Help:Multilingual support

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Articles on the English Wikipedia may contain words or texts written in different languages and scripts. To be able to correctly view and edit these articles requires that you have the appropriate fonts installed and to have correctly configured your operating system and browser. This guide will help you to do so.

Overview

Unicode

Articles on Wikipedia are encoded using Unicode (specifically UTF-8)[1], an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. Because UTF-8 is backward compatible with ASCII, and most modern browsers have at least basic Unicode support, most users will experience little difficulty reading and editing most of Wikipedia.

For older browsers, MediaWiki (the Wikipedia software), serves the wikitext in a safe mode upon editing. Characters that cannot be represented in ASCII are temporarily converted to hexadecimal character references, looking like ሴ. Existing hexadecimal character references get an additional leading zero so they are not converted to actual characters when the page is saved, and look like ሴ. Likewise, to create a hexadecimal character reference in safe mode, not the character itself, a leading zero should be added. One can check whether safe mode is used by editing this section. If M looks like M rather than M, safe mode is used.

Font

Most computers with Microsoft Windows, Apple's OS X and many Linux variants will already have fonts with support for Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean and the International Phonetic Alphabet installed. Many mobile devices, such as the iPhone and iPad also include such fonts. Several historic and accented characters (used in the transliteration of foreign scripts) may be missing, though.

Microsoft fonts

Font Included with Scripts Description
Arial Unicode MS [1] Western, Japanese, Hangul, Johab, Big5, GB 2312, Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Turkish, Baltic, Central European, Celtic, Cyrillic, Thai, Lao, Tibetan, Oriya, Bengali, Devanagari, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Vietnamese Supports a wide number of scripts, but is of a slightly lower quality than Arial because it lacks kerning and is not smoothed. Contains a minor bug that causes double-wide diacritics to be placed on the wrong characters.
Lucida Sans Unicode [2] Western, Hebrew, Greek, Turkish, Baltic, Central European, Cyrillic Has a much smaller character repertoire than that of Arial Unicode MS, but is more legible.
Tahoma [3] Western, Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Turkish, Baltic, Central European, Celtic, Cyrillic, Thai and Vietnamese Has a much smaller character repertoire than that of Arial Unicode MS, but is more legible, especially (according to Meta) in terms of Arabic and Persian characters.
Microsoft Sans Serif [4]
Not to be confused with MS Sans Serif
Western, Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Turkish, Celtic, Baltic, Central European, Cyrillic, Thai, Vietnamese Has better support for historical and accented Latin characters.

Other available Unicode fonts

Bolded fonts are recommended.

Font Typeface License Format Encoding
Aboriginal Sans-serif, Serif Freeware OpenType Unicode 5.2
Charis SIL Serif Open Source OpenType, Graphite Unicode 7.0
Code2002 Archived December 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Freeware (must not be altered) TrueType Unicode, plane 2
Code2001 0.919 Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Freeware (must not be altered) TrueType Unicode, plane 1
Code2000 1.171 Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Serif Shareware (unrestricted) TrueType Unicode, plane 0
DejaVu Sans-serif, Sans-mono, Serif Open Source OpenType Unicode
Doulos SIL Serif Open Source OpenType, Graphite Unicode 7.0
Everson Mono 3.2b4 Sans-mono Shareware TrueType Unicode
Fonts for Ancient Scripts (Greek, Egyptian, cuneiform...) Varying No license, but may be used for any purpose TrueType Unicode
Google Noto (Project to support all Unicode scripts) Sans-serif, Serif Open Source OpenType Unicode
Hanazono (80,000+ Chinese characters supported) Ming (comparable to serifed typefaces) Freeware (unrestricted) TrueType Unicode
TITUS Cyberbit Basic Serif Non-commercial TrueType, but requires Windows to install Unicode 4.0
Quivira Serif Freeware OpenType Unicode 7.0
GNU Unifont Mono Freeware (GPL) TrueType Unicode 10.0

