advised to concentrate on defending against the Rong and Di "Barbarians", rather than attacking.[92] With the exception of his turn against aggressive expansion, much of Taizu's foreign policy and his diplomatic institutions were based on Yuan practice.[93]

"Japanese" pirates

The Hongwu Emperor sent a harsh message to the Japanese that his army would "capture and exterminate your bandits, head straight for your country, and put your king in bonds".[94] In fact, many of the "dwarf pirates" and "eastern barbarians" raiding his coasts were Chinese[95][96] and the Hongwu Emperor's response was almost entirely passive. The Ashikaga shogun cheekily replied that "Your great empire may be able to invade Japan but our small state is not short of a strategy to defend ourselves"[97] and the necessity of protecting his state against the Northern Yuan remnants[98] meant that the most the Hongwu Emperor was able to accomplish was a series of "sea ban" measures. Private foreign trade was made punishable by death, with the trader's family and neighbors exiled;[99] ships, docks, and shipyards were destroyed and ports sabotaged.[100] The initial conception seems to have been to use the Japanese need for Chinese goods to force them to terms,[97] but it was at odds with Chinese tradition and extremely counterproductive: it tied up resources (74 coastal garrisons were established from Guangzhou to Shandong, albeit mostly manned by local gangs) and limited tax receipts,[100] impoverished and provoked both coastal Chinese and Japanese against the regime,[97] increasing piracy,[96] and offered too little, decennial tribute missions comprising only two ships, as a reward for good behavior and enticement for Japanese authorities to root out their smugglers and pirates.[97] In fact, piracy dropped to negligible levels upon the abolition of the policy in 1568.[96]

Nonetheless, the sea ban was added by the Hongwu Emperor to his Ancestral Injunctions[100] and so continued to be broadly enforced through most of the rest of his dynasty: for the next two centuries, the rich farmland of the south and the military theaters of the north were linked only by the Jinghang Canal.[101]

Byzantine Empire

The History of Ming, compiled during the early Qing dynasty, describes how the Hongwu Emperor met with an alleged merchant of Fu lin (拂菻; the Byzantine Empire) named "Nieh-ku-lun" (捏古倫). In September 1371, he had the man sent back to his native country with a letter announcing the founding of the Ming dynasty to his ruler (i.e. John V Palaiologos).[102][103][104] It is speculated that the merchant was actually a former bishop of Khanbaliq (Beijing) called Nicolaus de Bentra, sent by Pope John XXII to replace Archbishop John of Montecorvino in 1333.[102][105] The History of Ming goes on to explain that contacts between China and Fu lin ceased after this point, and diplomats of the great western sea (the Mediterranean Sea) did not appear in China again until the 16th century, with the Italian Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci.[102]

Development of dynasty

A stele carried by a giant stone tortoise at the Hongwu Emperor's Mausoleum

Although the Hongwu era saw the introduction of paper currency, its development was stifled from the beginning. Not understanding inflation, the Hongwu Emperor gave out so much paper money as rewards that by 1425, the state was forced to reintroduce copper coins because the paper currency had sunk to only 1/70 of its original value.

During the Hongwu era, the Ming Empire was characterised by rapid and dramatic population growth, largely due to the increased food supply from the emperor's agricultural reforms.[106] By the end of the Ming dynasty, the population had risen by as much as 50%. This was stimulated by major improvements in agricultural technology, promoted by the pro-agrarian state which came to power in the midst of a pro-Confucian peasants' rebellion. During his reign, living standards also greatly improved.[citation needed]

Death

The Hongwu Emperor died on June 24, 1398, after reigning for 30 years at the age of 69. After his death, his physicians were penalized. He was buried at Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum on the Purple Mountain, east of Nanjing.

