High Priests of Amun

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The god Amun in Karnak.
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High Priest of Amun
ḥm nṯr tpj n jmn
in hieroglyphs

The High Priest of Amun or First Prophet of Amun (ḥm nṯr tpj n jmn) was the highest-ranking priest in the priesthood of the ancient Egyptian god Amun.[1] The first high priests of Amun appear in the New Kingdom of Egypt, at the beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

History

The priesthood of Amun rose in power during the early Eighteenth dynasty through significant tributes to the god Amun by ruler such as Hatshepsut and more importantly Thutmose III.[2] The Amun priesthood in Thebes had four high-ranking priests:[3]

  • The Chief Prophet of Amun at Karnak (ḥm nṯr tpj n jmn), also referred to as the Chief Priest of Amun.
  • The Second Prophet of Amun at Karnak (ḥm nṯr snnw n jmn), also referred to as the Second Priest of Amun.
  • The Third Prophet of Amun at Karnak (ḥm nṯr ḫmtnw n jmn khemet-nu), also referred to as the Third Priest of Amun.
  • The Fourth Priest of Amun at Karnak (ḥm nṯr jfdw n jmn), also referred to as the Fourth Priest of Amun.

The power of the Amun priesthood was temporarily curtailed during the Amarna period. A high priest named Maya is recorded in year 4 of Akhenaten. Akhenaten has the name of Amun removed from monuments during his reign as well as the names of several other deities. After his death, Amun was restored to his place of prominence among the cults in Egypt. The young pharaoh Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun to signal the restoration of the Amun to his former place of prominence.[4]

The Theban High Priest of Amun was appointed by the King. It was not uncommon for the position to be held by dignitaries who held additional posts in the pharaoh's administration. Several of the high priests from the time of Ramesses II also served as Vizier.[5]

At the end of the New Kingdom, the Twentieth Dynasty priesthood of Amun is for a large part dominated by Ramessesnakht. His son, Amenhotep, eventually succeeded his father and found himself in conflict with the Viceroy of Kush, Panehesy. Panehesy took his troops north and besieged Thebes. After this period, generals by the name of Herihor and Piye served as High Priest.

Herihor

By the time Herihor was proclaimed as the first ruling High Priest of Amun in 1080 BCE—in the 19th Year of Ramesses XI—the Amun priesthood exercised an effective stranglehold on Egypt's economy. The Amun priests owned two-thirds of all the temple lands in Egypt and 90 percent of her ships plus many other resources.[6] Consequently, the Amun priests were as powerful as Pharaoh, if not more so. The High Priests of Amun at Thebes from the 21st dynasty were of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to c. 943 BC. They are however not regarded as a ruling dynasty with pharaonic prerogatives, and after this period the influence of the Amun priesthood declined. One of the sons of the High Priest, Pinedjem I, would eventually assume the throne and rule Egypt for almost half-a-decade as pharaoh Psusennes I while the Theban High Priest Psusennes III would take the throne as king Psusennes II—the final ruler of the Twenty-first Dynasty.

Notable High Priests of Amun from Thebes

Senenu, High Priest of Amūn at Deir El-Baḥri, grinding grain, ca. 1352-1292 B.C. (to the end of the 18th dynasty), Limestone, Brooklyn Museum.

New Kingdom

High Priest of Amun
High Priests Pharaoh Dynasty
Thuty
Minmontu
Ahmose I 18th Dynasty
Hapuseneb Hatshepsut 18th Dynasty
Menkheperraseneb I
Menkheperreseneb II
Thutmose III 18th Dynasty
Amenemhat
Mery
Amenhotep II 18th Dynasty
Ptahmose
Meryptah
Amenhotep III 18th Dynasty
Maya Akhenaten 18th Dynasty
Parennefer called Wennefer Tutankhamen
Horemheb
18th Dynasty
Nebneteru Tenry Seti I 19th Dynasty
Nebwenenef
Hori
Paser
Bakenkhonsu
Ramesses II 19th Dynasty
Roma-Rui Ramesses II, Merenptah and Seti II 19th Dynasty
Bakenkhons II Sethnakht
Ramesses III
20th Dynasty
Ramessesnakht Ramesses IV - Ramesses IX 20th Dynasty
Amenhotep Ramses IX - XI 20th Dynasty

21st dynasty and later

Pinudjem II as High Priest

25th and 26th Dynasties

  • Haremakhet, Son of Shabaka 704?–660 BC
  • Harkhebi, Son of Haremakhet, Grandson of Shabaka. Served as HPA until at least year 14 of Psamtik I. 660–644 BC

[ 2 unattested HPA or vacant? 644-595]

  • Ankhnesneferibre, The God's Wife of Amun also served as High Priest of Amun. 595–c.560 BC
  • Nitocris II, Daughter of Pharaoh Ahmose (II). c.560–525 BC

References

  1. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  2. ^ Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. 2: The Eighteenth Dynasty
  3. ^ Dodson, Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2004
  4. ^ Aldred, Akhenaten: King of Egypt, Thames & Hudson (1991)
  5. ^ Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions, Translated & Annotated, Translations, Volume III, Blackwell Publishers, 1996
  6. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd., 1994. p.175
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