Browsers

Internet Explorer
supports Latin (however not all extended sets), Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic and Hebrew. Support for East Asian and some Indic scripts is available if support for this has been installed for Windows. As Internet Explorer will only use the default font for other scripts, those are usually not supported (unless the default font does).
Firefox
tries to render any character using all the fonts available on the system so multilingual support is generally good. The default rendering engine can support complex script rendering. Some Linux distributions ship with a Pango-based rendering engine which also does, although this may currently cause some display glitches with justified text.
Opera
tries to render any character using all the fonts available on the system so multilingual support is also good.[2] Opera uses the operating system to perform contextual glyph selection, ligature forming, character stacking, combining character support and other character shaping tasks.[3]
Chrome
Does not directly support several languages of South and Southeast Asian countries, but otherwise renders some tofu signs, due to its problem of font fallback machanism, you may need the Advanced Font Settings extension to optimize. Renders Devanagari (used for Hindi), Bengali, Sinhala, Gurmukhi, and Tibetan scripts in the examples below, but not some of languages of Southeast Asian countries.

Scripts

Adlam

Adlam is a right-to-left alphabetic script devised by the brothers Ibrahima Barry and Abdoulaye Barry, in order to represent the Fulani language. It is supported by the following font:

  • Noto Sans Adlam (Alpha version from Google’s GitHub repository)
Correct rendering Your computer
Adlam Sample.png 𞤀𞤣𞤤𞤥

Ancient South Arabian

Ancient South Arabian script (Old South Arabian) was used to write the Minean, Sabaean, Qatabanian, Hadramite, and Himyaritic languages of Yemen from the 8th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is supported by the following fonts:

Correct rendering Your computer
Himjar wa.PNGHimjar dad.PNGHimjar dal.PNGHimjar kha.PNGHimjar ha.PNG 𐩠𐩭𐩵𐩼𐩥

Armenian

The Armenian alphabet is only used to write the Armenian language. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • DejaVu
  • GNU FreeSerif
  • Noto Sans Armenian (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Noto Serif Armenian (direct download link), the serif version of the font made by Google
  • Kelvinch Font
  • Segoe UI (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 7 and later, but only supports Armenian since Windows 8)
  • Sylfaen (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 2000 and later)
  • Times LatArm
Correct rendering Your computer
Armenian-render.svg Հայաստան

Avestan

The Avestan alphabet is used to write the Avestan language. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Ahuramazda
  • Noto Sans Avestan (direct download link), a font made by Google
Correct rendering Your computer
Avestan Rendered.svg 𐬯𐬭𐬀𐬊𐬔𐬁

Balinese

The Balinese script is used to write the Balinese language. The script is encoded in block "Balinese", code points 1B00–1B7F (Unicode.org chart). It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Aksara Bali (free OpenType font with keyboard driver)
  • Noto Sans Balinese (direct download link), a font made by Google
Correct rendering Swasti Prapti ring Wikipédia Basa Bali.png
Your computer ᭚ᬲ᭄ᬯᬲ᭄ᬢᬶ​ᬧ᭄ᬭᬧ᭄ᬢᬶ​ᬭᬶᬂ​ᬯᬶᬓᬶᬧᬾᬤᬶᬳ​ᬩᬲ​ᬩᬮᬶ᭟
Transliteration Swasti Prapti ring Wikipédia Basa Bali

Bamum

Bamum is a series of scripts devised for the Bamum language by King Njoya of Cameroon between 1896 and 1918. It is supported by the following font:

  • Noto Sans Bamum (direct download link), a font made by Google
Correct rendering Your computer
Bamum King Njoya (4).png ꚩꚫꛑꚩꚳ ꛆꚧꛂ

Batak

The Batak alphabet is used to write the Batak languages. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Batak Unicode
  • Noto Sans Batak (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Pangururan
  • Prada (direct download link)
Correct rendering Your computer Transliteration
Batak-render.svg ᯀᯂ᯲ᯘᯒ aksara

