Hmar language

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Pronunciation [m̥a]
Native to India
Region Mizoram, Manipur, Assam, Tripura, and Meghalaya
Ethnicity Hmar
Native speakers
98,988 (2011 census)[1]
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Assam, Manipur and Mizoram
Language codes
ISO 639-3 hmr
Glottolog hmar1241[2]

The Hmar language belongs to the Kukish branch of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. The speakers of the language are also known as Hmar. According to the official 2011 Census of India, there are 30,000 Hmar speakers in Assam, 48,000 in Manipur,1,000 in Meghalaya, 29,000 in Mizoram although Majority of the Hmars in Mizoram speak Duhlian.

Hmar is a recognised language in the School curriculum of Assam, Manipur and Mizoram, and also recently recognised as one of the Modern Indian Languages (MIL) at Manipur University. Board of Secondary Education, Assam has also included Hmar as an MIL in its matriculation syllabus from 2005. Both Manipur University and Assam University, Silchar has also permitted HMAR LANGUAGE to be studied as Modern Indian Language in the Graduation level.

Geographical distribution

Hmar is spoken in the following locations

Since Hmar speakers are scattered over a vast area in Mizoram, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Chittagong Hill tracts, NC Hills and Cachar districts of Assam state and Myanmar, there appears to be slight dialectal distinction. There is no homogeneous settlement of Hmar speakers alone.[citation needed] In Manipur, Hmar exhibits partial mutual intelligibility with the other Kukish dialects of the area including Thadou, Paite, Vaiphei, Simte, Kom and Gangte languages.[3]


  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07. 
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hmar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Singh, Chungkham Yashawanta (1995). "The linguistic situation in Manipur" (PDF). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 18 (1): 129–134. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 

External links

  • VIRTHL-Ushering Change: News & Info House of the Hmars Visit Site
  • Hmar Rûnpui : Hmar Social Networking Visit Site
  • Manipur Online The Unresolved Issues of the Hmar
  • Sinlung News [1]

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