Assessment

Historians consider the Hongwu Emperor to have been one of the most significant emperors of China. As historian Ebrey puts it, "Seldom has the course of Chinese history been influenced by a single personality as much as it was by the founder of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang."[107] His rise to power was fast despite his having a poor and humble origin. In 11 years, he went from being a penniless monk to the most powerful warlord in China. Five years later, he became emperor of China. Simon Leys described him this way:

'an adventurer from peasant stock, poorly educated, a man of action, a bold and shrewd tactician, a visionary mind, in many respects a creative genius; naturally coarse, cynical, and ruthless, he eventually showed symptoms of paranoia, bordering on psychopathy.'[108]

In popular culture

Novels
Television series
  • Born to be a King (大明群英), a 1987 Hong Kong television series produced by TVB and starring Simon Yam as Zhu Yuanzhang.
  • Zhu Yuanzhang (朱元璋), a 1993 Chinese television series produced by Beijing TV and starring Lü Qi as Zhu Yuanzhang.
  • Empress Ma With Great Feet (大腳馬皇后), a 2002 Chinese television series about Zhu Yuanzhang's wife, Empress Ma. Tang Guoqiang starred as Zhu Yuanzhang.
  • Chuanqi Huangdi Zhu Yuanzhang (傳奇皇帝朱元璋), a 2006 Chinese television series starring Chen Baoguo as Zhu Yuanzhang.
  • Founding Emperor of Ming Dynasty (朱元璋), a 2006 Chinese television series directed by Feng Xiaoning and starring Hu Jun as Zhu Yuanzhang.
  • The Legendary Liu Bowen (神機妙算劉伯溫), a 2006–2008 Taiwanese television series about Zhu Yuanzhang's adviser, Liu Bowen. It was produced by TTV and starred Huo Zhengqi as Zhu Yuanzhang.
  • Zhenming Tianzi (真命天子), a 2015 Chinese television series produced by Jian Yuanxin and starring Zhang Zhuowen as Zhu Yuanzhang.
  • Love Through Different Times (穿越时空的爱恋), a 2002 Chinese television comedy-drama that is considered the first time-travel television series produced in mainland China.

Family

The Hongwu Emperor treated his ladies-in-waiting badly, forcing them to live in the palaces for life without freedom and behind cemented walls.[109][110][unreliable source?] He massacred thousands of them.[111][112][113][unreliable source?] He restricted the freedom of many concubines and killed several[who?].[114][115][116][unreliable source?] He also forced many of them[who?] to commit suicide and ordered that they will be buried with him after his death.[117][unreliable source?] He had several Korean concubines, including Lady Han, who bore him a son, and Lady Gong.[118]

Princesses who killed their husbands include Princess Anqing and Princess Runing. Descendants of Princess Lin'an and Princess Shouchun were exempted from execution due to their descent from Emperor Gao.