Baybayin / Old Tagalog

Baybayin (also known as the Tagalog script in Unicode and Alibata) is a form of pre-Spanish Philippine writing system in which modern minority scripts in the Philippines have descended. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Noto Sans Tagalog (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Paul Morrow's Baybayin Fonts. Offers the most extensive list of Baybayin fonts for Windows and Macintosh operating systems
  • Quivira is a proportional serif font that produces very readable text. Supports several scripts, among them the Baybayin script
Correct rendering Your computer Transliteration
Tagalog in Baybayin script postkudlit.png ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜊᜏᜆ᜔ ᜆᜂ ᜀᜌ᜔ ᜁᜐᜒᜈᜒᜎᜅ᜔ ᜈ ᜋᜌ᜔ ᜃᜍᜉᜆᜈ᜔,
ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜉᜈ᜔ᜆᜌ᜔ ᜐ ᜇᜒᜄ᜔ᜈᜒᜇᜇ᜔,
ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜃᜍᜉᜆᜈ᜔ ᜀᜅ᜔ ᜆᜂ ᜀᜌ᜔ ᜊᜒᜈᜒᜌᜌᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜉᜄᜒᜁᜐᜒᜉ᜔,
ᜀᜆ᜔ ᜃᜍᜓᜈᜓᜅᜈ᜔ ᜈ ᜃᜁᜎᜅᜅ᜔ ᜋᜄ᜔ᜃᜁᜐ ᜐ ᜃᜉᜆᜒᜍᜈ᜔
Ang bawat tao ay isinilang na may karapatan, at pantay sa dignidad, at karapatan ang tao ay biniyayaan ng pag-iisip, at karapatan na kailangang magkaisa sa kapatiran.

Note that the Baybayin letter "Ra" (ᜍ) is not included in the Unicode standard, despite its extensive use in running text, as shown above. As a result, fonts which are formally Unicode-compliant, such as Noto Sans Tagalog, will not render the character.

Buhid

Buhid script is used to write the Buhid language. It is supported to varying extents by the following fonts:

  • Noto Sans Buhid (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Quivira NOT RECOMMENDED FOR BUHID: It contains basic Buhid letters but not the ligatures required to correctly render many Buhid syllables
  • Code2000 NOT RECOMMENDED FOR BUHID: It contains basic Buhid letters but not the ligatures required to correctly render many Buhid syllables
Correct rendering Your computer Sample syllables
Sample Buhid syllables ᝃᝒᝎᝒᝐᝓᝈᝓᝆ kilisunuta

Burmese

The Burmese alphabet is used to write the Burmese language. The script is encoded in block "Myanmar", code points 1000-109F (Unicode.org chart). It is supported by the follow fonts:

  • Myanmar (also available from BBCs website)
  • Myanmar Census
  • Myanmar Text (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 8 and later)
  • Noto Sans Myanmar (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Padauk (supports Graphite)
  • WinUni Innwa
Correct rendering Your computer
Complex Text Rendering - Burmese.svg ဃ + ြ → ဃြ

Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics

Canadian Aboriginal syllabics are an abugida used to write a number of First Nations languages in Canada, including Cree, Ojibwe, Naskapi, Inuktitut, Blackfoot, Sayisi, and Carrier. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Aboriginal Sans (See above)
  • Code2000 (See above)
  • Euphemia (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows Vista and later)
  • Gadugi (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 10 Creators Update and later)
  • Noto Sans Canadian Aboriginal, a font made by Google
Correct rendering Your computer
Nehiyawewin.svg ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ

Cham

The Cham alphabet is used to write the Cham language. It is supported by the following fonts:

Correct rendering Your computer
Кха чампа.png

Cherokee

Cherokee is supported by the following fonts:

  • Cherokee Digohweli, from LanguageGeek
  • GNU FreeFont
  • Gadugi (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 8 and later)
  • Noto Sans Cherokee (direct download link), a font made by Google (Also supports lowercase)
  • Plantagenet Cherokee (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows Vista and later)

Lowercase Cherokee letters were added to Unicode version 8.0 in June, 2015. Font support for lowercase Cherokee is not yet widespread. Those fonts that do support lowercase are:

  • Gadugi (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 10 Creators Update and later)
  • Noto Sans Cherokee (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Everson Mono (beta version)

Cherokee uppercase letters:

Correct rendering Your computer
Cherokee.svg ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ

Cherokee lowercase letters:

Correct rendering Your computer
Cherokee Lowercase.png Ꮳꮃꭹ Ꭶꮼꮒꭿꮝꮧ

Coptic

The Coptic alphabet is used to write Coptic, the language used in Egypt before Arabic. It is currently used solely as a liturgical language, and is supported by the following fonts:

  • Alphabetum is a commercial Unicode font, but it is the only font that provides Bohairic Coptic letters rather than Sahidic
  • GNU FreeSerif
  • Noto Sans Coptic (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Quivira: Provides full Unicode support for all Coptic letters
  • Segoe UI Symbol (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 7 and later)
  • Segoe UI Historic (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 10 and later)
  • Sophia Nubian font by SIL International
Correct rendering Your computer
Coptic-render.svg ⲙⲛⲧⲣⲙⲛⲕⲏⲙⲉ

