Heracleum persicum

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Illustration Heracleum sphondylium0.jpg
Flower and leaf
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Heracleum
Species: H. persicum
Binomial name
Heracleum persicum
Distribution of Persian hogweed in Europe

Heracleum persicum, commonly known as Persian hogweed or simply hogweed, is a polycarpic perennial herbaceous flowering plant in the carrot family Apiaceae, originally native to the region of Iran (Persia). It grows wild in humid mountainous regions in Iran, as well in some adjacent areas. As a spice, its common name in English is 'angelica,' although it is not related to the genus Angelica.[1] Having been introduced in the 1830s, it has spread across Scandinavia. It is now very common in northern Norway, where it is known as the Tromsø palm.[2] The plant has also been spotted in Sweden.[3] In Finland, it has been declared as invasive species.[4]

Persian hogweed is a polycarpic perennial,[5][6] that is, a mature plant flowers and bears fruit season after season.


Food uses

The seeds are used as a spice in Persian cooking. The very thin, small seed pods are aromatic and slightly bitter. They are usually sold in powdered form and are often erroneously sold as "angelica seeds". The powder is sprinkled over broad beans, lentils and other legumes, and potatoes. Golpar is also used in soups and stews. It is often used sprinkled over pomegranate arils.[7] Golpar is also mixed with vinegar into which lettuce leaves are dipped before eating.

Golpar can be used in small amounts (1 or 2 tsp per pound) when cooking beans to reduce the effect of gas in the digestive tract associated with consuming beans.[8][not in citation given][dubious ]

Ground golpar (H. persicum) seeds

In Persian cuisine, the petals are used in the spice mixture advieh to flavor rice dishes, as well as in chicken and bean dishes.

The tender leaves and leaf stalks can also be pickled (known as golpar torshi).

Public health and safety

The sap of the Tromsø palm contains furanocoumarins, which in combination with ultraviolet light, leads to phytophotodermatitis.[6] There is some anecdotal evidence that H. persicum may be less dangerous than H. mantegazzianum with respect to phototoxicity.[1]

Control measures

Known ways to fight Tromsø palm are the constant cutting of new shoots. When cutting down, protective equipment is recommended, and metal cutting tools should be cleaned after use because the juice is oxidizing.

See also


  1. ^ a b Alm, Torbjørn (2013). "Ethnobotany of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch., an invasive species in Norway, or how plant names, uses, and other traditions evolve". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 9 (1): 42. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-9-42. ISSN 1746-4269. PMC 3699400. PMID 23800181 – via BioMed Central Ltd.
  2. ^ Straumsheim Grønli, Kristin (July 10, 2006), Bjørnekjeks tar kvelertak på naturen (Hogweed takes stranglehold on nature), retrieved September 12, 2011
  3. ^ "Heracleum mantegazzianum, Heracleum sosnowskyi and Heracleum persicum". EPPO Bulletin. 39 (3): 489–499. 2009. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2009.02313.x.
  4. ^ "Jättiputket (Heracleum persicum -ryhmä) - Vieraslajit.fi". vieraslajit.fi.
  5. ^ a b Booy, Olaf; Cock, Matthew; Eckstein, Lutz; Hansen, Steen Ole; Hattendorf, Jan; Hüls, Jörg; Jahodová, Sárka; Krinke, Lucás; Marovoková, Lanka; Müllerová, Jana; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Charlotte; Otte, Annette; Pergl, Jan; Perglová, Irena; Priekule, Ilze; Pusek, Petr; Ravn, Hans Peter; Thiele, Jan; Trybush, Sviatlana; Wittenberg, Rüdiger (2005). "The giant hogweed best practice manual: guidelines for the management and control of invasive weeds in Europe" (PDF). Hørsholm: Center for Skov, Landskab og Planlægning/Københavns Universitet. ISBN 87-7903-209-5. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  6. ^ a b Meier, Sophie; Taff, Gregory N.; Aune, Jens B.; Eiter, Sebastian (2017). "Regulation of the Invasive Plant Heracleum persicum by Private Landowners in Tromsø, Norway". Invasive Plant Science and Management. 10 (2): 166–179. doi:10.1017/inp.2017.11.
  7. ^ Fujimori, Sachi (December 12, 2013). "Get cooking with pomegranates, the super fruit that's in season". NorthJersey.com. Retrieved December 31, 2013.
  8. ^ "Gas in the Digestive Tract: Digestive Diseases - NIDDK".

External links

  • Analysis of the Oil of Heracleum persicum L. (seeds and stems)
  • Heracleum persicum, Heracleum glabrescens (in Persian)
  • Sajjadi, S. E.; Noroozi, P. (2007). "Isolation and identification of xanthotoxin (8-methoxypsoralen) from the fruits of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fischer". Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. April 2007 (2): 13–16. Retrieved 15 June 2016. [permanent dead link]
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