  • Parents:
    • Zhu Shizhen (淳皇帝 朱世珍; 1283 – 1344)
    • Lady Chen (淳皇后 陳氏; 1286 – 1344)
  • Consorts and Issue:
  1. Lady Ma Xiuying (孝慈高皇后 馬秀英; 1332 – 1382)
    1. Zhu Biao (懿文皇太子 朱標; 1355 – 1392)
    2. Zhu Shuang (秦愍王 朱樉; 1356 – 1395)
    3. Zhu Gang (晉恭王 朱㭎; 1358 – 1398)
    4. Zhu Di (成祖 朱棣; 1360 – 1424)
    5. Zhu Su (周定王 朱橚; 1361 – 1425)
    6. Princess Ning (寧公主; 1364 – 1434)
    7. Princess Anqing (安慶公主)
  2. Lady Sun (成穆貴妃 孫氏; 1343 – 1374)
    1. Lady Zhu Yufeng (臨安公主 朱玉鳳; 1360 – 1421)
    2. Princess Huaiqing (懷慶公主; d. 1425)
    3. Unnamed daughter
    4. Unnamed daughter
  3. Lady Zhao (貴妃 趙氏)
    1. Zhu Mo (沈簡王 朱模; 1380 – 1431)
  4. Lady Guo (寧妃 郭氏)
    1. Princess Runing (汝寧公主)
    2. Princess Daming (大名公主; 1368 – 1426)
    3. Zhu Tan (魯荒王 朱檀; 1370 – 1390)
  5. Lady Hu (昭敬充妃 胡氏)
    1. Zhu Zhen (楚昭王 朱楨; 1364 – 1424)
  6. Lady Da (定妃 達氏; d. 1390)
    1. Zhu Fu (齊恭王 朱榑; 1364 – 1428)
    2. Zhu Zi (潭王 朱梓; 1369 – 1390)
  7. Lady Zheng (安妃 鄭氏)
    1. Princess Fuqing (福清公主; 1370 – 1417)
  8. Lady Guo (惠妃 郭氏)
    1. Zhu Chun (蜀獻王 朱椿; 1371 – 1423)
    2. Zhu Gui (代簡王 朱桂; 1374 – 1446)
    3. Princess Yongjia Zhenyi (永嘉貞懿公主; 1376 – 1455)
    4. Zhu Hui (谷王 朱橞; 1379 – 1428)
    5. Princess Ruyang (汝陽公主)
  9. Lady Hu (順妃 胡氏)
    1. Zhu Bai (湘獻王 朱柏; 1371 – 1399)
  10. Lady Li (賢妃 李氏)
    1. Zhu Jing (唐定王 朱桱; 1386 – 1415)
  11. Lady Liu (惠妃 劉氏)
    1. Zhu Dong (郢靖王 朱棟; 1388 – 1414)
  12. Lady Ge (麗妃 葛氏)
    1. Zhu Yi (伊厲王 朱㰘; 1388 – 1414)
    2. Zhu Nan (朱楠; 1394)
  13. Lady Cui (莊靖惠妃 崔氏)
  14. Lady Han (妃 韓氏)
    1. Zhu Zhi (遼簡王 朱植; 1377 – 1424)
    2. Princess Hanshan (含山公主; 1381 – 1462)
  15. Lady Yu (妃 余氏)
    1. Zhu Zhan (慶靖王 朱㮵; 1378 – 1438)
  16. Lady Yang (妃 楊氏)
    1. Zhu Quan (寧獻王 朱權; 1378 – 1448)
  17. Lady Zhou (妃 周氏)
    1. Zhu Pian (岷莊王 朱楩; 1379 – 1450)
    2. Zhu Song (韓憲王 朱松; 1380 – 1407)
  18. Lady Zhang Xuanmiao (美人 張玄妙)
    1. Princess Baoqing (寶慶公主; 1394 – 1433)
  19. Lady Lin (林氏)
    1. Lady Zhu Yuhua (南康公主 朱玉華; 1373 – 1438)
  20. Lady Gao (郜氏)
    1. Zhu Ying (肅莊王 朱楧; 1376 – 1420)
  21. Unknown
    1. Zhu Qi (趙王 朱杞; 1369 – 1371)
    2. Zhu Ying (安惠王 朱楹; 1383 – 1417)
    3. Princess Chongning (崇寧公主)
    4. Princess Shouchun (壽春公主; 1370 – 1388)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Chan Hok-lam. "Legitimating Usurpation: Historical Revisions under the Ming Yongle Emperor (r. 1402–1424)". The Legitimation of New Orders: Case Studies in World History. Chinese University Press, 2007. ISBN 962996239X, 9789629962395. Accessed 12 Oct 2012.
  2. ^ The Legitimation of New Orders: Case Studies in World History. Chinese University Press, 2007. ISBN 962996239X, 9789629962395. Accessed 12 Oct 2012.
  3. ^ Mote, Frederick W. (1988). The Cambridge History of China Volume 7 The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 11.
  4. ^ Dreyer, 22–23.
  5. ^ History of Ming, vol. 1
  6. ^ Mote, J.F. Imperial China 900–1800 Harvard University Press (5 December 2003) ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7 pp.543–545 Google Books Search
  7. ^ {Yonglin, Jiang (tr). The Great Ming Code: Da Ming lü. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2005, pp xxxiv}
  8. ^ {Mote, Frederick W. and Twitchett, Denis (ed), The Cambridge History of China, Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1. Cambridge: The Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp 45.}
  9. ^ Ebrey, "Cambridge Illustrated History of China", pg. 191
  10. ^ Edward L. Farmer, Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Following the Era of Mongol Rule. BRILL, 1995. ISBN 90-04-10391-0, ISBN 978-90-04-10391-7. On Google Books. P 23.
  11. ^ Linda Cooke Johnson, Cities of Jiangnan in Late Imperial China. SUNY Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7914-1423-X, 9780791414231 On Google Books, pp. 26–27.
  12. ^ Mote, Frederick W.; Twitchett, Denis; Fairbank, John K., eds. (1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Contributors Denis Twitchett, John K. Fairbank (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 128. ISBN 0521243327. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  13. ^ Papers on Far Eastern History, Volumes 37-38. Contributor Australian National University. Dept. of Far Eastern History. Department of Far Eastern History, Australian National University. 1988. p. 17. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  14. ^ Tsai, Shih-shan Henry (2001). Perpetual happiness: the Ming emperor Yongle. University of Washington Press. p. 23. ISBN 0295800224. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  15. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 125–127. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2. 
  16. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 144–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2. 
  17. ^ Thomas H.C. Lee, Education in Traditional China: A History. Leiden: Brill, 2000,156.
  18. ^ Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 508.
  19. ^ Schneewind, Sarah, Community Schools and the State in Ming China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006, 12-3.
  20. ^ Daria Berg (24 July 2013). Women and the Literary World in Early Modern China, 1580-1700. Routledge. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-1-136-29021-3. 
  21. ^ Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 511.
  22. ^ "ȼ䡢԰Ⱥʷ". literature.org.cn. Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. 
  23. ^ 山西社科网 Archived 4 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ a b Marshall Cavendish Corporation; Steven Maddocks; Dale Anderson; Jane Bingham; Peter Chrisp; Christopher Gavett (2006). Exploring the Middle Ages. Marshall Cavendish. p. 519. ISBN 0-7614-7613-X. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  25. ^ (In Chinese) She Yiyuan (佘一元), Shanhaiguan Chronicle (山海关志)
  26. ^ FREDERIC WAKEMAN JR. (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 343–344. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1. 
  27. ^ "Between Winds and Clouds: Chapter 3". www.gutenberg-e.org. 
  28. ^ "Between Winds and Clouds: Chapter 4". www.gutenberg-e.org. 
  29. ^ "Between Winds and Clouds: Chapter 5". www.gutenberg-e.org. 
  30. ^ "Gold-filled tomb of Chinese 'superwoman' uncovered". 
  31. ^ "Gold Treasures Discovered in Ming Dynasty Tomb (Photos)". 
  32. ^ "Ming Dynasty Tomb Tells A Remarkable Life's Story". 14 May 2015. 
  33. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 133–134. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2. 
  34. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 122–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2. 
  35. ^ "略論明太祖的教化性敕撰書" (PDF). Rwxy.tsinghua.edu.cn. Retrieved 13 November 2011. [permanent dead link]
  36. ^ "..::中国法学网::." iolaw.org.cn. 
  37. ^ "朱元璋的滥杀心理及其影响初探". Studa.net. 4 February 2009. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  38. ^ 劉辰. 國初事迹
  39. ^ 李默. 孤樹裒談
  40. ^ 楊一凡(1988). 明大誥研究. Jiangsu Renmin Press.
  41. ^ "洪武移民传说". Jijiever.bokee.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  42. ^ "鞍山老人万里寻祖20年探出"小云南"". News.eastday.com. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  43. ^ "朱元璋血洗湖南一事究竟是真是假? --- ido.3mt.com.cn". ido.3mt.com.cn. 
  44. ^ "元末明初的士人活動 - 歷史學科中心". 
  45. ^ "有趣的南京地名". People.com.cn. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  46. ^ 长乐街:秦淮影照古廊房 Archived 1 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  47. ^ 馬生龍. 鳳凰台紀事
  48. ^ 徐禎卿. 剪勝野聞
  49. ^ History of Ming, vol.139
  50. ^ 吳晗, 胡惟庸黨案考
  51. ^ 錢謙益, 初學集 vol.104
  52. ^ 藍玉黨供狀
  53. ^ "朱元璋多疑殺人數萬? 明初空印案之謎". Stnn.cc:82. 1 February 2007. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  54. ^ "小说_免费小说_电子书免费阅读-新浪读书". sina.com.cn. 
  55. ^ 南北榜,科场案制造20多个冤鬼[dead link]