Cuneiform

The cuneiform script was primarily used to write Akkadian (including Assyrian and Babylonian) and Sumerian. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Noto Sans Cuneiform (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Segoe UI Historic (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 10 and later)
  • Unicode Fonts for Oracc: Cuneiform Fonts offers several different cuneiform fonts
  • Unicode Cuneiform Fonts for Macintosh and Windows offers cuneiform fonts as well
Correct rendering Your computer
Cuneiform Rendered.svg 𒅎𒀝𒂵𒌈

Deseret

The Deseret alphabet is supported by the following fonts:

  • "Bee" Serif fonts
  • "Bee" Sans Serif fonts
  • Noto Sans Deseret (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Segoe UI Symbol (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 7 and later)
Correct rendering Your computer
Deseret Alphabet.svg 𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻 𐐈𐑊𐑁𐐩𐐺𐐯𐐻

East Asian

Script Correct rendering Your computer
Traditional Chinese Chinesetexttest.png 人人生來自由,
在尊嚴和權利上一律平等。
他們有理性和良心,
請以手足關係的精神相對待。
Simplified Chinese SimChinesetexttest.png 人人生来自由,
在尊严和权利上一律平等。
他们有理性和良心,
请以手足关系的精神相对待。
Japanese Japanese text test.svg すべての人間は、生まれながらにして自由であり、
かつ、尊厳と権利と について平等である。
人間は、理性と良心とを授けられており、
互いに同胞の精神をもって行動しなければならない。
Korean Korean text test.svg 모든 인간은 태어날 때부터
자유로우며 그 존엄과 권리에
있어 동등하다. 인간은 천부적으로
이성과 양심을 부여받았으며 서로
형제애의 정신으로 행동하여야 한다.

Hentaigana

Hentaigana are obsolete or nonstandard hiragana used occasionally on signage in Japan. Hentaigana characters are supported by the following fonts:

  • BabelStone Han
  • Hanazono Mincho
  • JIS Z 8903 Medium
  • Unicode Hentaigana Font
  • WadaLabMaruGo2004Emoji and WadaLabChuMaruGo2004Emoji
Correct rendering Your computer
Hiragana NO 01.png 𛂛

Egyptian Hieroglyphs

Egyptian hieroglyphs are supported by the following fonts:

  • NewGardiner (direct download dink) (Recommended for better on-screen legibility)
  • Noto Sans Egyptian Hieroglyphs (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Segoe UI Historic (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 10 and later)

Please note that there is currently no mechanism to render stacked hieroglyphs in Unicode text. As a result, all Unicode hieroglyphs will be displayed in a straight line.

Correct rendering Your computer
i t
n
ra
G25 x
n
𓇋𓏏𓈖𓇳𓅜𓐍𓈖

See also wp:hiero.

Ethiopic

The Ethiopic syllabary is used in central east Africa for Amharic, Bilen, Oromo, Tigre, Tigrinya, and other languages. It evolved from the script for classical Ge'ez, which is now strictly a liturgical language. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Abyssinica SIL
  • Ethiopia Jiret
  • Everson Mono
  • Noto Sans Ethiopic (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Nyala (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows Vista and later)
  • TITUS Cyberbit (direct download link)
Correct rendering Your computer
Ethiopiya-text.svg ኢትዮጵያ

Gothic

The Gothic alphabet is supported by the following fonts:

  • Cardo
  • MPH 2B Damase
  • Junicode, a free font mostly for Medieval scripts.
  • Noto Sans Gothic (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Robert Pfeffer’s fonts: Midjungards, Pfeffer Mediæval, Silubr, Skeirs, and Ulfilas
  • Segoe UI Historic (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 10 and later)
  • Segoe UI Symbol (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 7 and later)
Correct rendering Your computer
Gutisk.png 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺

Hanunó'o

Hanunó'o script is used to write the Hanunó'o language. It is supported to varying extents by the following fonts:

  • GNU FreeFont
  • Noto Sans Hanunoo (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Quivira NOT RECOMMENDED FOR HANUNÓ'O: It contains basic Hanunó'o letters but not the ligatures required to correctly render many Hanunó'o syllables
Correct rendering Your computer Sample syllables
Sample Hanunó'o syllables nga ngi ngu ᜥᜥᜲᜥᜳ nga ngi ngu

