Henderson Island (Pitcairn Islands)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Henderson Island
Henderson Island Map.jpg
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Location Pitcairn Islands, Pitcairn Islands
Coordinates 24°21′S 128°19′W / 24.35°S 128.32°W / -24.35; -128.32
Area 37.3 km2 (401,000,000 sq ft)
Criteria Natural: (vii), (x)
Reference 487
Inscription 1988 (12th Session)
Henderson is located in Pacific Ocean
Henderson
Henderson
Location of Henderson Island in the Pacific Ocean
[edit on Wikidata]

Henderson Island (formerly also San Juan Bautista and Elizabeth Island) is an uninhabited island in the south Pacific Ocean. It is one of the world's last two raised coral atolls whose ecosystems remain relatively unaffected by human contact.[1] Ten of its 51 flowering plants, all four of its land birds and about a third of the identified insects and gastropods are endemic – a remarkable diversity given the island's size.[2]

Measuring 9.6 kilometres (6.0 mi) by 5.1 kilometres (3.2 mi), it has an area of 37.3 square kilometres (14.4 sq mi) and is located 193 kilometres (120 mi) northeast of Pitcairn Island. It has poor soil and little fresh water, and is unsuitable for agriculture. There are three beaches on the northern end and the remaining coast comprises steep (mostly undercut) cliffs up to 15 metres (49 ft) in height.

In 1902 Henderson was annexed to the Pitcairn Islands colony, now a South Pacific British Overseas Territory. It was designated a World Heritage Site by the United Nations in 1988. In May 2017, the island received media coverage due to a study that highlighted the large amount of plastic debris that reached the island.[1]

History

Archaeological evidence suggests that a small permanent Polynesian settlement existed on Henderson at some time between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.[3] The reasons for the group's disappearance remain unknown, but may relate to the similar disappearance of the Polynesians on Pitcairn Island, on whom the Hendersonians would have depended for many of the basics of life, especially stone for making tools.[4] The Pitcairn Polynesians may in turn have disappeared because of the decline of nearby Mangareva; thus, Henderson was at the end of a chain of small, dependent colonies of Mangareva.[5]

Portuguese sailor Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, leading a Spanish expedition, was the first European to discover the island on 29 January 1606 and named it San Juan Bautista;[6] Captain Henderson of the British East India Company ship Hercules rediscovered the island on 17 January 1819 and named it Henderson Island; and on 2 March 1819 Captain Henry King in the Elizabeth landed on the island to find the king's colours already flying. His crew scratched the name of their ship into a tree.

A sperm whale rammed and sank the Nantucket whaleship Essex on 20 November 1820 (a report of which inspired Herman Melville to write Moby-Dick), and the crew arrived at Henderson on 20 December in three small whaleboats. They found the island's only known drinkable water-source – a brackish spring on the north shore, exposed at half tide – and ate fish, birds, eggs, crabs and peppergrass; but they had largely exhausted the ready food within a week and on 27 December the three boats set sail for South America, leaving behind Thomas Chappel, Seth Weeks, and William Wright who chose to stay, and who survived until their rescue on 9 April 1821. In his account of the ordeal, Chappel reported having seen human skeletons in a cave.[7]

In August 1851 visitors from Pitcairn Island also found skeletons in a cave and wreckage on the adjacent beach. After a party of Pitcairn Islanders collecting miro wood rediscovered the skeletons in March 1958, a medical examination determined that the bones were of Caucasian origin, and they were then buried in a shallow grave inside the cave. An American survey team examined the bones in 1966 and buried them in five coffins in the left-hand corner of the cave, tightly jamming a large cross between the ceiling and the rock floor at the entrance. They concluded the remains were of five or six people, one of whom was between three and five years of age. It was presumed they were the survivors of a shipwreck who died of dehydration.[8] A final examination in the context of a scientific expedition in 1991 concluded that the human remains on Henderson Island were prehistoric Polynesians.[9]

Henderson, along with Oeno and Ducie, was formally annexed to the British Empire in 1902 by Captain G. F. Jones, who visited the islands in a cutter with a crew of Pitcairn Islanders; and in August 1937, HMS Leander on a journey from Europe to New Zealand carried out an aerial survey of Henderson, Oeno and Ducie, and on each island a British flag was planted and an inscription was nailed up proclaiming "This island belongs to H.B.M. King George VI." [10]

Henderson.JPG

A 27-year-old American, Robert Tomarchin, lived the life of a castaway on the island for approximately 2 months in 1957 accompanied by a pet chimpanzee, apparently as a publicity stunt, until people from Pitcairn rescued him in two longboats.[11]