  56. ^ John Makeham (2008). China: The World's Oldest Living Civilization Revealed. Thames & Hudson. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-500-25142-3. 
  57. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2. 
  58. ^ pp. 45, 47, 51.
  59. ^ William Theodore De Bary (1998). Asian Values and Human Rights: A Confucian Communitarian Perspective. Harvard University Press. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-0-674-04955-0. 
  60. ^ William Theodore De Bary; Wing-tsit Chan (1999). Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 70–. ISBN 978-0-231-11270-3. 
  61. ^ Wm. Theodore de Bary; Richard Lufrano (1 June 2010). Sources of Chinese Tradition: Volume 2: From 1600 Through the Twentieth Century. Columbia University Press. pp. 70–. ISBN 978-0-231-51799-7. 
  62. ^ Elisabeth Kaske (2008). The Politics of Language in Chinese Education: 1895 - 1919. BRILL. pp. 39–. ISBN 90-04-16367-0. 
  63. ^ Benjamin A. Elman (1 November 2013). Civil Examinations and Meritocracy in Late Imperial China. Harvard University Press. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-0-674-72604-8. 
  64. ^ Kerry J. Kennedy; Gregory Fairbrother; Zhenzhou Zhao (15 October 2013). Citizenship Education in China: Preparing Citizens for the "Chinese Century". Routledge. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-1-136-02208-1. 
  65. ^ Michael Lackner, Ph.D.; Natascha Vittinghoff (January 2004). Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China ; [International Conference "Translating Western Knowledge Into Late Imperial China", 1999, Göttingen University]. BRILL. pp. 269–. ISBN 90-04-13919-2. 
  66. ^ Zhengyuan Fu (1996). China's Legalists: The Earliest Totalitarians and Their Art of Ruling. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-1-56324-779-8. 
  67. ^ Benjamin A. Elman; John B. Duncan; Herman Ooms (2002). Rethinking confucianism: past and present in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. University of California Los Angeles. p. 308. ISBN 978-1-883191-07-8. 
  68. ^ Monumenta Serica. H. Vetch. 2007. p. 167. 
  69. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 122–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2. 
  70. ^ Stephen Selby (1 January 2000). Chinese Archery. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 267–. ISBN 978-962-209-501-4. 
  71. ^ Edward L. Farmer (1995). Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Following the Era of Mongol Rule. BRILL. pp. 59–. ISBN 90-04-10391-0. 
  72. ^ Sarah Schneewind (2006). Community Schools and the State in Ming China. Stanford University Press. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-8047-5174-2. 
  73. ^ "Ming Empire 1368-1644 by Sanderson Beck". www.san.beck.org. 
  74. ^ "Chinese archery training background text". www.atarn.org. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. 
  75. ^ Lo Jung-pang (1 January 2012). China as a Sea Power, 1127-1368: A Preliminary Survey of the Maritime Expansion and Naval Exploits of the Chinese People During the Southern Song and Yuan Periods. NUS Press. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-9971-69-505-7. 
  76. ^ "Hongwu Reign-The Palace Museum". en.dpm.org.cn. 
  77. ^ Michael E. Haskew; Christer Joregensen (9 December 2008). Fighting Techniques of the Oriental World: Equipment, Combat Skills, and Tactics. St. Martin's Press. pp. 101–. ISBN 978-0-312-38696-2. 
  78. ^ Dorothy Perkins (19 November 2013). Encyclopedia of China: History and Culture. Routledge. pp. 216–. ISBN 978-1-135-93562-7. 
  79. ^ Gray Tuttle; Kurtis R. Schaeffer (12 March 2013). The Tibetan History Reader. Columbia University Press. pp. 303–. ISBN 978-0-231-51354-8. 
  80. ^ "Forbidden City Palace Museum 故宫博物院 Beijing". hua.umf.maine.edu. 
  81. ^ [1]