Indic

The following table compares how a correctly enabled computer would render the following scripts with how your computer renders them:

Script Correct rendering Your computer Help page
Bengali Complex Text Rendering - Bengali.svg ক + িকি Wikipedia:Bangla script display help
Devanāgarī Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Devanagari.png क + िकि Template:Devfonthelp
Gujarati Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Gujarati.png ક + િકિ
Gurmukhī Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Gurmukhi.png ਕ + ਿਕਿ
Kannada Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Kannada.png ಕ + ಿಕಿ
Malayalam Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Malayalam.png ക + െകെ
Oriya Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Oriya.png କ + େକେ
Sinhala Complex Text Rendering - Sinhala.svg ඵ + ේඵේ
Tibetan Examples of complex text rendering Tibetan.png ར + ྐ + ྱརྐྱ
Tamil Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Tamil.png க + ேகே
Telugu Examples.of.complex.text.rendering.Telugu.png య + ీయీ

Javanese

The Javanese script is used to write the Javanese language. It is supported by Unicode 5.2 and above. The script is a so-called SIL Graphite-script, and is best supported by Firefox. As of recently however, it can be rendered by the OpenType and TrueType standards, provided the right font is used. The script is supported by the following fonts:

  • JG Aksara Jawa (direct download link) NOT RECOMMENDED: It uses code points from other languages and thus will cause other languages to render incorrectly
  • Noto Sans Javanese (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Javanese Text (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 8.1 and later)
  • Tuladha Jejeg, a free SIL Graphite font
  • Prada (direct download link)
Correct rendering Sugeng rawuh tuladha.png
Your computer ꧋ꦱꦸꦒꦼꦁꦫꦮꦸꦃꦮꦺꦤ꧀ꦠꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦶꦁꦮꦶꦏꦶꦥꦺꦝꦶꦪꦃꦗꦮꦶ꧉
Transliteration Sugeng Rawuh Wènten ing Wikipédia Jawi

Kaithi

Kaithi, also called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi", is a historical script used widely in parts of North India. It is supported by the following font:

  • NotoSans Kaithi, a font made by Google
Correct rendering Your computer
Kaithi noto.svg 𑂍𑂶𑂟𑂲

Kharosthi

Kharosthi, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara and ancient India It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Unifont Upper (contains isolated form of the letters but does not support mandatory joining behavior)
  • Segoe UI Historic (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 10 and later)
Correct rendering Your computer
Kharosthi font rendering sample.png 𐨤𐨪𐨌𐨪𐨿𐨗𐨸𐨅𐨌𐨏

Klingon

The Klingon script is used to write the Klingon language, an artistic language of the Star Trek franchise. It is supported by the following fonts:

Correct rendering Your computer
PIqaD in pIqaD.png 

Limbu

The Limbu alphabet is supported by the following fonts:

Correct rendering Your computer
Limbu-render.svg ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ

Lisu (Fraser alphabet)

The Fraser alphabet is used only to write the Lisu language. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • DejaVu
  • Miao Unicode
  • Noto Sans Lisu (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Segoe UI (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 7 and later, but only supports Lisu since Windows 8)
Correct rendering Your computer
Fraser-alphabet-render.svg ꓛꓬꓹ ꓡꓯꓺ ꓡꓯꓺ

Lontara

The Lontara script is used to write Buginese, Makassarese, and Mandar. The script is encoded in block "Buginese", code points 1A00–1A1F (Unicode.org chart). It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Leelawadee UI, note that Leelawadee does not support the Lontara script, only the UI version does. Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 8 and later
  • MPH 2B Damase (direct download link)
  • Noto Sans Buginese (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Saweri
  • Prada (direct download link)
Correct rendering Your computer Transliteration
Lontara script.png ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ Basa Ugi

Mandaic

The Mandaic alphabet is supported by the following font:

  • Noto Sans Mandaic (direct download link), a font made by Google
Correct rendering Your computer
Mandaic sample abaga.svg ࡀࡁࡀࡂࡀ

