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salamtsam-oe or "EngChiLog"
Native to Philippines
Region Manila (concentrated in Binondo)
Ethnicity Chinese Filipino
Native speakers
(more than 100,000 cited 1945 – present)
not applicable, oral contact language
Official status
Official language in
Not official, Minority language of the Philippines

Binondo, Metro Manila (lingua franca) and abroad
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-3 None (mis)
Map of the Philippines.png
Area where Hokaglish is spoken
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Hokaglish (or Philippine Hybrid Hokkien), also known by locals as Sa-lam-tsam oe (mixed language), is an oral contact language primarily resulting among three languages: (1) Hokkien, (2) Tagalog, and (3) English (Other languages that have relative influence include Cantonese, Spanish and other local peripheral languages[1][2]).[3] Typically used by Filipino-Chinese or Chinese Filipinos, Hokaglish is used in quite a number of domains including corporations, academic institutions, restaurants, religious institutions, phone calls, and houses.[3] Some note that this is a result of having to maintain command of all three languages in the spheres of home, school, and greater Philippine society. Although used by Chinese Filipinos in general, this form of code switching is very popular with the younger generation (Tsinoys).[4]

The most recent observation of Hokaglish is that the contact language is gradually becoming a normative language of its own due to peculiarities from the phonological to the syntactic and even pragmatic level. Earlier thought to be a creole,[1][2] it may actually be a mixed language similar to Light Warlpiri or Gurindji Kriol. It is also considered a hybrid English or X-English, making it one of the Philippine Englishes.[5][6]

See also


  1. ^ a b https://www.academia.edu/29899859/The_language_ecology_of_post-colonial_Manila_and_Hokaglish
  2. ^ a b https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310441396_The_language_ecology_of_post-colonial_Manila_and_Hokaglish
  3. ^ a b "Exploring trilingual code-switching: The case of 'Hokaglish' (PDF Download Available)". Researchgate.net. 2016-06-27. Retrieved 2016-10-24. 
  4. ^ Zulueta, Johana. "I "Speak Chinese" but..." Code switching and Identity Construction in Chinese Filipino Youth". www.revistas.usp.br. Retrieved 2017-02-23. 
  5. ^ "Philippine Englishes". Asian Englishes. 19: 79–95. doi:10.1080/13488678.2016.1274574. 
  6. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311769460_Philippine_Englishes
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