  82. ^ Yunli Shi (January 2003), "The Korean Adaptation of the Chinese-Islamic Astronomical Tables", Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Springer, 57 (1): 25–60 [26], doi:10.1007/s00407-002-0060-z, ISSN 1432-0657 
  83. ^ Tan Ta Sen; Dasheng Chen (2000). Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 170. ISBN 981-230-837-7. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  84. ^ Shoujiang Mi; Jia You (2004). Islam in China. 五洲传播出版社. p. 35. ISBN 7-5085-0533-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  85. ^ China China archaeology and art digest, Volume 3, Issue 4. Art Text (HK) Ltd. 2000. p. 29. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  86. ^ ()Maria Jaschok, Jingjun Shui (2000). The history of women's mosques in Chinese Islam: a mosque of their own (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-7007-1302-6. Retrieved 20 December 2011. For instance, in the early years of the Hongwu Emperor's reign in the Ming Dynasty, His Majesty ordered to have mosques built in Xijing and Nanjing [the capital cities] and in southern Yunnan, Fujian and Guangdong. His Majesty also personally wrote baizizan [a eulogy] in praise of the Prophet's virtues. The Ming Emperor Xuanzong once issued imperial orders to build a mosque in Nanjing in response to Zheng He's request (Liu Zhi, 1984 reprint: 358–374). Mosques built by imperial decree raised the social position of Islam, and assistance from upper-class Muslims helped to sustain religious sites in certain areas. 
  87. ^ "China's Islamic Communities Generate Local Histories - China Heritage Quarterly". www.chinaheritagequarterly.org. 
  88. ^ Edward L. Dreyer (1982). Early Ming China: a political history, 1355–1435. Stanford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-8047-1105-4. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  89. ^ Kenneth Warren Chase (2003). Firearms: a global history to 1700. Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-521-82274-2. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  90. ^ Mote, Frederick W.; Twitchett, Denis; Fairbank, John K., eds. (1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Contributors Denis Twitchett, John K. Fairbank (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 229. ISBN 0521243327. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  91. ^ Wang, Yuan-kang (19 March 2012). "Managing Regional Hegemony in Historical Asia: The Case of Early Ming China" (PDF). The Chinese Journal of International Politic. 5 (2): 136. doi:10.1093/cjip/pos006. Retrieved 11 July 2016. 
  92. ^ Alastair Iain Johnston (1998). Cultural realism: strategic culture and grand strategy in Chinese history. Princeton University Press. p. 223. ISBN 0-691-00239-8. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  93. ^ Wang Gungwu, "Ming Foreign Relations: Southeast Asia," in Cambridge History of China, volume 8, pp, 301, 306, 311.
  94. ^ David Chan-oong Kang (2007). China Rising: Peace, Power, and Order in East Asia. Columbia University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-231-14188-2. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  95. ^ Li Kangying (2010), The Ming Maritime Trade Policy in Transition, 1368 to 1567, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, p. 11, ISBN 9783447061728 .
  96. ^ a b c Li (2010), p. 17.
  97. ^ a b c d Li (2010), p. 13.
  98. ^ Li (2010), p. 12.
  99. ^ Li (2010), p. 3.
  100. ^ a b c Li (2010), p. 4.
  101. ^ Li (2010), p. 168.
  102. ^ a b c Paul Halsall (2000) [1998]. Jerome S. Arkenberg, ed. "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. - 1643 C.E." Fordham.edu. Fordham University. Retrieved 2016-09-17. 
  103. ^ R. G. Grant (2005). Battle: A Visual Journey Through 5,000 Years of Combat. DK Pub. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-0-7566-1360-0. 
  104. ^ Friedrich Hirth (1885). China and the Roman Orient: Researches Into Their Ancient and Mediaeval Relations as Represented in Old Chinese Records. G. Hirth. p. 66. 