Mongolian

The Mongolian script is occasionally used to write the Mongolian language on the internet, though Cyrillic is more common. It is written from top to bottom in columns ordered from left to right. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Noto Sans Mongolian (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Code2000
  • Oyun fonts by Inner Mongolian University: Oyun Qagan Tig, Oyun Garqag Tig, Oyun Hawang Tig, Oyun Scnin Tig, Oyun Gar Biqimel Tig, Oyun Har_a Tig, and Oyun Gurban Ulus Tig
  • Menksoft fonts: Menk Qagan Tig, Menk Garqag Tig, Menk Har_a Tig, Menk Hawang Tig, and Menk Scnin Tig
  • Mongolian BT
  • Mongolian Baiti (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 7 and later)
  • Mongol Usug
  • Mongolian White (free font)
  • MongolianScript
Correct rendering Your computer
Monggol bicig.svg ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ

New Tai Lue

New Tai Lue script, also known as Simplified Tai Lue, is used to write the Tai Lü language. It is supported by the following fonts:

Correct rendering Your computer
New Tai Lue script sample.png ᦟᦲᧅᦷᦎᦺᦑᦟᦹᧉ

Ogham

The Ogham alphabet was used to write the Old Irish language from the 1st to 9th century AD. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Noto Sans Ogham (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Everson Mono
  • DejaVu
Correct rendering Your computer
Ogham Sample.png ᚛ᚓᚅᚐᚁᚐᚏᚏ᚜

Ol Chiki

The Ol Chiki script script was created in 1925 by Raghunath Murmu for the Santali language. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Code2000
  • Nirmala UI (regular and semilight)
  • OLCK UNI22nd Dec03 & OLCK UNI Raghunath Murmu
  • Noto Sans Ol Chiki
Correct rendering Your computer
OlCh dak.gif ᱫᱟᱜ

Old Persian cuneiform

The Old Persian cuneiform script was used to write the Old Persian language. The script is encoded in block "Old Persian", code points 103A0–103DF (Unicode.org chart). It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Aegean (free font)
  • Noto Sans Old Persian (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Segoe UI Historic (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 10 and later)
Correct rendering Your computer Transliteration
Old-persian-render.svg 𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambujiya (Cambyses II)

Osage

The Osage alphabet is used to write Osage, a Native American language spoken in Oklahoma. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Everson Mono (beta version)
  • Noto Sans Osage (direct download link)
Correct rendering Your computer
Wazhazhe ie.png 𐓏𐒰.𐓓𐒰.𐓓𐒷 𐒻.𐒷

Phaistos Disc

The Phaistos disc is an artifact discovered on the island of Crete which contains as-yet undeciphered symbols. These symbols are supported by the following fonts:

  • Noto Sans Symbols (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Everson Mono
Correct rendering Your computer
Phaistos-A23.png 𐇑𐇛𐇪𐇝𐇯𐇡𐇪

Psalter Pahlavi

Psalter Pahlavi was used for writing Middle Persian on paper. It is partially supported by the following font:

  • Unifont Upper (contains isolated form of the letters but does not support mandatory joining behavior)
Correct rendering Your computer
Cross of Herat - Psalter Pahlavi Inscription.png 𐮁𐮃𐮉 𐮆𐮈 𐮌𐮐𐮈𐮈𐮋𐮈 𐮁𐮅𐮅𐮏𐮊𐮈 𐮁𐮅𐮄 𐮆𐮈 𐮌𐮈𐮐𐮈𐮃𐮏
𐮋𐮀𐮊𐮈𐮃𐮈 𐮆𐮈 𐮂𐮌𐮀𐮊𐮈 𐮆𐮈 𐮋𐮌 𐮉𐮌𐮈𐮐𐮈 𐮆𐮈 𐮇𐮊𐮈𐮃𐮈 𐮋𐮌𐮅
𐮎𐮅𐮌 𐮀𐮐𐮋𐮀𐮌𐮏 𐮊𐮀 𐮫 𐮀𐮎𐮅𐮈𐮃𐮂𐮊 𐮎𐮅𐮌
𐮅𐮊 𐮉𐮌𐮐𐮈𐮈 𐮆𐮈𐮋 𐮇𐮅 𐮀𐮋𐮅𐮉

Runes

Runes are supported by the following fonts:

  • BabelStone Anglo-Saxon Runic fonts, a series of free font for Runes that are used in Frisian and Anglo-Saxon inscriptions from the 5th to 11th centuries, made by Andrew West.
  • Junicode, a free font mostly for Medieval scripts
  • Noto Sans Runic (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Segoe UI Historic (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 10 and later)
  • Segoe UI Symbol (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 7 and later)
Script Correct rendering Your computer
Elder Futhark (2nd to 8th centuries) Elder-Futhark-render.svg ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ
Anglo-Saxon runes (5th to 11th centuries) Anglo-saxon-runes-render.svg ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ
Medieval runes (12th to 15th centuries) Medieval-runes-render.svg ᚠᚢᚧᛆᚱᚴ

Sundanese

The Sundanese script is used to write the Sundanese language. The script is encoded in block "Sundanese", code points 1B80–1BBF (Unicode.org chart). It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Noto Sans Sundanese (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Sundanese Unicode (direct download link) (free font)
  • Prada (direct download link)
Correct rendering Your computer Transliteration
Ladrang-sunda.png ᮜᮓᮢᮀ
ᮃᮚ ᮠᮤᮏᮤ ᮛᮥᮕ ᮞᮒᮧ ᮜᮩᮒᮤᮊ᮪,
ᮆᮀᮊᮀ-ᮆᮀᮊᮀ, ᮆᮀᮊᮀ-ᮆᮀᮊᮀ,
ᮞᮧᮊ᮪ ᮜᮥᮜᮥᮙ᮪ᮎᮒᮔ᮪ ᮓᮤ ᮎᮄ,
ᮃᮛᮤ ᮘᮍᮥᮔ᮪ ᮃᮛᮦᮊ᮪ ᮞᮛᮥᮕ ᮏᮀ
ᮜᮔ᮪ᮎᮂ.
Ladrang Aya hiji rupa sato leutik,
Éngkang-éngkang, éngkang-éngkang,
Sok lulumcatan di cai,
Ari bangun arék sarupa jang lancah.

Sutton SignWriting

Sutton SignWriting is used to write any Sign language. It is supported with the SignWriting 2010 Typeface which includes 2 TrueType fonts:

  • SignWriting 2010 Fonts project on GitHub
  • SignWriting 2010 TrueType Font and SignWriting 2010 Filling TrueType Font (direct downloads)
Correct rendering Your computer
SignWriting-render-string.png 𝧪𝪞𝪨 𝠀𝪛𝪩 𝠀𝪛𝪡 𝧪𝪤

Syriac / Aramaic script

Syriac and Aramaic scripts, as with most Semitic scripts, flow from right to left, which can cause letters to appear in the wrong order. The tag {{rtl-lang}} can fix this issue.[citation needed]

Most operating systems provide support for Syriac scripts natively, but only the Maḏnḥāyā (ܡܕܢܚܝܐ‎) and ʾEsṭrangēlā (ܐܣܛܪܢܓܠܐ‎) varieties have correct rendering.[4] In order to render the Serṭā (ܣܪܛܐ‎) variety, additional fonts are needed. These scripts are supported by the following fonts:

  • Aramaic Fonts NOT RECOMMENDED FOR SYRIAC: It uses code points from other languages and thus will cause other languages to render incorrectly
  • Estrangelo Edessa (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows XP and later)
  • Segoe UI Historic (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 10 and later)
  • Meltho OpenType™ Syriac Fonts (free font)
  • Noto Sans Syraic Eastern, Noto Sans Syriac Estrangela, and Noto Sans Syriac Western (direct download links). Noto fonts made by Google
Script Correct rendering Your computer
Maḏnḥāyā Maltho Madenhaya.svg ܒܪܹܝܼܫܝܼܬ݀ ܐܝܼܬ݂ܲܘܗ݇ܝ ܗ݇ܘܵܐ ܡܹܠܬܵ݀ܐ.
Serṭā Maltho Serto.svg ܒ݁ܪܺܝܫܺܝܬܼ ܐܻܝܬܼܰܘܗ̱ܝ ܗ̱ܘܳܐ ܡܶܠܬܼܳܐ.
ʾEsṭrangēlā Maltho Strangilo.svg ܒܪܝܫܝܬ ܐܝܬܗܘܝ ܗܘܐ ܡܠܬܐ.

Tai Le

The Tai Le alphabet is used for the Tai Nüa language. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • GNU FreeFont
  • Microsoft Tai Le (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 7 and later)
  • Noto Sans Tai Le (direct download link), a font made by Google
Correct rendering Your computer Transliteration
Tai Le text sample.svg ᥖᥭᥰᥘᥫᥴ Tai Le ([tai˦.lə˧˥])

Tai Viet

Tai Viet script is used for writing the Tai languages Tai Dam, Tai Dón, and Thai Song. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Noto Sans Tai Viet, a font made by Google
  • Tai Heritage Pro from SIL International
Correct rendering Your computer
Tai Viet rendering.svg ꪼꪕꪒꪾ

Tangut

The Tangut script was used to write the Tangut language, a Tibeto-burman language once spoken in the Western Xia, also known as the Tangut Empire. It is supported by the following fonts:

  • Tangut Yinchuan
Correct rendering Your computer
Tangut Sample.png 𗈁𗤻𗖰𗚩

Tifinagh script

The Tifinagh alphabet is used to write the Berber languages. IRCAM (Institut Royal de la Culture Amazighe) has a software suite developed for Windows XP that contains a Tifinagh keyboard and a font available for download here. The script is supported by the following fonts:

  • Afus Deg Wfus
  • Code2000
  • DejaVu
  • Ebrima (Microsoft Windows font, available in Windows 7 and later)
  • Fixedsys Excelsior (a stylized ornamental font, not recommended for running text)
  • Hapax Berbère
  • MPH 2B Damase
  • Noto Sans Tifinagh (direct download link), a font made by Google
  • Tagmukay font by SIL International
  • Tifinaghe-Ircam Unicode
Correct rendering Your computer Transliteration
Tifinagh Rendered.svg ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ tifinagh

Yi Syllabary

Modern Yi script is a standardized syllabary derived from the classic script in 1974 by the local Chinese government. It is supported by the following fonts:

Correct rendering Your computer
Nuosu bburma.svg ꆈꌠꁱꂷ

Special cases

Esperanto

In edit box In database and output
S S
Sx Ŝ
Sxx Sx
Sxxx Ŝx
Sxxxx Sxx
Sxxxxx Ŝxx

Mediawiki installations configured for Esperanto use UTF-8 for storage and display. However when editing the text is converted to a form that is designed to be easier to edit with a standard keyboard.

The characters for which this applies are: Ĉ, Ĝ, Ĥ, Ĵ, Ŝ, Ŭ, ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ. you may enter these directly in the edit box if you have the facilities to do so. However when you edit the page again you will see them encoded as Sx. This form is referred to as "x-sistemo" or "x-kodo". In order to preserve round trip capability when one or more x's follow these characters or their non-accented forms (C, G, H, J, S, U, c, g, h, j, s, u), the number of x's in the edit box is double the number in the actual stored article text.

For example, the interlanguage link [[en:Luxury car]] to en:Luxury car has to be entered in the edit box as [[en:Luxxury car]] on eo:. This has caused problems with interwiki update bots in the past.

Romanian

The Romanian alphabet contains an S-comma (Ș ș) and T-comma (Ț ț). These characters were added to Unicode 3.0 at the request of the Romanian standardization institute. As font support for these characters has been poor in the past, many computer users use the similar characters S-cedilla (Ş ş) and T-cedilla (Ţ ţ) instead. However, on Wikipedia it is recommended to use the correct characters with comma below.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Until June 2005, when MediaWiki 1.5 came into use on the Wikimedia projects, articles on the English Wikipedia were encoded using ISO/IEC 8859-1 (although the additional characters from the Windows-1252 character set were used in practice.) All characters from the ISO/IEC 10646 Universal Character Set could be accessed through numerical entities, as specified by the HTML 4.01 specification. Since, nearly all pages have been converted to use Unicode directly. Old discussion on the topic can be read at Wikipedia talk:Unicode.
  2. ^ http://www.opera.com/support/kb/view/435/
  3. ^ http://www.opera.com/docs/specs/#text
  4. ^ Microsoft Windows support ʾEsṭrangēlā varianty via Estrangelo Edessa and Segoe UI. Historically, some Linux distributions support Maḏnḥāyā varianty via FreeSans.

External links

  • Alan Wood’s Unicode Resources: Unicode and Multilingual Support in HTML, Fonts, Web Browsers and Other Applications
  • SIL International: Computers and Writing Systems
  • Unicode Font Guide For Free/Libre Open Source Operating Systems
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