Homosclerophorida

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Homosclerophorida
Oscarella lobularis (Schmidt, 1862).jpg
Oscarella lobularis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Porifera
Class: Homoscleromorpha
Bergquist, 1978
Order: Homosclerophorida
Dendy, 1905[1]
Families

Homosclerophorida is an order of marine sponges. It is the only order in the monotypic class Homoscleromorpha. The order is composed of two families: Plakinidae and Oscarellidae.

Taxonomy

Homoscleromorpha is phylogenetically well separated from Demospongiae.[4] Therefore, it has been recognized as the fourth class of sponges.[5][6]

Homoscleromorpha are more closely related to eumetazoans than to the other sponge groups, therefore sponges are paraphyletic. (Sperling, Pisani and Peterson 2007, cited in: The Cambrian Explosion p. 80, Erwin and Valentine 2013)

On the basis of molecular and morphological evidence, the two families Plakinidae and Oscarellidae have been reinstated.[5]

There are 117 species in this group divided into 9 genera.[6]

The spiculate genera in this group are Aspiculophora, Corticium, Placinolopha, Plakina, Plakinasterella, Plakortis and Tetralophophora.

The aspiculate species are the genera Oscarella and Pseudocorticium.

Description

These sponges are massive or encrusting in form and have a very simple structure with very little variation in spicule form (all spicules tend to be very small). Reproduction is viviparous and the larva is an oval form known as an amphiblastula. This form is usual in calcareous sponges but is less common in other sponges.

References

  1. ^ van Soest, R. (2014). Van Soest RW, Boury-Esnault N, Hooper JN, Rützler K, de Voogd NJ, de Glasby BA, Hajdu E, Pisera AB, Manconi R, Schoenberg C, Janussen D, Tabachnick KR, Klautau M, Picton B, Kelly M, Vacelet J (eds.). "Homosclerophorida". World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  2. ^ van Soest, R. (2014). Van Soest RW, Boury-Esnault N, Hooper JN, Rützler K, de Voogd NJ, de Glasby BA, Hajdu E, Pisera AB, Manconi R, Schoenberg C, Janussen D, Tabachnick KR, Klautau M, Picton B, Kelly M, Vacelet J (eds.). "Plakinidae Schulze, 1880". World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  3. ^ van Soest, R. (2014). Van Soest RW, Boury-Esnault N, Hooper JN, Rützler K, de Voogd NJ, de Glasby BA, Hajdu E, Pisera AB, Manconi R, Schoenberg C, Janussen D, Tabachnick KR, Klautau M, Picton B, Kelly M, Vacelet J (eds.). "Oscarellidae Lendenfeld, 1887". World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  4. ^ Kober, K. M.; Nichols, S. A. (December 2007). "On the phylogenetic relationships of hadromerid and poecilosclerid sponges". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK. 87 (6). doi:10.1017/S0025315407058237.
  5. ^ a b Gazave, Eve; Lapébie, Pascal; Renard, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Rocher, Caroline; Ereskovsky, Alexander V.; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Borchiellini, Carole (14 December 2010). "Molecular phylogeny restores the supra-generic subdivision of homoscleromorph sponges (porifera, homoscleromorpha)". PLOS ONE. 5 (12): e14290. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014290. PMC 3001884. PMID 21179486.
  6. ^ a b Gazave, Eve; Lapébie, Pascal; Ereskovsky, Alexander V.; Vacelet, Jean; Renard, Emmanuelle; Cárdenas, Paco; Borchiellini, Carole (May 2012). "No longer Demospongiae: Homoscleromorpha formal nomination as a fourth class of Porifera". Hydrobiologia. 687 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1007/s10750-011-0842-x.

External links

  • What are sponges? Queensland Museum
  • Sponge guide


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