In the early 1980s, American businessman Arthur "Smiley" Ratliff expressed interest in establishing a home for himself with an airstrip on the island.[12] The Pitcairn Island Council approved his plans in April 1981 but the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office overrode the decision and vetoed the proposed development after environmentalist groups had lobbied to protect the natural ecology and environment of the island. Henderson Island was listed as a World Heritage site in 1988.[2]

Natural resources

Since the introduction of aluminium-hulled long-boats in the 20th century, Pitcairners have made regular trips to Henderson to harvest the wood of miro and tou trees. Usually they venture to Henderson once per year, but they may make up to three trips if the weather is favourable. Pitcairners carve the wood into curios for tourists, from which they derive much of their income.[13]

Geography

A view along the northern beach

Henderson Island is a raised coral atoll that, with Pitcairn, Ducie and Oeno Islands, forms the Pitcairn Island Group. The nearest major landmass is more than 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) distant. This coral limestone island sits atop a conical (presumed volcanic) mound, rising from a depth of roughly 3,500 metres (11,500 ft). Its surface is mostly reef-rubble and dissected limestone – an extremely rugged mixture of steep, jagged pinnacles and shallow sink holes – and, except for the north end, the island is encircled by steep limestone cliffs up to 15 metres (49 ft) high.

There are three main beaches, on the northwest, north, and northeast sides, and the north and northwest sides are fringed by reefs. The depression at the island's centre is thought to be a raised lagoon. There is only one known potable (drinkable) water source, a brackish spring on the north shore exposed at half tide, rising from a crevice in flat rock, large surfaces of which compose the face of the beach. The surrounding ocean tidal range is about one metre at spring tide.[2]

Flora

Apart from five species bordering the beaches, including coconut palms, the vegetation is undisturbed. Henderson Island is covered by 5–10 m tall tangled scrub forest, more thinly covered in the central depression. It has 51 native species of flowering plants, ten of which are unique to the island (endemic). Dominant tree species include coconut palms, Pandanus tectorius, Thespesia populnea (miro), Tournefortia argentea, Cordia subcordata (tou), Guettarda speciosa, Pisonia grandis, Geniostoma hendersonense, Nesoluma st.-johnianum, Hernandia stokesii, Myrsine hosakae, and Celtis sp.[14]

Fauna

The Henderson lorikeet (Vini stepheni), also known as the Stephen's lorikeet, is a species of parrot in the family Psittacidae, endemic to Henderson Island.

Birds

The island is presently home to four endemic land bird species – the Henderson fruit dove, Henderson lorikeet, Henderson reed warbler and the flightless Henderson crake. Three species of the family Columbidae – the Henderson ground dove, the Henderson imperial pigeon and the Henderson archaic pigeon – were formerly endemic to the island, but became extinct when the Polynesians arrived around 1000 CE. Of the fifteen non-endemic seabird species found, nine or more are believed to breed on the island.[2] Breeding colonies of the globally endangered Henderson petrel formerly existed on Ducie, but were wiped out by invasive rats by 1922. It is believed to now nest uniquely on Henderson island.[15]

Bones associated with prehistoric Polynesian settlement sites dating to somewhere between 500 and 800 years ago include those of the Polynesian storm petrel, Marquesan imperial pigeon, and Polynesian or Pacific imperial pigeon which are no longer found on the island, and two others – Christmas shearwater and red-footed booby – that still visit but no longer nest. It is hypothesized that the Polynesian settlers may have driven these bird species, along with six terrestrial snail species, to local extinction, and this loss of a ready and regular food supply may have contributed to the Polynesians' subsequent disappearance.[16][17] The island has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area for its endemic landbirds and breeding seabirds.[18]

Other animals

The invertebrate species are largely unknown but a third of the island's known non-marine gastropods and insects are endemic.[2] There are no native mammals but the Pacific rat, introduced by Polynesians 800 years ago, abounds.[19] A skink (Emoia cyanura), and the green sea turtle have been identified, and an unidentified gecko has been reported. There are also crabs.

Biological risk

Land bird populations appear to be relatively stable but there is high risk of introduction to the island of predators, disease vectors and diseases by unauthorised landings of yachts. Introduction of the Eurasian black rat or the domestic cat would be likely to cause almost immediate extinction of the ground-dwelling Henderson crake and possibly other species. The endemic birds may have no immunity to the fatal avian pox which is transmitted by biting flies such as hippoboscidae.[14]

Between July and November 2011 a partnership of the Pitcairn Islands Government and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds implemented a poison baiting programme aimed at eradicating the Pacific rat.[20] Mortality was massive but of the 50,000 to 100,000 population, 60 to 80 individuals survived and the population has now fully recovered.[21]