  105. ^ Edward Luttwak (1 November 2009). The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. Harvard University Press. pp. 170–. ISBN 978-0-674-03519-5. 
  106. ^ Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 366.
  107. ^ Ebrey, "Cambridge Illustrated History of China", pg. 190
  108. ^ Simon Leys, 'Ravished by Oranges' in New York Review of Books 20 December 2007 p.8
  109. ^ "―故宫过客". Qzwb.com. 31 October 2006. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  110. ^ 陳夢雷. 古今圖書集成·宮闈典·宫女部雜錄
  111. ^ 呂瑟. 明朝小史, vol.1
  112. ^ "明太祖《紀非錄》書後:秦周齊潭魯代靖江諸王罪行敘錄" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  113. ^ 陈学霖(2001). 史林漫识. China Friendship Publishing Company.
  114. ^ 史夢蘭. 全史宮詞
  115. ^ "街巷轶事". App.hzxc.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  116. ^ 查繼佐. 罪惟錄, vol.3
  117. ^ "朱元璋陪葬妃子怎么死的?专家:上吊或灌水银——华夏文明——中国经济网". Cathay.ce.cn. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  118. ^ Association Denis Crispin Twitchett, John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8. Cambridge University Press. p. 292. ISBN 0-521-24333-5. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  1. ^ The Hongwu Emperor was already in control of Nanjing since 1356 and was conferred the title of "Duke of Wu" (吳國公) by the rebel leader Han Lin'er (韓林兒) in 1361. He started autonomous rule as the self-proclaimed "Prince of Wu" (吳王) on 4 February 1364. He was proclaimed emperor on 23 January 1368 and established the Ming dynasty on that same day.
  2. ^ Name given by his parents at birth and used only inside the family and friends. This birth name, which means "double eight", was allegedly given to him because the combined age of his parents when he was born was 88 years.
  3. ^ He was known as "Zhu Xingzong" when he reached adulthood and renamed himself "Chu Yuan-Chang" in 1352 when he started to become famous among the rebel leaders.
  4. ^ Upon his successful usurpation in 1402, the Yongle Emperor voided the Jianwen era of his predecessor and continued the Hongwu era posthumously until the next New Year when his own new era was declared. This dating continued for a few of his successors until the Jianwen era was reëstablished in the late 16th century.
  •  This article incorporates text from China and the Roman Orient: researches into their ancient and mediæval relations as represented in old Chinese records, by Friedrich Hirth, a publication from 1885 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Cathay and the way thither: being a collection of medieval notices of China, by COLONEL SIR HENRY YULE, a publication from 1913 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Institutes of ecclesiastical history: ancient and modern ..., by Johann Lorenz Mosheim, James Murdock, a publication from 1832 now in the public domain in the United States.
  • Dreyer, Edward. (1982). Early Ming China: A Political History. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1105-4.
  • Stearns, Peter N., et al. (2006). World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.
  • History of Ming, vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3

Further reading

External link

Media related to Hongwu Emperor at Wikimedia Commons

Hongwu Emperor
Born: 21 October 1328 Died: 24 June 1398
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Dynasty established
Emperor of the Ming dynasty
1368–1398
Succeeded by
The Jianwen Emperor
Preceded by
Emperor Huizong of the Yuan dynasty
Emperor of China
1368–1398
Chinese royalty
Unknown Prince of Wu
1364–1368
Merged in the Crown
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hongwu_Emperor&oldid=848668228"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hongwu_Emperor
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Hongwu Emperor"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA