Hoagy Carmichael

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Hoagy Carmichael
Hoagy Carmichael - 1947.jpg
Carmichael in 1947
Background information
Birth name Hoagland Howard Carmichael[1]
Born (1899-11-22)November 22, 1899
Bloomington, Indiana, United States
Died December 27, 1981(1981-12-27) (aged 82)
Rancho Mirage, California, United States
Genres Musical films, popular songs
Occupation(s) Songwriter, musician, actor, attorney
Instruments Piano, vocals
Years active 1918–1981
Associated acts Sidney Arodin, Louis Armstrong, Fred Astaire, Bix Beiderbecke, Ray Charles, Bing Crosby, Jimmy Dorsey, Tommy Dorsey, Duke Ellington, Helen Forrest, Harry James, Spike Jones, Frank Loesser, Johnny Mercer, Glenn Miller, Dinah Shore, Paul Whiteman
Website Hoagy Carmichael

Hoagland Howard "Hoagy" Carmichael (November 22, 1899 – December 27, 1981) was an American composer, pianist, singer, actor, and bandleader. American composer and author, Alec Wilder, described Carmichael as the "most talented, inventive, sophisticated and jazz-oriented of all the great craftsmen" of pop songs in the first half of the twentieth century.[2] Carmichael is one of the most successful of the Tin Pan Alley songwriters of the 1930s, and was among the first singer-songwriters in the age of mass media to utilize new communication technologies, such as television and the use of electronic microphones and sound recordings.

Carmichael composed several hundred songs, including fifty that achieved hit record status. He is best known for composing the music for "Stardust", "Georgia on My Mind" (lyrics by Stuart Gorrell), "The Nearness of You", and "Heart and Soul" (in collaboration with lyricist Frank Loesser), four of the most-recorded American songs of all time.[3] He also collaborated with lyricist Johnny Mercer on "Lazybones" and "Skylark." Carmichael's "Ole Buttermilk Sky" was an Academy Award-nominee in 1946; "In the Cool, Cool, Cool of the Evening," with lyrics by Mercer, won the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1951. Carmichael also appeared as a character actor and musical performer in fourteen motion pictures, hosted three musical-variety radio programs, performed on television, and wrote two autobiographies.

Early life and education

Carmichael's house in Bloomington, Indiana (2011)

Born in Bloomington, Indiana, on November 22, 1899, Hoagland Howard "Hoagy" Carmichael was the first child and only son of Howard Clyde and Lida Mary (Robison) Carmichael. His parents named him after a circus troupe called the "Hoaglands" that had stayed at the Carmichael house during his mother's pregnancy.[4][5] Howard worked as a horse-drawn taxi driver and later as an electrician, while Lida, a versatile pianist, played accompaniment at movie theaters for silent movies and at private parties to earn extra income.[6] Hoagy had two younger sisters, Georgia and Joanne.[7] Because of Howard's unstable job history, the family moved frequently. Hoagy spent most of his early years in Bloomington and in Indianapolis, Indiana.[6] In 1910, the Carmichaels were living in Missoula, Montana.[8]

Carmichael's mother taught him to sing and play the piano at an early age. With the exception of some piano lessons in Indianapolis with Reginald DuValle, a black bandleader and pianist known as "the elder statesman of Indiana jazz" and billed as "the Rhythm King", Carmichael had no other musical training.[9]

The Carmichael family moved to Indianapolis in 1916, but Hoagy returned to Bloomington in 1919 to complete high school.[7] The piano was the focus of Carmichael's after-school life. For inspiration he would listen to ragtime pianists Hank Wells and Hube Hanna. At eighteen, the small, wiry, and pale Carmichael helped supplement his family’s meager income by working in manual jobs in construction, at a bicycle-chain factory, and in a slaughterhouse. The bleak time was partly spelled by four-handed piano duets with his mother and by his friendship with DuValle, who taught him piano-jazz improvisation.[10] Carmichael earned his first money ($5.00) as a musician playing at a fraternity dance in 1918, marking the beginning of his musical career.[11]

The death of Carmichael's three-year-old sister in 1918 affected him deeply. He later wrote "My sister Joanne—the victim of poverty. We couldn’t afford a good doctor or good attention, and that’s when I vowed I would never be broke again in my lifetime." Joanne may have died from influenza, which had swept the world that year.[12]

Carmichael attended Indiana University in Bloomington, where he earned a bachelor's degree in 1925 and a law degree in 1926. He was a member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity, and played the piano around Indiana and Ohio with his band, Carmichael's Collegians.[9][13]

Around 1922 Carmichael first met Leon "Bix" Beiderbecke, a cornetist and sometime pianist from Iowa. The two became friends and played music together. Around 1923, during a visit to Chicago, Beiderbecke introduced Carmichael to Louis Armstrong, with whom Carmichael would later collaborate, while Armstrong was playing with Chicago-based King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band.[9][14][15] Under Beiderbecke’s influence Carmichael began playing the cornet, but found that he didn't have the lips for the instrument and played it only briefly.[16] He was also inspired by Beiderbecke's impressionistic and classical music ideas. Carmichael’s first recorded song, initially titled "Free Wheeling," was written for Beiderbecke, whose band, the Wolverines, recorded it as "Riverboat Shuffle" in 1924 for Gennett Records in Richmond, Indiana. The song became a jazz staple. (Mitchell Parish's lyrics were added in 1939.)[17] Carmichael's other early musical compositions included "Washboard Blues" and "Boneyard Shuffle", which Curtis Hitch and his band, Hitch's Happy Harmonists, recorded at the Gennett studios.[14] The band's instrumental rendition of "Washboard Blues", recorded on May 19, 1925, was the earliest one in which Carmichael performed his own songs, including an improvised piano solo.[18][19]

After graduating IU's law in 1926, Carmichael moved to Florida, where he worked as a law clerk in a West Palm Beach legal firm, but he returned to Indiana in 1927 after failing the Florida bar exam.[20] He joined an Indianapolis law firm (Bingham, Mendenhall and Bingham) and passed the Indiana bar, but devoted most of his energies to music, arranging gigs, and "writing tunes."[21][22] Carmichael had discovered his method of songwriting, which he described later: "You don't write melodies, you find them…If you find the beginning of a good song, and if your fingers do not stray, the melody should come out of hiding in a short time."[23]

Career

Carmichael composed several hundred songs, including fifty that achieved hit-record status during his long career.[5] In his early days as a songwriter in Indiana (1924–1929), Carmichael wrote and performed in the "hot" jazz improvisational style popular with jazz dance bands. While Carmichael was living in New York City (1929–1936), he wrote songs that were intended to stand alone, independent of any other production, such as a theatrical performance or a motion picture. His songs from this period continued to include jazz influences. During his later years in California (1936–1981), Carmichael's songs were predominately instrumentals. Nearly four dozen were written expressly for, or were incorporated into, motion pictures.[24]

Carmichael made hundreds of recordings between 1925 and his death in 1981. He also appeared on radio and television and in motion pictures and live performances, where he demonstrated his versatility. Because Carmichael lacked the vocal strength to sing without amplification on stage, as well as the unusual tone of his voice, which he described as "flatsy through the nose, " he took advantage of new technologies, especially the electrical microphone, sound amplification, and advances in recording. As a singer-pianist, Carmichael was adept at selling his songs to lyricists, music publishers, film producers, and promoting them to the public via microphones on stage and in mass media.[25]

Early years

On October 31, 1927, Carmichael recorded "Star Dust," one of his most famous songs, at the Gennett Records studio in Richmond, Indiana, playing the piano solo himself.[26] Carmichael recruited Frank Trumbauer and Bix Beiderbecke, along with members of the Paul Whiteman Orchestra that included the Dorsey brothers, to play at the late October recording session with him; it is not known which of the orchestra's musicians were at the October 31 session when "Star Dust" was initially recorded.[27][28] New York's Mills Music published the song as an upbeat piano solo in January 1929 and renamed it "Stardust." (Mills Music republished the song with the addition of Mitchell Parish's lyrics in May 1929.)[29] "Stardust" attracted little attention until 1930, when Isham Jones and his orchestra recorded it as a sentimental ballad with a slower tempo, the re-timing often credited to the band's arranger, Victor Young. It became a hit song, the first of many for Carmichael.[26][30] Its idiosyncratic melody in medium tempo–a song about a song–later became an American standard, recorded by hundreds of artists, including Artie Shaw, Nat King Cole, Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra, Willie Nelson, and Wynton Marsalis.[31][32]

Carmichael received more recognition after Paul Whiteman and his orchestra recorded "Washboard Blues" on Victor Records in Chicago in November 1927, with Carmichael singing and playing the piano.[33][34] Carmichael's "March of the Hoodlums" and Sheldon Brooks's "Walkin' the Dog" were produced from Carmichael's last recording session at the Gennett Records studio on May 2, 1928, with a band he had hand selected.[35] Despite his growing prominence, at this stage Carmichael was held back by his inability to sight-read and properly notate his musical compositions, although he was innovative for the time. With coaching, he became more proficient at arranging his own music.[citation needed]

In 1929, after realizing that he preferred making music and had not an aptitude or interest in becoming a lawyer (he was fired from his job at an Indianapolis law firm), Carmichael moved to New York City, where he worked for a brokerage firm during the weekdays, but spent his evenings composing music, including some songs for Hollywood musicals.[36] In New York, Carmichael met Duke Ellington's agent and sheet music publisher, Irving Mills, and hired him to set up recording dates. Carmichael's first major song with his own lyrics was "Rockin' Chair," recorded by Louis Armstrong and Mildred Bailey, and eventually with his own hand-picked studio band (featuring Beiderbecke, Bubber Miley, Benny Goodman, Tommy Dorsey, Bud Freeman, Eddie Lang, Joe Venuti, and Gene Krupa) on May 21, 1930.[37] In the future, however, most of Carmichael's successful songs would have lyrics provided by collaborators.[citation needed]

1930s

After the October 1929 stock market crash, Carmichael's hard-earned savings declined substantially. Fortunately, Louis Armstrong had recorded "Rockin' Chair" at Okeh studios in 1929, giving Carmichael a badly-needed financial and career boost. The song became one of Carmichael's jazz standards.[38][39] Carmichael, who had been working at a brokerage firm and was considering a switch in careers, composed and recorded "Georgia on My Mind" (lyrics by Stuart Gorrell) in 1930. The song became another jazz staple, as well as a pop standard, especially after World War II.[40] Carmichael also arranged and recorded "Up a Lazy River" in 1930, a tune composed by Sidney Arodin. Although Carmichael and the band he assembled had first recorded "Stardust" as an instrumental in 1927, Bing Crosby recorded the tune with Mitchell Parish's lyrics in 1931.[41]

Carmichael joined ASCAP in 1931. The following year he began working as a songwriter for Ralph Peer's Southern Music Company, the first music firm to occupy the new Brill Building, which became famous as a New York songwriting mecca. The Great Depression rapidly put an end to the jazz scene of the Roaring Twenties. People were no longer attending clubs or buying music, forcing many musicians out of work. Carmichael was fortunate to retain his low-paying, but stable job as a songwriter with Southern Music. Beiderbecke's early death in 1931 also darkened Carmichael's mood.[42] Of that time, he wrote later: "I was tiring of jazz and I could see that other musicians were tiring as well. The boys were losing their enthusiasm for the hot stuff…. No more hot licks, no more thrills."[43]

Carmichael's eulogy for "hot" jazz, however, was premature. Big-band swing was just around the corner, and jazz would soon turn in another direction with new bandleaders, such as the Dorseys and Benny Goodman, and new singers, such as Bing Crosby, leading the way. Carmichael's output followed the changing trend. In 1933 he began a long-lasting collaboration with lyricist Johnny Mercer, newly arrived in New York, on "Lazybones", which became a hit. Southern Music published the sheet music in 1933; more than 350,000 copies of it were sold in three months.[41][44] Carmichael collaborated with Mercer on nearly three dozen songs,[22] including "Thanksgiving," "Moon Country," and the 1951 Academy Award-winner for best song, "In the Cool, Cool, Cool, of the Evening."[45] Carmichael's financial condition improved dramatically when royalties started to pour in, affording him a comfortable apartment and dapper clothes. His social life was also on the upswing, finding him hobnobbing with George Gershwin, Fred Astaire, Duke Ellington, and other music giants in the New York entertainment scene.[citation needed]

Carmichael also began to emerge as a solo singer-performer, first at parties, then professionally. He described his unique, laconic voice as sounding "the way a shaggy dog looks.… I have Wabash fog and sycamore twigs in my throat."[46] Some fans were dismayed as he steadily veered away from "hot" jazz, but Louis Armstrong's recordings continued to "jazz up" Carmichael's popular songs. In 1935 Carmichael left Southern Music Company and began composing songs for a division of Warner Brothers, establishing his connection with Hollywood. "Moonburn," the first song that Carmichael wrote for a motion picture, was sung by Bing Crosby in the Warner Brothers film version of Anything Goes in 1936.[41]

Following his marriage to Ruth Mary Meinardi, the daughter of a Presbyterian minister, on March 14, 1936, the couple moved to California, where Hoagy hoped to find more work in the film industry.[47] In 1937, the year before the birth of the couple's first son, Hoaglund Jr. (Hoagy Bix), Carmichael accepted a contract with Paramount Pictures for $1,000 a week, joining other songwriters working for the Hollywood studios, including Harry Warren at Warner Brothers, E. Y. Harburg at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and Ralph Rainger and Leo Robin at Paramount.[48][49] Soon, the Carmichaels were accepted members of the affluent Hollywood community.[citation needed]

Carmichael found work as a character actor in Hollywood. His on-screen debut occurred in 1937 in Topper, with Cary Grant and Constance Bennett. Carmichael portrayed a piano player and performed his song "Old Man Moon" in the film.[42] The effort would lead to other character actor roles in the 1940s.[50]

Carmichael also continued to write individual songs. His song "Chimes of Indiana" was presented to Indiana University, Carmichael's alma mater, in 1937 as a gift from the class of 1935.[51][52] In 1938 Carmichael collaborated with Paramount lyricist Frank Loesser on "Heart and Soul," "Two Sleepy People," and "Small Fry." "Heart and Soul" was included in Paramount's motion picture A Song Is Born (1938), performed by Larry Clinton and his orchestra. (After 1950 a simpler version became a popular piano duet among American children.) Dick Powell premiered Carmichael's and Loesser's "I Get Along Without You Very Well (Except Sometimes)" in a national radio broadcast in 1938.[53]

"Little Old Lady," included in The Show Is On (1936), was Carmichael's first song to appear in a Broadway musical and it became a hit;[49] however, Carmichael's musical score for the Broadway production Walk With Music, which he did with Mercer, was unsuccessful. The musical opened in 1940 and ran only three weeks[42] It produced no hit songs for Carmichael and he never attempted another. Afterwards, Carmichael resumed his career as a singer-songwriter and character actor in Hollywood.[54]

1940s

The growing Carmichael family, which included Hoagy, Ruth, and their sons, Hoagy Bix (born in 1938) and Randy Bob (born in 1940), moved into the former mansion of chewing-gum heir William P. Wrigley, Jr. in Los Angeles in 1942, when the United States entered World War II after the attack on Pearl Harbor.[55] Carmichael, a Republican, had voted for Wendell Willkie for U.S. president in 1940, and was often aghast at the left-leaning political views of his Hollywood friends.[citation needed] His contribution to the war effort was similar to other patriotic efforts by Irving Berlin ("This Is the Army, Mr. Jones"), Johnny Mercer ("G.I. Jive"), and Frank Loesser ("Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition"). Carmichael's wartime songs (most with lyrics by Paul Francis Webster) included "My Christmas Song for You," "Don't Forget to Say 'No' Baby," "Billy-a-Dick," "The Army of Hippocrates," "Cranky Old Yank," "Eager Beaver," "No More Toujours l'Amour," "Morning Glory," and the never-completed "Hitler Blues."[56] He regularly performed for USO shows.[citation needed]

Throughout the 1940s Carmichael maintained a strong personal and professional relationship with Johnny Mercer. In later 1941 their continuing collaboration led to "Skylark." In addition to "Stardust," it is considered one of Carmichael's greatest songs. Bing Crosby recorded "Skylark" almost immediately in January 1942. Since then many others have recorded the song, including Glenn Miller, Dinah Shore, and Helen Forrest (with Harry James).[57]

Carmichael's 1942 song "I'm a Cranky Old Yank" was listed in the 1967 edition of the Guinness Book of Records under the title "I'm a Cranky Old Yank in a Clanky Old Tank on the Streets of Yokohama with My Honolulu Mama Doin' Those Beat-o, Beat-o Flat-On-My-Seat-o, Hirohito Blues" along with the claim that it was the longest song title.[58] Carmichael admitted that the longer title was a joke; it was intended to end with the word "Yank."[citation needed]

Carmichael and Harold Russell play a duet in The Best Years of Our Lives as Fredric March watches

Carmichael appeared as an actor in a total of fourteen motion pictures, performing at least one of his songs in each film. Carmichael described his on-screen persona as the "hound-dog-faced old musical philosopher noodling on the honky-tonk piano, saying to a tart with a heart of gold: 'He'll be back, honey. He's all man.'"[59] In 1943 Carmichael played "Cricket" in the screen adaptation of Ernest Hemingway's To Have and Have Not, opposite Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall. Carmichael sang "Hong Kong Blues" and "The Rhumba Jumps", and played piano as Bacall sang "How Little We Know".[60] In the multi-Academy Award-winning film The Best Years of Our Lives (1946) with Myrna Loy and Fredric March, Carmichael's character teaches a disabled veteran with metal prostheses to play "Chopsticks". Carmichael also performed his song "Lazy River" in the motion picture.[61] Carmichael played the role of "Hi Linnett" in Canyon Passage (1946), a Universal Pictures western that costarred Dana Andrews, Susan Hayward, and Brian Donlevy. He also composed several songs for the film, including "Ole Buttermilk Sky," an Academy Award nominee.[62] In addition, Carmichael contributed songs to the Paramount Pictures release of Max Fleischer animated film Mister Bug Goes to Town in 1941 (later reissued as Hoppity Goes To Town).[citation needed]

Carmichael's career as a recording artist peaked in the mid-1940s when he recorded exclusively for Decca Records and V-Disc (the Armed Forces label for service personnel overseas), acted and performed in motion pictures, and hosted variety shows on the radio. He also sang in live shows across the United States and debuted in Great Britain at the London Casino in 1948.[54] According to his son Randy, Carmichael was an incessant composer, worked over a song for days or even weeks until it was perfect. His perfectionism extended to his clothes, grooming, and eating. Once the work was done, however, Carmichael would cut loose—relax, play golf, drink, and indulge in the Hollywood high life.[63] Carmichael also found time to write his first autobiography, The Stardust Road, published in 1946.[64] In addition, Carmichael composed an orchestral work called Brown County in Autumn in 1948, but it not well received by critics.[54]

Between 1944 and 1948, Carmichael became a well-known radio personality and was the host of three musical-variety programs. In 1944–45, the 30-minute Tonight at Hoagy's aired on Mutual radio on Sunday nights at 8:30 p.m. (Pacific time), sponsored by Safeway supermarkets. Produced by Walter Snow, the show featured Carmichael as host and vocalist. Musicians included Pee Wee Hunt and Joe Venuti. Fans were rather blunt about Carmichael's singing, providing comments such as "you cannot sing for sour owl" and "your singing is so delightfully awful that it is really funny".[65] NBC carried the 30-minute Something New at 6 p.m. (Pacific time) on Mondays in 1945–46. All of the musicians in the show's band, called the "Teenagers", were between the ages of sixteen and nineteen. Carol Stewart and Gale Robbins were the vocalists and comedy was supplied by Pinky Lee and the team of Bob Sweeney and Hal March of later of quiz-show fame. CBS broadcast The Hoagy Carmichael Show from October 26, 1946, until June 26, 1948. Luden's Cough Drops sponsored the 15-minute program until June 1947.[citation needed]

1950s

During the 1950s the public's musical preferences shifted toward toward rhythm and blues and rock and roll, ending the careers of most older artists. Carmichael's songwriting career also slowed down, but he continued to perform.[50] He appeared in the motion picture Young Man with a Horn (1950), based on friend Bix Beiderbecke's life, with Bacall and Kirk Douglas. "In the Cool, Cool, Cool of the Evening", with lyrics by Johnny Mercer, was featured in the 1951 film Here Comes the Groom and won Carmichael his first Academy Award for Best Original Song, and Mercer his second of four Academy Awards. In 1952 Carmichael played his composition "My Resistance Is Low" in the Howard Hughes film The Las Vegas Story. The lyrics were written by Harold Adamson. Although the song did not catch fire in the United States, it was a hit in Great Britain. Carmichael also composed seven songs for Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953), but only two made the final cut: "Ain't There Anyone Here for Love", sung by Jane Russell, and "When Love Goes Wrong (Nothing Goes Right)". Harold Campbell Adamson wrote the lyrics or both songs.[citation needed]

Carmichael sharing the Saturday Night Revue duties with George Gobel

In the early 1950s variety shows were particularly popular on television. Carmichael's most notable appearance was as the host of Saturday Night Review in June 1953, a summer replacement series for Your Show of Shows,[54][66] but he found the pressure too intense and did not return the following summer. Around 1955 Carmichael reprised the Dooley Wilson role of "Sam" the piano player in a short-lived television adaptation of Casablanca on Warner Brothers Presents.[citation needed] Carmichael guest-starred with Keenan Wynn, Anthony George, and Olive Carey in "Death in the Snow," a 1956 episode of the NBC anthology series The Joseph Cotten Show. He was also a regular cast member, playing the character role of "Jonesy" the ranch hand in the first season of NBC's Laramie western series (1959–63)[54] with John Smith and Robert Fuller. Carmichael also costarred in The Helen Morgan Story on CBS's Playhouse 90 (1957), and provided the voice for a stone age parody of himself, "Stoney Carmichael", in an episode of ABC's The Flintstones, which aired in September 1961. On June 15, 1961, he appeared in one of the final episodes of The Ford Show, Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford on NBC.[citation needed]

As his songwriting career started to fade, Carmichael's marriage also dissolved. He and his wife, Ruth divorced in 1955.[67]

The Johnny Appleseed Suite, Carmichael's second classical work for orchestra, suffered the same ill fate as his earlier attempt with Brown County Autumn. The musical suite received little notice and only limited success,[54] but Carmichael remained financially secure due to the royalties from his past hits. During the 1940s and 1950s Carmichael also found time to write more than a dozen songs for children, including "The Whale Song," "Merry-Go-Round," and "Rocket Ship," among others.[68]

Later years

Ray Charles's classic rendition of "Georgia on My Mind," released on August 19, 1960, was a major hit. (Charles received Grammys both for Best Male Vocal and Best Popular Single that year.)[69] Carmichael's rediscovery, however, did little for his new output. Compositions such as "The Ballad of Sam Older", "A Perfect Paris Night", "Behold, How Beautiful", "Bamboo Curtains", and "Close Beside You", were almost ignored. For his September 15, 1961, animated guest appearance in "The Hit Songwriters" episode of The Flintstones, Hoagy wrote and performed a song created especially for the show, "Yabba-Dabba-Dabba-Dabba-Doo".[citation needed] Jerry Lee Lewis recorded "Hong Kong Blues" during his final Sun sessions in 1963, but it was never released.[70] In 1964, while The Beatles were exploding on the scene, Carmichael lamented, "I'll betcha I have twenty-five songs lying in my trunk" and no one was calling to say "have you got a real good song for such-and such an artist".[71] Carmichael's attempt to compose movie scores was also a failure. His score for Hatari! (1962) was replaced by Henry Mancini's, although Carmichael's song "Just for Tonight" (a re-working of "A Perfect Paris Night") was used in the film.[citation needed] Still, royalties on his standards were earning Carmichael over $300,000 a year.[72]

Carmichael's second memoir, Sometimes I Wonder: The Story of Hoagy Carmichael, was published in 1965.[73] By 1967 he was spending time in New York, but his new songs were unsuccessful and his musical career came to a close. Carmichael took up other interests in retirement such as golf, coin collecting, and enjoying his two homes, one on Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles and the other in Rancho Mirage, California.[50]

As he passed his seventieth birthday, Carmichael's star continued to wane and was nearly forgotten in a world dominated by rock music. With the help and encouragement of his son, Hoagy Bix, Carmichael participated in the PBS television show Hoagy Carmichael's Music Shop that featured jazz-rock versions of his hits. He appeared on Fred Rogers's PBS show Old Friends, New Friends in 1978.[74] With more time on his hands, Carmichael resumed painting, and after a long courtship he married Dorothy Wanda McKay, an actress, In 1977.[54]

Carmichael received several honors from the music industry in his later years. He was inducted into the USA's Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1971 along with Duke Ellington.[75] In 1972 Indiana University awarded Carmichael an honorary doctorate in music.[54][76] On June 27, 1979, the Newport Jazz Festival honored Carmichael's eightieth birthday with a concert titled "The Stardust Road: A Hoagy Carmichael Jubilee" in Carnegie Hall.[54] The tribute concert was hosted by former bandleader Bob Crosby and included performances by many major musical performers, such as singers Kay Starr, Jackie Cain, Dave Frishberg, and Max Morath, and musicians Billy Butterfield, Bob Wilber, Yank Lawson, Vic Dickenson, and Bob Haggart. National Public Radio broadcast the concert later that summer. "Piano Pedal Rag", a new Carmichael tune, was performed during the concert. Afterwards, Carmichael said that he wrote it because he admired Beiderbecke's writing "so much that I didn't want to quit until I wrote something that was a little bit like something Bix might have liked."[77]

On his eightieth birthday, Carmichael was reflective, observing, "I'm a bit disappointed in myself. I know I could have accomplished a hell of a lot more... I could write anything any time I wanted to. But I let other things get in the way.... I've been floating around in the breeze."[78] He spent his final years at home in Rancho Mirage, near Palm Springs, California, where he continued to play golf and remained an avid coin collector.[54]

Shortly before his death in 1981, Carmichael appeared on a United Kingdom-recorded tribute album In Hoagland (1981) with Annie Ross and Georgie Fame. Carmichael sang and played "Rockin' Chair" on the piano. His last public appearance occurred in early 1981, when he filmed Country Comes Home with country music performer Crystal Gayle for CBS.[79]

Death and legacy

Carmichael died of heart failure at the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California, on December 27, 1981, at the age of eighty-two. His remains are buried in Rose Hill Cemetery in Bloomington, Indiana.[80][81]

In 1986 Carmichael's family donated his archives, piano, and memorabilia to his alma mater, Indiana University, which established a Hoagy Carmichael Collection in its Archives of Traditional Music and the Hoagy Carmichael Room to permanently display selections from the collection.[50][82]

Carmichael is considered to be among the most successful of the Tin Pan Alley songwriters of the 1930s, and was among the first singer-songwriters in the age of mass media to exploit new communication technologies, such as television and the use of electronic microphones and sound recordings.[83] American composer and author Alec Wilder described Carmichael as the "most talented, inventive, sophisticated and jazz-oriented of all the great craftsmen" of pop songs in the first half of the twentieth century.[2] Carmichael was an industry trailblazer, who recorded varied interpretations of his own songs and provided material for many other musicians to interpret. His creative work includes several hundred compositions, some of them enduring classics, as well as numerous sound recordings and appearances on radio and television and in motion pictures.[84]

Music historian Ivan Raykoff described Carmichael as "one of America's most prolific songwriters" and an "iconic pianist" whose work appeared in more than a dozen Hollywood films, including his performances in classic films such as To Have and To Have Not and The Best Years of Our Lives. Among the hundreds of Carmichael's published songs, "Stardust" is one of the most-frequently recorded.[85] Carmichael's greatest strength was as a melodist,[24] but he also became known as an "experimental" and "innovative" songwriter, whose "catchy, often jazz-infused, melodies" and their "nostalgic, down-home lyrics"[50] were memorable and had wide public appeal, especially with mass media promotion and through the efforts of numerous entertainers who performed his songs.[86]

Honors and tributes

Carmichael and lyricist Johnny Mercer received an Academy Award for Best Music, Song, for "In the Cool, Cool, Cool of the Evening," which was featured in the 1951 film Here Comes the Groom. "Ole Buttermilk Sky" received an Oscar nomination for Best Music, Song, of 1946, but it was not the winner.[87][88] Carmichael's recording of "Star Dust" in 1927 at the Gennett Records studio that includes him playing the piano solo was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. In addition, it was selected for inclusion in the National Recording Registry at the Library of Congress in 2004.[9][89]

Carmichael was inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 8, 1960. (His sidewalk star tribute is located at 1720 Vine Street in Hollywood.)[90] In 1971 Carmichael was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame as one of its initial ten inductees.[42] In 2007 Carmichael was inducted into the Gennett Records Walk of Fame in Richmond, Indiana. Bronze and ceramic medallions, one for each of the inductees, have been placed near the location of the Starr Piano Company’s manufacturing complex,[91] the site of the Gennett Records studio where he first recorded "Star Dust" in 1927. On July 5, 2008, a mural with his portrait was dedicated to him on the south wall of the Readmore building in Richmond, Indiana.[citation needed]

Carmichael is memorialized with an Indiana state historical marker, installed in 2007 in front of the former Book Nook (one of Carmichael's favorite local hangouts) on South Indiana Avenue, near the corner of Kirkwood and Indiana Streets in Bloomington. The marker is located across the street from the heart of the Indiana University campus.[92] In 2008 the bronze Hoagy Carmichael Landmark Sculpture by artist Michael McAuley was installed at the northeast corner of the IU Auditorium on IU's Bloomington campus.[93]

On June 27, 1979, the Newport Jazz Festival honored Carmichael with a tribute concert, "The Star Dust Road: A Hoagy Carmichael Jubilee", at New York City's Carnegie Hall.[42]

"Georgia On My Mind", composed by Carmichael with lyrics by Stuart Gorrell, is the U.S. state of Georgia's official song.[94]

In pop culture

In Casino Royale, novelist Ian Fleming has René Mathis, one of James Bond's fictional fellow secret agents, make a remark about Bond looking like Hoagy Carmichael. Later in the novel, after looking at his reflection in a mirror, Bond disagreed. Intriguingly, Fleming and Carmichael also shared a resemblance.[87][95]

Filmography

Year Film[96] Role
1937 Topper [uncredited] Piano Player
1944 To Have and Have Not Cricket
1945 Johnny Angel Celestial O'Brien
1946 Canyon Passage Hi Linnet
1946 The Best Years of Our Lives Uncle Butch Engle
1948 Night Song Chick Morgan
1949 Johnny Holiday Himself
1950 Young Man with a Horn Smoke Willoughby
1952 The Las Vegas Story Happy
1952 Belles on Their Toes Thomas George Bracken
1955 Timberjack Jingles
1963 The Wheeler Dealers [uncredited] Man in Jim Backus' office
1965 The Man Who Bought Paradise (TV) Mr Leoni

Songs (selection)

Year Song[97] Lyrics by
1924 "Riverboat Shuffle" Carmichael, Dick Voynow, Irving Mills, Mitchell Parish
1925 "Washboard Blues" Carmichael, Fred B. Callahan, Irving Mills
1928 "Stardust" Mitchell Parish
1929 "Rockin' Chair" Carmichael
1930 "Georgia on My Mind" Stuart Gorrell
1931 "Come Easy Go Easy Love" Sunny Clapp
1931 "(Up a) Lazy River" Carmichael and Sidney Arodin
1932 "New Orleans" Carmichael
1932 "Daybreak" Carmichael
1932 "In the Still of the Night" Jo Trent
1933 "Lazybones" Carmichael and Johnny Mercer
1933 "One Morning in May" Mitchell Parish
1936 "Little Old Lady" Carmichael and Stanley Adams
1936 "Lyin' to Myself" Stanley Adams
1936 "Moonburn" Edward Heyman
1937 "The Nearness of You" Ned Washington
1938 "Heart and Soul" Frank Loesser
1938 "Small Fry" Frank Loesser
1938 "Two Sleepy People" Frank Loesser
1938 "I Get Along Without You Very Well (Except Sometimes)" Jane Brown Thompson
1939 "Hong Kong Blues" Carmichael
1940 "Can't Get Indiana Off My Mind" Robert DeLeon
1940 "I Walk with Music" Johnny Mercer
1940 "Way Back in 1939 A.D." Johnny Mercer
1941 "Skylark" Johnny Mercer
1941 "We're The Couple In The Castle" Frank Loesser
1942 "Baltimore Oriole" Paul Francis Webster
1942 "The Lamplighter's Serenade" Paul Francis Webster
1943 "Old Music Master" Johnny Mercer
1945 "Billy-a-Dick" Paul Francis Webster
1945 "Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief" Paul Francis Webster
1945 "Memphis in June" Paul Francis Webster
1946 "Ole Buttermilk Sky" Carmichael and Jack Brooks
1951 "Who Killed the Black Widder" Hoagy Carmichael, Janice Torre & Fred Spielman
1951 "In the Cool, Cool, Cool of the Evening" Johnny Mercer
1951 "My Resistance Is Low" Harold Adamson
1952 "Watermelon Weather" Paul Francis Webster
1953 "Ain't There Anyone Here for Love?" Harold Adamson
1953 "When Love Goes Wrong (Nothin' Goes Right)" Harold Adamson

Selected discography

  • 1944 –45 V-Disc Sessions (Totem, 1985)[98]
  • At Home with Hoagy (Take Two Records, 1982)[99]
  • Hoagy Carmichael (RCA International, 1981)[100]
  • Hoagy Carmichael: Old Buttermilk Sky (Collector's Choice, 1999)[101]
  • Hoagy Sings Carmichael (Pacific Jazz Records, 1956)[102]
  • Star Dust, 1927–32 (Historical Records, 1982)[98]
  • The Stardust Road (MCA, 1982)[103]
  • Stardust Melody: Carmichael and Friends (RCA, 2002)[101]

Compilations of Carmichael's recorded songs include:

After Carmichael’s death in 1981, other recording artists have continued to include his songs on their albums:

  • George Harrison, former member of The Beatles, recorded Carmichael's "Baltimore Oriole" and "Hong Kong Blues" for his 1981 LP Somewhere in England.[105][106]
  • Country music artist, Crystal Gayle, recorded fifteen of Carmichael's songs for Crystal Gayle Sings the Heart & Soul of Hoagy Carmichael (Roswell, GA: Platinum, 1999). (Willie Nelson played guitar and sang vocals with Gayle on the "Two Sleepy People" track.)[107]

Other published works

Carmichael wrote two autobiographies that Da Capo Press combined into a single volume for a paperback, published in 1999:[108]

  • The Stardust Road (1946)[64]
  • Sometimes I Wonder: The Story of Hoagy Carmichael (1965)[73]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Songwriter/Composer: CARMICHAEL HOWARD HOAGLAND". BMI Repertoire. Broadcast Music Incorporated. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Alec Wilder (1990). American Popular Song: The Great Innovators 1900–1950. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 371–88. ISBN 0-19-501445-6. 
  3. ^ "Stardust". BBC. 
  4. ^ Richard M. Sudhalter (2002). Stardust Melody: The Life and Music of Hoagy Carmichael. New York: Oxford University Press in association with the Indiana Historical Society. p. 7. ISBN 0-19-513120-7. 
  5. ^ a b Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair, eds. (2015). Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-87195-387-2. 
  6. ^ a b Gugin and St. Clair (eds), pp. 47–48.
  7. ^ a b John Edward Hasse (1988). The Classic Hoagy Carmichael. Indianapolis, Ind., and Washington, D.C.: Indiana Historical Society and Smithsonian Collection Recordings. p. 5. ISBN 9780871950130.  (Booklet issued with sound recordings of the same title.)
  8. ^ 1910 United States Federal Census
  9. ^ a b c d Gugin and St. Clair (eds), p. 48.
  10. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 25.
  11. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 31.
  12. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 28.
  13. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 49.
  14. ^ a b Rick Kennedy (Summer 1994). "Star Dust Memories: Hoagy Carmichael and Indiana's Gennett Records". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. 6 (3): 7. 
  15. ^ Hasse, p. 6.
  16. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 79.
  17. ^ Hasse, p. 19.
  18. ^ Hasse p. 22.
  19. ^ Rick Kennedy (1994). Jelly Roll, Bix, and Hoagy: Gennett Studios and the Birth of Recorded Jazz. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 125. ISBN 9780253331366. 
  20. ^ Sudholter, 2002, pp. 99–100.
  21. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 104.
  22. ^ a b Hasse, p. 7.
  23. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 84.
  24. ^ a b Hasse, p. 13.
  25. ^ Hasse, p. 17.
  26. ^ a b Kennedy, "Star Dust Memories," pp. 8–9.
  27. ^ Sudholter, 2002, pp. 106–8.
  28. ^ Carmichael's "One Night in Havana" was released back-to-back with the "Star Dust" recording on Gennett's "Electrobeam" series. See Kennedy, "Star Dust Memories," p. 9.
  29. ^ Hasse, p. 23.
  30. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, pp. 139–40.
  31. ^ Kennedy, Jelly Roll, Bix, and Hoagy, p. 138.
  32. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 123. See also "Stardust". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 15, 2016. 
  33. ^ Kennedy, "Star Dust Memories," p. 8.
  34. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 113–14.
  35. ^ Kennedy, Jelly Roll, Bix, and Hoagy, pp. 132–34.
  36. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 129.
  37. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, pp. 129, 131, 143.
  38. ^ Hasse, p. 26.
  39. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 136.
  40. ^ Hasse, p. 35.
  41. ^ a b c Hasse, p. 27.
  42. ^ a b c d e "The Hoagy Carmichael Collection: Timeline of Hoagy Carmichael's Life". Indiana University. November 18, 2002. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  43. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 147.
  44. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 157.
  45. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, pp. 153, 151.
  46. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 173.
  47. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, pp. 168–72.
  48. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 185.
  49. ^ a b Hasse, p. 9.
  50. ^ a b c d e Gugin and St. Clair, eds., p. 49.
  51. ^ In 1978 the IU Alumni Association adopted "Chimes of Indiana" as one of IU's official fight songs. See "Indiana, Our Indiana Hail to Old IU Indiana Fight Chimes of Indiana" (pdf). Indiana University Athletics. Retrieved December 12, 2016.  See also "Audio". Indiana University Marching Hundred. Retrieved December 12, 2016. 
  52. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 255.
  53. ^ Hasse, pp. 43–44.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Hasse, p. 11.
  55. ^ Sudholter, 2002, p. 226.
  56. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 244.
  57. ^ Hasse, pp. 13, 46.
  58. ^ "Details for I'm A Cranky Old Yank In A Clanky Old Tank - Bing Crosby". 
  59. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 249.
  60. ^ "To Have and Have Not (1944) – Soundtracks". Retrieved 2008-03-18. 
  61. ^ Hasse, p. 37.
  62. ^ Hasse, p. 40.
  63. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 259.
  64. ^ a b Hoagy Carmichael (1946). The Stardust Road. New York: Rinehart and Company. 
  65. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 246.
  66. ^ "Television in Review". The New York Times. June 8, 1953. 
  67. ^ Ruth Carmichael later married Verne Mason, a Los Angeles physician. See Sudhalter, 2002, pp. 285–87, 318–19, 322.
  68. ^ Hoagy Carmichael and J. P. Miller (1957). Hoagy Carmichael's Songs for Children. New York: Golden Press. pp. 9–11, 25–29. OCLC 15369706. 
  69. ^ Hasse, p. 46.
  70. ^ "Hong Kong Blues". Rockabilly.nl. Retrieved February 12, 2008. 
  71. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 306.
  72. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 311.
  73. ^ a b Hoagy Carmichael and Stephen Longstreet (1965). Sometimes I Wonder: The Story of Hoagy Carmichael. New York: Farrar, Straus And Giroux. OCLC 1037498. 
  74. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 336.
  75. ^ "Hoagy Carmichael". Songwriters' Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  76. ^ "Honorary Doctorate in Music". Indiana University. Archived from the original on 2008-06-13. 
  77. ^ Recording of the NPR broadcast. The up-coming concert was mentioned in Gary Giddins (June 25, 1979). "Newport: Choices and More Choices". New York Magazine. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  78. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 338.
  79. ^ Sudhalter, 2002, p. 341–42.
  80. ^ "Hoagy Carmichael". NNDB. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  81. ^ Hoagy Carmichael at Find a Grave
  82. ^ "Hoagy Carmichael Collection: Virtual Tour of the Hoagy Carmichael Room". Indiana University (IU Digital Library). Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  83. ^ Kennedy, Jelly Roll, Bix, and Hoagy, p. 91.
  84. ^ Hasse, pp. 13–15.
  85. ^ Ivan Raykoff, "Hoagy Carmichael (1899–1981) " in Pendergast, Tom, and Sara Pendergast (2000). St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Detroit: Gale. ISBN 9781558625297. (Retrieved December 12, 2016, from HighBeam Research. Subscription required.)
  86. ^ Hasse, p. 15.
  87. ^ a b Sudhalter, 2002, p. 275.
  88. ^ "Hoagy Carmichael: Awards". Songwriters Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  89. ^ "Registry Titles with Descriptions and Expanded Essays". Library of Congress. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  90. ^ "Hoagy Carmichael". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  91. ^ "Walk of Fame". Starr Gennett Foundation. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  92. ^ "Hoagy Carmichael". Indiana Historical Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  93. ^ "Hoagy Carmichael Landmark Sculpture". Visit Bloomington. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  94. ^ "Georgia Facts and Symbols". Georgia.gov. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  95. ^ Ben Macintyre (2008). For Your Eyes Only. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-7475-9527-4. 
  96. ^ Hoagy Carmichael on IMDb
  97. ^ "The Official Hoagy Carmichael Web Site". Retrieved March 14, 2008. 
  98. ^ a b Hasse, p. 62.
  99. ^ Recordings of Carmichael’s radio performances. See Hasse, p. 62.
  100. ^ Selections of Carmichael’s early records, 1927–34. See Hasse, p. 62.
  101. ^ a b c d "Hoagy Carmichael Recordings". Songwriters Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 12, 2016. 
  102. ^ "Pacific Jazz Records Catalog: 1200 Series: PJ-1223". Jazzdisco.org. Retrieved December 12, 2016. 
  103. ^ Carmichael’s recordings for Decca Records, 1931–51; previously issued as Decca DL-8588. See Hasse, p. 62.
  104. ^ The two-time, Grammy-nominated collection includes fifty-seven recordings of Carmichael's best-known songs performed by well-known American musicians. See Hasse, p. 21.
  105. ^ Richard S. Ginell. "Somewhere in England – George Harrison : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved September 29, 2012. 
  106. ^ Graham Calkin. "Somewhere In England". Jpgr.co.uk. Retrieved September 29, 2012. 
  107. ^ "Crystal Gayle Sings The Heart & Soul of Hoagy Carmichael". worldcat.org. Retrieved December 15, 2016. 
  108. ^ Hoagy Carmichael and Stephen Longstreet (1999). The Stardust Road & Sometimes I Wonder: The Autobiography of Hoagy Carmichael. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80899-4. 

References

  • "Audio". Indiana University Marching Hundred. Retrieved December 12, 2016. 
  • Calkin, Graham. "Somewhere In England". Jpgr.co.uk. Retrieved September 29, 2012. 
  • Carmichael, Hoagy (1946). The Stardust Road. New York: Rinehart and Company. 
  • Carmichael, Hoagy, and J. P. Miller (1957). Hoagy Carmichael's Songs for Children. New York: Golden Press. OCLC 15369706. 
  • Carmichael, Hoagy, and Stephen Longstreet (1999). The Stardust Road & Sometimes I Wonder: The Autobiography of Hoagy Carmichael. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80899-4. 
  • "Crystal Gayle Sings The Heart & Soul of Hoagy Carmichael". worldcat.org. Retrieved December 15, 2016. 
  • "Details for I'm A Cranky Old Yank In A Clanky Old Tank - Bing Crosby". 
  • "Georgia Facts and Symbols". Georgia.gov. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  • Giddins, Gary (June 25, 1979). "Newport: Choices and More Choices". New York Magazine. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  • Ginell, Richard S. "Somewhere in England–George Harrison : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved September 29, 2012. 
  • Gugin, Linda C., and James E. St. Clair, eds. (2015). Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-87195-387-2. 
  • Hasse, John Edward (1988). The Classic Hoagy Carmichael. Indianapolis, Ind., and Washington, D.C.: Indiana Historical Society and Smithsonian Collection Recordings. p. 5. ISBN 9780871950130.  (Booklet issued with sound recordings of the same title.)
  • Hoagy Carmichael at Find a Grave
  • Hoagy Carmichael on IMDb
  • "Hoagy Carmichael". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  • "Hoagy Carmichael". Indiana Historical Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  • "Hoagy Carmichael". NNDB. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  • "Hoagy Carmichael". Songwriters' Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  • "Hoagy Carmichael Collection". Indiana University (IU Digital Library). Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  • "Hoagy Carmichael Collection: Timeline of Hoagy Carmichael's Life". Indiana University. November 18, 2002. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  • "Hoagy Carmichael Collection: Virtual Tour of the Hoagy Carmichael Room". Indiana University (IU Digital Library). Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  • "Hoagy Carmichael Landmark Sculpture". Visit Bloomington. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  • "Hoagy Carmichael Recordings". Songwriters Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 12, 2016. 
  • "Hong Kong Blues". Rockabilly.nl. Retrieved February 12, 2008. 
  • "Indiana, Our Indiana Hail to Old IU Indiana Fight Chimes of Indiana" (pdf). Indiana University Athletics. Retrieved December 12, 2016. 
  • Kennedy, Rick (1994). Jelly Roll, Bix, and Hoagy: Gennett Studios and the Birth of Recorded Jazz. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253331366. 
  • Kennedy, Rick (Summer 1994). "Star Dust Memories: Hoagy Carmichael and Indiana's Gennett Records". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. 6 (3): 4–9. 
  • Macintyre, Ben (2008). For Your Eyes Only. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7475-9527-4. 
  • "Pacific Jazz Records Catalog: 1200 Series: PJ-1223". Jazzdisco.org. Retrieved December 12, 2016. 
  • Raykoff, Ivan, "Carmichael, Hoagy (1899–1981) in Pendergast, Tom, and Sara Pendergast (2000). St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Detroit: Gale. ISBN 9781558625297.  (Retrieved December 13, 2016, from HighBeam Research Subscription required.)
  • "Registry Titles with Descriptions and Expanded Essays". Library of Congress. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  • "Songwriter/Composer: Carmichael Howard Hoagland". BMI Repertoire. Broadcast Music Incorporated. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 
  • "Stardust". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 15, 2016. 
  • Sudhalter, Richard M. (2002). Stardust Melody: The Life and Music of Hoagy Carmichael. New York: Oxford University Press in association with the Indiana Historical Society. ISBN 0195131207. 
  • "Television in Review". The New York Times. June 8, 1953. 
  • "The Official Hoagy Carmichael Web Site". Retrieved March 14, 2008. 
  • "To Have and Have Not (1944) –Soundtracks". Retrieved March 18, 2008. 
  • "Walk of Fame". Starr Gennett Foundation. Retrieved December 13, 2016. 
  • Wilder, Alec (1990). American Popular Song: The Great Innovators 1900–1950. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 371–88. ISBN 0-19-501445-6. 

External links

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