Plastic debris

Research published in April 2017[22] looked at debris on several beaches, and reported "the highest density of plastic rubbish anywhere in the world" as a result of the South Pacific Gyre. The beaches contain an estimated 37.7 million items of debris together weighing 17.6 tonnes. In a study transect on North Beach, each day 17 to 268 new items washed up on a 10-metre section. The study noted that purple hermit crabs (Coenobita spinosus) make their homes in plastic containers washed up on beaches.[23][24][25]

Gallery

Beach

References

  1. ^ a b "Remote island has 'world's worst' plastic rubbish density". BBC News. 2017-05-16. Retrieved 2017-05-16. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "UNESCO World Heritage listing". Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  3. ^ Stefan, Vincent H. (2002). "Henderson Island crania and their implication for Southeastern Polynesian prehistory". Journal of the Polynesian Society. 
  4. ^ Diamond, Jared (2005). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. Penguin Group. ISBN 0-670-03337-5. 
  5. ^ Weisler, Marshall I. (1995). "Henderson Island prehistory: colonization and extinction on a remote Polynesian island". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 56 (1–2): 377–404. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1995.tb01099.x. 
  6. ^ Brand, Donald D. (1967). The Pacific Basin: A History of its Geographical Explorations. New York: The American Geographical Society. p. 136. 
  7. ^ Thomas Farel Heffernan (1 September 1990). Stove by a Whale: Owen Chase and the Essex. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 62–84. ISBN 978-0-8195-6244-9. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  8. ^ Pitcairn Islands Study Center. History of Government and Laws, Part 15 Archived 11 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ "The Henderson Island Skeletons". www.winthrop.dk. 
  10. ^ Rehder HA & Randall JE (15 January 1975). "Ducie Atoll: Its history, physiography and biota" (PDF). Atoll Research Bulletin. 183: 1–55. doi:10.5479/si.00775630.183.1. 
  11. ^ Winthrop, Mark. "The Henderson Island monkey story". Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  12. ^ Serpell J. Desert island risk. New Scientist. (5 May 1983):320.
  13. ^ Brooke, M. de L.; I. Hepburn; R.J. Trevelyan (2004). "Henderson Island World Heritage Site Management Plan 2004–2009" (PDF). Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London: 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2007. Retrieved 31 March 2009. 
  14. ^ a b Graves GR. The endemic land birds of Henderson Island, Southeastern Polynesia: Notes on natural history and conservation. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology. 1992;104(1):32–43.
  15. ^ "Potential for rat predation to cause decline of the globally threatened Henderson petrel Pterodroma atrata: evidence from the field, stable isotopes and population modelling" (PDF). 10 March 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  16. ^ Steadman DW, Olson SL. Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: Man-caused extinctions on an "uninhabited" island. PNAS. 1 September 1985;82(18):6191–6195. doi:10.1073/pnas.82.18.6191.
  17. ^ Weisler, Marshall I. (Spring 1994). "The Settlement of Marginal Polynesia: New Evidence from Henderson Island". Journal of Field Archaeology. 21 (1): 83–102. doi:10.1179/jfa.1994.21.1.83. JSTOR 530246. 
  18. ^ BirdLife International. (2012). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Henderson Island. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21 January 2012.
  19. ^ RSPB (20 December 2011). "Aircraft carrier and helicopters come to unique island's rescue". BirdLife. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  20. ^ Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. "Henderson Island Restoration Project". Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  21. ^ Amos, W.; Nichols, H.J.; Chuchyard, T.; Brooke, M. de L. (20 April 2016). "Rat eradication comes within a whisker! A case study of a failed project from the South Pacific". Royal Society Open Science. 3: 160110. doi:10.1098/rsos.160110. 
  22. ^ Lavers, Jennifer L.; Bond, Alexander L. "Exceptional and rapid accumulation of anthropogenic debris on one of the world's most remote and pristine islands". PNAS: 201619818. doi:10.1073/pnas.1619818114. 
  23. ^ Remote South Pacific island has highest levels of plastic rubbish in the world, Dani Cooper, ABC News Online, 16 May 2017
  24. ^ Hunt, Elle (15 May 2017). "38 million pieces of plastic waste found on uninhabited South Pacific island". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  25. ^ "No one lives on this remote Pacific island — but it's covered in 38 million pieces of our trash". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 

Further reading

External links

  • The Henderson Island Website
  • Henderson Island – UNESCO
  • Isla Henderson (Spanish)
  • Google Street View of the north and north-east beaches, May 2013
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henderson_Island_(Pitcairn_Islands)&oldid=808293898"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henderson_Island_(Pitcairn_Islands)
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Henderson Island (Pitcairn Islands)"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA